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Environmental data
2013

Contents
Preface
Land use
Raw materials productivity
Water productivity
Energy productivity
Environmental economics
Greenhouse gasses
Climate
Air pollutants
Particulate matter
Connection rate of the public water
supply
Water usage of households and
small businesses
Assessments of facilities regarding usage
of materials hazardous to water
Acidification rate of former-mine lakes
Uranium mine site reclamation in Saxony
Polluted area reclamation
Municipal refuse
Nature conservation
3 I
4 I
5 I
6 I
7 I
8 I
9 I
10 I
12 I
14 I
15 I
16 I
17 I
18 I
19 I
20 I
21 I
22 I

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| 3
Preface
Dear readers,
The current environmental data give a brief insight into the forward-looking and sustainable
en
vironmental policy in the Free State of Saxony. The graphics included provide information about
the most important environmental topics in Saxony such as renewable energies, climate protection,
soil, water, air, nature, environmental economics, as well as developments in these areas. This
information suggests a positive trend, showing that the Free State of Saxony is demonstrating
significant progress in environmental policy again this year.
The environmental data are comprehensively documented in the Saxon Environmental Report from
the current legislative period. The next publication is planned before this year’s end.
Frank Kupfer
Saxon State Minister for Environment and Agriculture

4 |
Land use
Saxony is the sixth-largest territorial state in Ger-
many with very diverse landscapes and a valu
able
natural and cultural heritage. As in all of Central
Europe, it is dominated by agricultural land utili-
zation.
Total area 1,842,001 ha
Agricultural area (1,010,336 ha)
Forest area (501,016 ha)
Water area (37,097 ha)
Other areas (58,902 ha)
Residential area (234,650 ha)
55 %
3 %
2 %
27 %
13 %
Land utilization in Saxony 2012
Source:
Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony 2012,
Land utilization survey according to actual usage,
data status: 31/12/2012, territorial status: 01/01/2011

| 5
Raw materials productivity
In times when raw materials are becoming more
scarce, it is important to view raw material
consumption as distinct from macroeconomic
growth. In this area, increasing values show a
positive development. Several times in previous
years, Saxony has achieved double-digit growth
rates that are above that national average.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and
Geology based on environmental economic resource accounting
of the states, computation status: autumn 2012
gross domestic product (price-adjusted, linked)/raw material
consumption; calculation status for gross domestic product:
August 2010/February 2011
Raw materials productivity
120
115
110
105
100
95
90
100
96
109
113
116
116
Index (year 2005 = 100)
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

6 |
Water productivity
The water productivity indicates how much eco-
nomic performance has been acheived per cubic
metre of utilized water (EURO gross national pro-
duct per m³ water utilization). Water productivity
is significantly influenced by the economic struc-
ture and the proportion of water-consumption-
intensive economic areas. A comparatively high
water productivity means that the economic and
industrial structure of a country is less water-
consumption-intensive.
Index (year 1998 = 100)
1998 2001 2004 2007
104
100
107
121
90
100
110
120
130
Water productivity
Changes in water productivity are influenced by
“true” productivity improvements and declines as
well as changes in the economic and industrial
structure. The data show that the Free State of
Saxony is on the way to a more sustainable mode
of production. Current data about water produc-
tivity are planned for publication at the end of
2013.
Source:
Environmental Accounting of the States, calculation status
GDP: August 2012/February 2013, Note: GDP (price-adjusted, linked)
per water utilization

| 7
Energy productivity
Energy productivity is a significant indicator for
efficient conversion from primary energy into
final energy as well as efficient utilization of final
energy for the creation of products and services.
For several years, there has been a steady in-
crease in energy productivity, which represents
a peak in comparison to national figures.
Index (year 2000 = 100)
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
100
95
96
97
101
99
101
107
106
103
90
85
95
100
105
110
115
Energy productivity
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology
based on the Environmental accounting of the states, autumn 2012

