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New Pot Plants Valentine’s Day II
Technical Report HDC Project No 267
Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft

Contents
1
Introduction and main objectives................................................................................................6
2
Materials and methods...............................................................................................................7
2.1
Assortment Early Spring Trial 2006/2007............................................................................ 7
2.2
Procedure of the Early Spring Trial 2006/2007................................................................... 8
2.3
PGR Trial .......................................................................................................................... 12
2.4
Shelf life test under living room conditions and frost hardiness test..................................12
2.5
Temperatures and light conditions.................................................................................... 13
2.6
Recordation of data and biometric analysis ......................................................................17
3
Results and Discussion............................................................................................................18
3.1
Species with no growth regulator treatment......................................................................23
3.1.1
Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’ ........................................................................ 23
3.1.2
Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’..................................................................................... 25
3.1.3
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ ................................................................................ 27
3.1.4
Aquilegia F1 Spring Magic Series............................................................................ 31
3.1.5
Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’.................................................................................... 37
3.1.6
Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’ ........................................................................ 40
3.1.7
Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’ .............................................................................. 42
3.1.8
Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’ .............................................................................................44
3.1.9
Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’.................................................................................... 47
3.1.10
Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’ ...................................................................................... 48
3.1.11
Barbarea rupicola ‘Sunnyola’................................................................................... 50
3.2
PGR Trial .......................................................................................................................... 50
3.2.1
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’................................................. 51
3.2.2
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’...................................................................... 53
3.2.3
Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’ ....................................................... 57
3.2.4
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’............................................................................. 59
3.2.5
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’........................................................................................ 62
3.2.6
Horminum pyrenaicum ............................................................................................ 66
3.2.7
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’ ............................................................................ 68
3.2.8
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’ ................................................................................ 73
3.2.9
Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’........................................................................ 75
3.2.10
Phlox divaricata.......................................................................................................77
3.2.11
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’........................................................................................... 81
3.2.12
Lychnis alpina and Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’ ...................................................... 85
3.3
Shelf life under living room conditions and frost hardiness test......................................... 87
4
Consideration of economics..................................................................................................... 90
5
Summary and conclusions.......................................................................................................95
6
Literature..................................................................................................................................97
7
Appendices..............................................................................................................................99

Tables
Table 1: Species outlast and use of plant growth regulators (PGR Trial) in the Early Spring Trial
2006/2007 ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Table 2: Production and treatment diary for Early Spring Trial 2006/2007........................................ 9
Table 3: Variants of growth regulator treatments during PGR Trial................................................. 12
Table 4: Sum of average temperature outdoor at Pillnitz in autumn 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006........14
Table 5: Temperature conditions at Pillnitz Early Spring Trial 2006/2007 ....................................... 15
Table 6: Successful species in Early Spring Trial 2006/2007.......................................................... 18
Table 7: Species in Early Spring Trial 2006/2007 with a low general value or too less data during
the trial ............................................................................................................................................ 19
Table 8: Species and their weeks of flowering exposed to different lighting and requirement of
vernalization .................................................................................................................................... 22
Table 9: Early spring pot plants and their reaction on Topflor und Cycocel 720..............................50
Table 10: Early spring pot plants and their shelf under living room conditions................................87
Table 11: Economic calculations, examples 1 to 3..........................................................................92
Table 12 : Economic calculations, examples 4 to 6.........................................................................93
Table 13: Economic calculations, examples 7 to 9..........................................................................94
Figures
Figure 1: Average temperatures per month in different years ......................................................... 13
Figure 2: Development of light summaries in the different light treatments..................................... 16
Figure 3: week 04; mixed palette with 8 different early spring pot plants ........................................20
Figure 4: week 04; arrangement for early spring sale with Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’; Papaver
nudicaule ‘Gartenzwerg’; Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’ and Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’ ... 20
Figure 5: week 08; floriga trade fair; Leipzig 2007; presentation to highlight the ‘news’..................21
Figure 6: Week 5; Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’................................................................... 23
Figure 7: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial................24
Figure 8 and Figure 9: week 50; Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’, storage: right polythene tunnel, left
frost-free greenhouse...................................................................................................................... 25
Figure 10: week 04; Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’............................................................................26
Figure 11: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............27
Figure 12: week 04; Early Spring Display –Blue with Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ .....................28
Figure 13: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............29
Figure 14: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............29
Figure 15: week 7; Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ from storage outdoor 2006/2007; start of forcing
in week 01.......................................................................................................................................31
Figure 16: F 03 ‘Blau-Weiß’
Figure 17: F 07 ‘Rosa-Weiß’ ............32
Figure 18: F 04 ‘Hellrot-Gelb’
Figure 19: F 04 ‘Hellrot-Weiß’........................32
Figure 20: F 06 ‘Marine-Weiß’
Figure 21: F 08 ‘Weiß’................................................................33

Figure 22: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............34
Figure 23 and Figure 24: Aquilegia ‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot-Gelb’;...............................................34
Figure 25: Bar chart of the average number of buds and flowers; Aquilegia ‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot-
Weiß’ ............................................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 26: Bar chart of the average of number buds and flowers; Aquilegia ‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot-
Gelb’................................................................................................................................................ 36
Figure 27: week 06; Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’; supplementary light .......................................... 38
Figure 28: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)......................................................... 39
Figure 29: week 03; Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’ ; supplementary light..............................40
Figure 30: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
41
Figure 31: week 08; Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’; ambient daylight; polythene tunnel ............. 42
Figure 32: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............43
Figure 33: week 06, Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’, supplementary light.................................................... 45
Figure 34: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............46
Figure 35 and Figure 36: week 05 left and week 08 right; Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’;
supplementary light ......................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 37: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............48
Figure 38 and Figure 39: week 09; Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’; supplementary light 12°C left: start
of forcing in week 50, right: start of forcing in week 01 and plants from outdoor.............................49
Figure 40: 2003; week 10; Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’; supplementary light at 10°C...................... 49
Figure 41: week 07; Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’; supplementary light ....... 51
Figure 42: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............52
Figure 43: week 03; Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’; supplementary light ............................ 54
Figure 44: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............55
Figure 45: week 05; Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’ from left to right: untreated, 2x Topflor,
4x Topflor ........................................................................................................................................ 56
Figure 46 and Figure 47: week 05; Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’; supplementary
light Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’ and no growth regulator treatments............... 57
Figure 48: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............58
Figure 49: week 06; Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’; supplementary light and no growth regulator
treatment ......................................................................................................................................... 59
Figure 50: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............60
Figure 51: week 05; Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ left to right: 2x Topflor, 4x Topflor; 2x CCC
720, 4x CCC 720.............................................................................................................................61
Figure 52: week 05; Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ left to right: untreated, 2x Topflor; 4x Topflor
........................................................................................................................................................ 62
Figure 53: week 02; Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’; supplementary light; polythene tunnel..................63
Figure 54: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............64

Figure 55: week 05; Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’ left to right: 2x Topflor; 4x Topflor; 2x CCC 720; 4 x
CCC 720; supplementary light (H 11.1)........................................................................................... 65
Figure 56: week 07; Horminum pyrenaicum ; supplementary light; start of forcing week 01; outdoor
........................................................................................................................................................ 66
Figure 57: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............67
Figure 58: week 50; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’; polythene tunnel........................................ 69
Figure 59: week 08; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
Figure 60: fascinating blue...................69
Figure 61: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.............70
Figure 62: Bar chart of the average of height of flowers in cm; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’ ..71
Figure 63: week 07; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’; supplementary light;..................................72
Figure 64: week 07; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’; supplementary light;..................................72
Figure 65: week 04; Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’; supplementary light....................................... 73
Figure 66: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............74
Figure 67 and Figure 68: left: week 03; Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’; supplementary light;
right: February 2007; Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’ in arrangement at fairy floriga Leipzig
2007 ................................................................................................................................................ 76
Figure 69: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............76
Figure 70 and Figure 71: week 03, Phlox divaricata (24); supplementary light; ..............................78
Figure 72: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............79
Figure 73: week 11, Phlox divaricata (24), ambient daylight from polythene tunnel........................ 79
Figure 74: Bar chart of the average of height of flowers in cm; Phlox divaricata.............................80
Figure 75: week 04; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light; 2x CCC 720............................81
Figure 76: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial..............82
Figure 77: week 09; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; photoperiodic light ...................................................83
Figure 78: week 09; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; ambient daylight ...................................................... 83
Figure 79: week 05; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light; ................................................84
Figure 80: week 05; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light; ................................................84
Figure 81: week 05; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light; ................................................85
Figure 82: week 05; Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’; left: 2 x supplementary light ; right: 2 x
photoperiodic light; start of forcing in week 50 ................................................................................86
Figure 83: week 07; Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’; supplementary light at 12 °C from outdoor; start of
forcing in week 01 ...........................................................................................................................86
Figure 84: week 09; Lychnis alpina; supplementary light at 9°C from outdoor; start of forcing in
week 01...........................................................................................................................................86
Figure 85: Effect of frost hardiness test on general value of early spring species shortly after their
forcing treatment in greenhouse (29 species/varieties, general value: 1 = very bad to 9 = perfect)89
Figure 86: Effect of frost hardiness test on general value of early spring species after shelf life test
under living room conditions (29 species/varieties, general value: 1 = very bad to 9 = perfect).....89