8 |
Environmental economics
The Free State of Saxony has highly effective
environmental economics, which have demons-
trated significant growth in business volume and
employment in past years. Climate protection, in
particular, has achieved a significant increase. It
can thus be inferred that the proportion of en-
vironmental economic activity in the Saxon gross
domestic product will continue to increase in the
future.
Source:
Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony 2010
climate protection
nature conservation,
landscape conservation
and soil rehabilitation
air quality control
water protection
waste management
noise control
employed persons
3.000
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
500
0
8.134
8.213
business volume in mill. EUR
number of persons employed
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
3.208
persons employed and business volume for climate protection
15.000
12.500
10.000
7.500
5.000
2.500
0
10.168
10.230
10.984
2.758
2.671
1.816
1.353

| 9
Greenhouse gasses
Climate change is accelerated by the accumulati-
on of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The
graphic shows the development of carbon dioxide
emissions, which comprise 91% of greenhouse
gas emissions. The primary causes are large-scale
firing plants (large industrial facilities for power
and heat production). In the 1990s, many facilities
were shut down or renovated to reduce emissions.
The increase at the beginning of the previous de-
cade is due to new block-unit power stations.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and
Geology, Emissions Cadastre 2010
Changes in CO
2
emissions in Saxony 1990 - 2010
CO
2
emissions in millions of tons
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Landfills/old waste deposits, waste water
treatment and composting
traffic
households (combustion)
small businesses (combustion)
industry (without large-scale firing plants)
large-scale firing plants

10 |
Climate
The current trend of decline in rainfall in vegeta-
tion period 1 (April through June) in Saxony is
demonstrated by the climate reference station in
Görlitz. In regions with high temperatures and
light soil, this trend is already leading to percep-
tible changes in basic conditions.
The trend of the 30-year average air temperature
in the period between 1900 and 2012 in Saxony
is shown by means of representational data from
the Dresden station. From 1900 to 1990, the ave-
rage fluctuated by ca. 0.25 degrees. After 1990,
the temperature curve left this fluctuation range
and began increasing at abnormally high rates.
The mean value from the period between 1983
and 2012 is 0.6 degrees above the fluctuation
range demonstrated for the period ending in
1990.
The rainfall and temperature data from the
weather stations in Saxony show that climate
change is a reality in the Free State. The Saxon
state government has responded with the Climate
and Energy Action Plan. The emissions goals stated
in this plan are significantly higher than the Euro-
pean and German climate protection goals.
temperature
temperature minimum/maximum
rainfall
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology,
Deutscher Wetterdienst 2012

| 11
development of air temperature in the Dresden area
(moving 30-year average for the periods 1901 – 1930 through 1983 – 2012)
development of rainfall in vegetation period 1
(April through June) climate reference station Görlitz
(moving 30-year average for the periods 1901 – 1930 through 1983 – 2012)
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2012
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2012
9,1
195
9,3
205
8,9
185
8,7
175
temperature maximum
temperature minimum
8,5
165
8,3
155
temperature (° C)
rainfall (mm)

12 |
Air pollutants
Air pollutants have a wide range of negative
impacts on people and the environment and
should therefore be avoided. In the 1990s, it was
possible to significantly reduce emissions; since
that time there have not been many changes. For
most pollutants, however, the concentrations
have been far below the threshold values since
that period. Problems are presented primarily by
the pollutants ozone, nitrogen dioxide and parti-
culate matter.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and
Geology, Emissions Cadastre 2010
NO
x
SO
2
NH
3
CO
NMVOC
total particulate matter
100 %
80 %
60 %
40 %
20 %
0 %
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
Index (year 1990 = 100%)
Emissions of air pollutants

| 13
2012
The immission of air pollutants is demonstrated
at various measuring stations in the Dresden area
by the example of nitrogen dioxide. The most
important sources are exhaust fumes from street
traffic. Therefore the threshold values are often
exceeded at traffic-oriented measuring stations,
even when a slightly downward trend can be re-
cognized in previous years. In 2012, there were
predominantly favourable meteorological rates.
There are, in contrast, no problems in the urban
and regional background.
immissions of air pollutants
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology,
2012
traffic-oriented Dresden Bergstraße measuring station
Traffic-oriented Dresden North measuring station
urban background
suburban area
50
60
70
40
30
20
10
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
annual average (μg/m³)
NO
2
annual average: 40 μg/m³
Note:
the threshold value for the annual average
has been in application since 2010. For the city of
Dresden (as well as for Leipzig and Chemnitz), the
EU has extended the deadline for threshold
compliance until 2015.