1
Introduction and main objectives
The part II of the collaborative research program “New ornamental plants for early season sale”
based on wide experiences of former projects like “Developing of crop directions for alternative
spring plants (Pillnitz 2000 – 2003) and part I of project PC 247 “New ornamental plants for early
spring sale” (Pillnitz and Stockbridge 2005 to 2006). This new project PC 267 (2006 to 2007) is
again in partnership of Horticultural Development Council, U.K and Saxon State Institute of
Agriculture in Pillnitz, Germany. On the field of new products for the early season sale is a lot going
on during the last years. Great young plant companies start new breeding lines to force the quality
of early spring species. The variety on the market increases and that is the chance for the growers
in the U.K and Germany to grow something ‘new’ instead of primroses and pansies. However, often
the knowledge about the new species is insufficient. Michigan State University has runs projects for
past several years to study the flowering requirements for a wide range of perennials. The question
is how it is possible for growers to schedule the flowering. The results of this project work points out
that the most important environmental cues for growth and flowering are photoperiod, vernalization
and light quantity. The better the understanding of a species the more detailed information the
growers can use. The main objective of this research program was like last year, to assist growers
in the U.K and Germany to improve their economic returns and develop the market for early season
sales of pot plants. The special focus is always the very early sale date Valentine’s Day or at least
the sale at the beginning of March. Further aims were the following:
Enlargement of the assortment of new species for early spring sale
Improvement of steering the crop
Providing crop details for promising species/varieties
Coordinate the scheduling of species to the early sale date Valentine’s day or at least
week 09
Providing pieces of advice for selling mixed palettes of early spring species
Improvement of quality by using of growth regulators
Forcing should require a short time and the forcing should take place after poinsettia and
before bedding/ patio plants
Consideration of economic efficiency of cropping the ‘new’ species
Consideration of customers interests especially performance, shelf life under living room
conditions and shelf life under outdoor conditions (frost-hardiness test)

2
Materials and methods
2.1
Assortment Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
34 species of perennials and biennials were grown for the Early Spring Trial 2006/2007. 22 species
were grown from seeds and 12 species were grown from cuttings in research station Dresden-
Pillnitz. All plants were potted up into 10 cm pot size. The list of the 34 plants species with their
source of start material, kind of plant type and species which came into PGR Trial is presented in
Table 1.
Table 1: Species, plant types and use of plant growth regulators (PGR Trial) in the Early
Spring Trial 2006/2007
Species
number
Source
Species
Plant
Types
PGR
Trial
3
Jal
Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’
p
4
Jal
Ajuga reptans ‘Braunhertz’
p
5
Jal
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’
p
6
Jal
Arabis ferdinandi ‘Coburgii Variegata’
p
7
Jal
Arabis ferdinandi ‘Old Gold’
p
10
Jal
Cymbalaria ‘Muralis’
p
13
Jal
Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’
p
14
Jal
Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’
p
15
Jal
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
hs
x
16
Jal
Lithodora diffusa ‘Pete’s Favorite’
p
20
Jal
Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’
s
24
bGD
Phlox divaricata
p
x
26
bGD
Phlox divaricata (propagation Pillnitz)
p
x
25
Jal
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ (propagation Pillnitz)
p
F01
Je
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’
p
x
F02
LfL
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’
b
x
F03
Be
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Blau - Weiß’
p
F04
Be
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot- Gelb
p
F05
Be
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot – Weiß’’
p

Species
number
Source
Species
Plant
Types
PGR
Trial
F06
Be
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Marine – Weiß’’
p
F07
Be
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Rosa - Weiß’
p
F08
Be
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Weiß’
p
F09
Kieft
Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White- White’
p
x
F11
Kieft
Barbarea rupicola ‘Sunnyola’
p
F12
Kieft
Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’
p
F13
Kieft
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
p
x
F14
Je
Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’
p
F15
Kieft
Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’
p
F16
Be
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’
p
x
F17
Je
Horminum pyrenaicum ‘Rubrum’
p
F18
Je
Horminum pyrenaicum
p
x
F19
Je
Lychnis alpina
p
x
F20
Je
Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’
p
x
F21
Be
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’
p
x
F22
Be
Papaver nudicaule ’Gartenzwerg’
p
x
F23
LfL
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’
b
x
Key to terminology:
Be
– Benary
bGD
– Botanical Garden Dresden
Je
– Jelitto Seeds
Jal
– Jaldety Israel
Kieft
– Kieft Seeds
LfL
– Saxon State Institute of Agriculture
p
– perennial
b
– biannual
s
– shrub
hs
– half-shrub
x
– test with growth regulators in different variants
2.2
Procedure of the Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
After potting, the plants were grown under outdoor conditions for establishment or bulking. Bulking
means a period to increase the vegetative size of plants in photoperiods short enough to prevent
induction but long enough for vegetative development to occur. From week 41 plants were either
grown in an unheated polythene tunnel or in a frost-free glasshouse. The following weeks should

give the opportunity for vernalization. Vernalization is a cooling period so that plants overcome the
inhibition so that induced flowers are able to occur and that flower stems stretch above the leaves.
Forcing started in week 50 in four glasshouse compartments with different lighting treatments. A
second set started in week 01 in two glasshouse compartments with the same lighting treatment
but different temperatures. The PGR Trial started with forcing only in week 50 in four glasshouse
compartments with different lighting treatments. When there was enough plant material, the plants
were placed in three replications with 16 plants per plot. The two middle rows with 8 plants were
used for collection of data. The PGR Trial had no replications per variant and always 8 plants per
plot. The plants were spaced with about 32 plants / m². The production and treatment list is given in
Table 2.
Table 2: Production and treatment diary for Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
Week
Date
Location
Treatment
27
Glasshouse
(H 14.2)
Sticking cuttings from Jaldety in QP 40 trays,
substrat: Brill type 3, Lithodora in mixture of
peat and sand 1:1, small polythene tunnel for
rooting, first watering with Previcur N 0.15%
29
Glasshouse
(H 14.1)
Sowing of seed propagated species, substrat:
Brill for propagation, first watering with
Previcur N 0.15%, first time cold store with
8°C
31-34
Glasshouse
(H 14.1+ H 14.7+14.8)
Pricking of seedlings in QP 40, substrat: D400
with Xylit SMLfL
32
9 Aug 06
Outdoor
Outdoor terrain prepared for further cultivation
31-
38
Outdoor
Potting rooted seedlings and cuttings (plugs)
in 10 cm pots, substrat: Gramoflor for
primroses, Lithodora in substrate mixture:
D400 with Xylit SMLfL and peat 1: 1
39
28
Sept
06
Outdoor
Fertiliser applied – 0.1% Ferty 3 green
(15-10-15)
39
26
Sept
06
Outdoor
0.035% Confidor
WG 70+ 0.15% Polyram
WG+ 0.2% Aminosol
41
Polythene tunnel and
glasshouse (H 14.2 +
14.3+ 14.4 + H 13.2)
Plants moved into unheated polythene tunnel
or cold glasshouse for vernalization. In the
glasshouse day/ night: heating at 2ºC and
venting at 4ºC; in the polythene tunnel venting
started at 8-10ºC
41
11 Oct 06
All locations
0.2% Dithane Ultra+ 0.02% Discus+ 0.2%
Wuxal Amino