14 |
Particulate matter
The most important sources of particulate matter
are combustion processes and street traffic. Due
to the fact that particulate matter can be trans-
ported in the atmosphere across large distances,
the measured concentrations are not caused so-
lely by sources within Saxony.
The data regarding the area-specific annual ave-
rages show no distinct trend. The fluctuations in
recent years are due to changing meteorological
conditions.
traffic-oriented locations
urban background
rural areas
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
PM10 (μg/m³)
Area-specific annual average values of PM10 concentration in Saxony
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology

| 15
Connection rate of the public water supply
Access to clean, drinkable water is a basic neces-
sity for human life. Through enormous invest-
ments in the last 20 years, it has been possible
to increase the connection rate of public water
supply.
Particularly in rural regions, however, there are
still areas and individual parcels of land that, due
to their location, are not connected or are only
partially connected to the public water supply.
A further significant increase in the connection
rate is not fungible due to economic costs and is
not planned
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and
Geology 2008
connection rate
non-connected residents
100 %
95 %
90 %
330
connection rate
thousand residents
1990
1995
1999
2003
2005
2008
Connection rate of the public water supply
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
38
33
100
69
43
93,8
97,9
98,7
99,0
99,1
99,2

16 |
Water usage of households and small
businesses
Through the introduction of water-saving tech-
nology, measurement-technological consumption
recording and cost-effective water prices, the
specific water consumption in the Free State of
Saxony has significantly decreased particularly in
the 1990s, and is moving towards a very low level.
At 84 l/E*d for the area of households and small
businesses, it is far below the national average of
121 l/E*d (2010).
Germany
Saxony
Source:
Statistical Federal Office, Saxon Ministry for Environment
and Agriculture 2010
specific water consumption of households and small businesses
84
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
2007
2010
litres per resident and day
85
88
88
89
102
141
140
132
129
127
126
122
121

| 17
Assessments of facilities regarding usage of
materials hazardous to water
In Saxony, around 4,500 assessments of facilities
with materials hazardous to water are performed
each year. The proportion of initial assessments
in previous years has decreased due to repeat
assessments. The number of fault-free facilities
has risen in past years, in which the percentage
of significant faults remains relatively consistent-
ly at 10%. In all assessments dangerous faults
were only detected in the range of one-tenth of
one percent. Compared to national values, more
facilities in Saxony were fault-free in initial
assessments, and notably fewer significant faults
were detected.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology
2011
assessments of facilities regarding usage of substances hazardous to water
100 %
90 %
80 %
70 %
60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
20 %
10 %
0 %
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
11 %
15 %
18 %
10 %
11 %
12 %
10 %
12 %
10 %
10 %
9 %
9 %
37 %
37 %
32 %
50 %
47 %
51 %
58 %
63 %
65 %
70 %
69 %
69 %
52 %
48 %
50 %
40 %
42 %
37 %
32 %
25 %
25 %
20 %
22 %
22 %
no faults
minor faults
significant faults

18 |
Acidification rate of former-mine lakes
Brown coal has been mined in Saxony for more
than 150 years. The reclamation of land used for
this purpose is a large challenge. The abandoned
open pits from open-cast mining become flooded,
resulting in lakes. They often are contaminated
with acids, iron and/or ferric sulphate as the re-
sult of previous pyrite decomposition. Overall,
however, there is a trend toward better lake water
quality. Of 53 assessed former-mine lakes with a
surface of more than 10 ha, more than half had a
neutral status in 2010. The rest were marginally
to extremely acidic.
53 lakes
pH < 3,0 (extremely acidic)
pH 3,0 – 4,5 (significantly acidic)
pH 4,6 – 6,5 (mildly acidic)
pH > 6,5 (neutral)
acidification rate of former-mine lakes 2012 in Saxony
6
12
27
8
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and
Geology/Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungs-
gesellschaft mbH 2012

| 19
Uranium mine site reclamation in Saxony
Another major task is the reclamation of former
uranium mines. Uranium ore was mined until the
early 1990s in various regions of Saxony and
caused increased radiation exposure in those
regions. There have been significant advance-
ments in site reclamation. More than 90 % of all
underground reclamation measures have already
been carried out. In above-ground measures, water
treatment in particular poses a long-term task.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology
based on data from Wismut GmbH 2013
water treatment
reclaimed land
backfilled land
contouring/profiling
dismantling of facilities
safeguarding of
mining plants
flooding of mining plants
filling of cavities
discontinuation of
mining plants*
0 %
10 %
20 %
30 %
40 %
50 %
60 %
70 %
80 %
90 %
100 %
status of uranium mine site reclamation in Saxony
* included are the bismuth galleries and the southern gallery breakover, which are being re-excavated
54,4
73,7
81,9
92,7
80,5
92,7
96,7
99,9
98,3