Week
Date
Location
Treatment
44
Polythene tunnel and
glasshouse (H 14.2 +
14.3+ 14.4 and H 13.2)
First flowers and buds removed from some
species
45
9 Nov 06
Polythene tunnel and
glasshouse (H 14.2 +
14.3+ 14.4 + H 13.2)
Trimming of Iberis, Phlox, Lithodora,
Erigeron (F13 gest) and Cymbalaria
46
17
Nov
06
All locations
Fertiliser applied – 0.2% Ferty 3 green
(15-10-15)
49
7 Dec 06
All locations
0.20%
Dithane+
0.1%
Ortiva+
0.2%
Aminosol+ 0.02% Masai
50
11
Dec
06
Glasshouse compartments
(H 11.1, 11.2 ,11.3, 10.3)
Plants placed into different treatments.
50
12
and
15
Dec
06
Glasshouse compartments
(H 11.1, 11.2 ,11.3, 10.3)
From Tuesday to Friday (approx 72 hours)
plants pushed with higher temperatures
heating day/night 20ºC/18°C, venting at
22º/22°CC and lighting treatments start:
H 11.1: Supplementary lighting – 3000 lux,
20 hours, 4.00-24.00 = 0.13 mol/m2;
8.13 W/m2 PAR.
H 11.2: Supplementary lighting – 80 klxh,
3000 lux, 4.00-24.00 = 265 Wh/m² PAR
H 11.3: Photoperiodic lighting – 100 lux / m2,
20 hours, 4.00-24.00 = 0.0044 mol/m2;
0.275 W/m2 PAR.
H 10.3: Ambient daylight (from sunset to
sunrise the plants were covered to protect
them from light spillage from other treatments)
Fertiliser with each watering 0.05% Ferty 3
green
(15-10-15-2)
EC
=
ECwater+
ECfertilizer = 0.4+0.8=1.2
50
15
Dec
06
All glasshouse
compartments
Back to lower temperatures heating day/night:
12ºC and venting 14ºC
50
All glasshouse
compartments
0.3% Neem Azal + 0.2% Aminosol
51
18
Dec
06
All glasshouse
compartments
Old foliage removed from plants
51
21
Dec
06
All glasshouse
compartments
0.20% Dithane + 0.04% Plenum + 0.10%
Aminosol

Week
Date
Location
Treatment
52
28
Dec
06
All glasshouse
compartments
PGR Trial:
0.10% and 0.05% Topflor with 80 ml/m²
0.20% and 0.10% CCC 720 with 100 ml/m²
1
2 Jan 07
Glasshouse compartments
(H 10.1, 10.2)
Second set of plants placed into different
treatments.
From
Tuesday
to
Saturday
(approx 72 hours) plants pushed with higher
temperatures heating day/night 20ºC/18°C,
venting at 22º/22°C and lighting
treatment
starts: Supplementary lighting – 3000 lux, 20
hours, 4.00-24.00 = 0.13 mol/m2; 8.13 W/m2
PAR; Fertiliser with each watering 0.05%
Ferty 3 green (15-10-15-2) EC = ECwater+
ECfertilizer = 0.4+0.8=1.2
1
6 Jan 07
Glasshouse compartments
(H 10.1, 10.2)
H 10.1: Temperatures heating day/night
12°C/12°C, venting day/night 14°C/14°C
H 10.2: Temperatures heating day/night
9°C/9°C, venting day/night 12°C/12°C
1
Glasshouse compartments
(H 11.1, 11.2 ,11.3, 10.3)
0.15%
Previcur
N
only
Horminium
pyrenaicum
1
3 Jan 07
Glasshouse compartments
(H 11.1, 11.2 ,11.3, 10.3)
PGR Trial:
0.05% Topflor with 80 ml/m²
0.10% CCC 720 with 100 ml/m²
2
Glasshouse compartments
(H 10.1, 10.2)
Old foliage removed from plants
2
9 Jan 07
Glasshouse compartments
(H 11.1, 11.2 ,11.3, 10.3)
PGR Trial:
0.10% and 0.05% Topflor with 80 ml/m²
0.20% and 0.10% CCC 720 with 100 ml/m²
2
11 Jan 07
All glasshouse
compartments
0.10% Rovral+ 0.035% Confidor+ 0.20%
Aminosol
3
16 Jan 07
Glasshouse compartments
(H 11.1, 11.2 ,11.3, 10.3)
PGR Trial:
0.05% Topflor with 80 ml/m²
0.10% CCC 720 with 100 ml/m²
4
All glasshouse
compartments
Fertiliser applied – 0.2% Ferty 3 green
(15-10-15)
4
Glasshouse compartments
(H 10.1, 10.2)
0.2%
Dithane+
0.04%
Plenum+
0.10%
Aminosol
7
16
Feb
07
All glasshouse
compartments
0.1% Ortiva (powdery mildew)