20 |
Polluted area reclamation
The positive trend, spanning many years, in the
quantity and percentage of reclaimed polluted
areas is due to constantly increasing advance-
ments in reclamation. Land reclamations are
based on studies of risk assessment. Reclaimed
sites can once again be used; some sites continue
to be monitored.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology
2013
quantity and percentage of reclaimed polluted sites
total
30.000
32.000
34.000
36.000
38.000
40.000
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
42.000
44.000
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
percentage of reclaimed partial areas in %
overall partial areas
portion of partial areas that have been reclaimed

| 21
Municipal refuse
The production of refuse from private households
and small businesses has been decreasing for
years. Between 1995 and 2011, the amount per
resident has been reduced by about one third.
A further significant change has occurred in dis-
posal procedures. While in 1995, around 90 % of
municipal refuse was stored in landfills, today the
majority of recyclable material is treated or re-
fined mechanically, biologically or thermally.
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology
2011
municipal refuse from private households
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
refuse amount in kg per resident and year
refuse amount
483
427
408
373
344
342
336
332
320
328
323
329

22 |
endangered to an unknown degree
endangered
very endangered
extremely endangered
threatened with extinction
extinct or lost
Source:
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology 2012
Nature conservation
Saxony has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The-
re are natural occurrences of approximately
30,000 animal species, 6,500 fungus and lichen
species and 3,300 plant species including higher
algae (without neobiota and microorganisms). For
several reasons, their living conditions are im-
paired. As a result, many species are endangered,
threatened with extinction or extinct. Particular-
ly endangered are stonewort, cyclostomes as well
as fish, amphibians and reptiles, red and brown
algae, wild bees, stone flies and longicorns.
There are also positive developments such as
initial evidence of Alcathoe's bats and findings of
animal species such as the wildcat and plant
species such as stachys germanica, blue-green
junegrass and rubus constrictus blackberries.
Furthermore, in recent years the quality of many
watercourses has improved, which has made it
possible for more demanding species to find
habitats.

| 23
Degree of endangerment for animal and plant species in Saxony (selected groups)
stonewort
cyclostomes and fish
amphibians and reptiles
red and brown algae
wild bees
stoneflies
longicorns
digger wasps
diurnal butterflies
scarab and stag beetles
mammals
mollusks
water beetles
lichens
breeding birds
ferns and spermatophytes
sphinx moths
dragonflies
hoverflies
moose
looper worms
deltoid moths
ground beetles
sawflies
grasshoppers and black beetles
ground and web spiders
cicadas
macrofungi
percentage of overall species
0 %
10 %
20 %
30 %
40 %
50 %
60 %
70 %
80 %
90 %
100 %

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Issuer:
Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture
P.O. Box 10 05 10, 01076 Dresden
community hotline:
telephone: +49 351 564-6814
telefax: +49 351 564-2059
E-mail: info@smul.sachsen.de
www.smul.sachsen.de
Editorial production:
Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture,
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology
Graphic design and typesetting:
Heimrich & Hannot GmbH
Printing:
Union Druckerei Dresden GmbH
Photography:
cover: S. Körber,
www.fotolia.com
Copy date:
09.09.2013
Circulation:
1,000 copies
Paper:
printed on 100 % recycled paper
Acquisition:
This publication can be obtained free of charge from:
Zentraler Broschürenversand der Sächsischen Staatsregierung
Hammerweg 30, 01127 Dresden
telephone: +49 351 210-3671 | telefax: +49 351 210-3681
E-mail: publikationen@sachsen.de |
www.publikationen.sachsen.de
Distribution note
This publication is produced by the Saxon state government in
the context of its constitutional obligation to provide public
information. It cannot be used by political parties or their candidates
or associates for purposes of election advertising for a period
of six months prior to an election. This applies to all elections.