Key to terminology:
Discus – Kresoxim-methyl 500g/l
Masai – Tebufenpyrad
Confidor –
Imidacloprid
Plenum 50 WG – Pymetrozin
Polyram WG – Metiram
PrevicurN – Propamocarb
Rovral – Iprodione
Dithane Ultra – Mancozeb
Ortiva – Azoxystrobin 250g/l
Topflor – Flurprimidol
CCC 720 – Chlormequat
Wuxal Amino – 700g/l amino acid (9% nitrogen)
Neem Azal T/S – Azadirachtin (Neem)
2.3
PGR Trial
The first growth regulators treatments started in all greenhouse compartments in week 52
(supplementary light, photoperiodic light and ambient daylight). The spraying was two times or four
times depending on application rate. In Germany, the growth regulators Topflor and CCC 720 only
allowed to spray two times in application rate 0.20% CCC 720 with 100 ml/m² and 0.10% Topflor
with 80 ml/m². This application rate was given week 52 and week 2. The other treatments divided
the application rate to the half level and the spraying was four times in weeks 52, 1, 2 and 3 with
0.10% CCC 720 with 100 ml/m² and 0.05% Topflor with 80 ml/m². The following table (Table 3)
allows an overview about variants in PGR treatments. The growth regulators were tested on 11
species, which are listed in Table 1
.
Table 3: Variants of growth regulator treatments during PGR Trial
untreated
Spraying in weeks
in solution of water
0.20 % Cycocel 720
52 and 2
100 ml
0.10 % Cycocel 720
52; 1; 2 and 3
100 ml
0.10 % Topflor
52 and 2
80 ml
0.05 % Topflor
52; 1; 2 and 3
80 ml
Key to terminology :
Topflor – Flurprimidol
CCC 720 – Chlormequat
2.4
Shelf life test under living room conditions and frost hardiness test
This year the student Lutz Rüger from the technical University HTW engaged to shelf life test to
write his diploma on this topic. He tested not only the shelf life under living room conditions but also
the frost-hardiness of species at different temperatures in controlled climate chambers for 48 hours
(+ 3°C; 0°C; - 3°C; - 6°C and darkness). Into the f rost hardiness test came flowering plants direct
from the glasshouse compartment or plants after shelf life test under living room conditions. The
results to shelf life under living room conditions and the results to frost-hardiness are included.
The shelf life test was run in a separate room with the following controlled conditions:
artificial light with 300 – 500 lx daily for 12 hours = 0.022 mol/ m²; 1.375 W/ m² PAR
temperature 20°C – 22°C
air humidity 40 % - 60 %

The watering was run over glass fibers (ORTMANN). The shelf life under living room conditions, in
days, was recorded and notes were taken to record the reason for the discarded plant. The frost
hardiness was evaluated shortly after removal from climate chamber and 4 days later.
2.5
Temperatures and light conditions
It is important to recognize the climatic variation that exists between conditions in the UK and those
at Pillnitz, Germany. The following data collected during the trial period at Pillnitz can be used to
compare with UK growing conditions.
Many species were flowering earlier than expected and then the results have been shown in the
years 2001 to 2003 and 2006. On the other hand, a couple of species have not received enough
vernalization so that even the supplementary light could not compensate this lack. There was no or
less and delayed flowering. The comparison of temperatures and lighting of these years could give
an answer for that. The following figure (Figure 1) shows the average temperatures of the month.
-5,0
0,0
5,0
10,0
15,0
20,0
25,0
jan
feb
mar
apr
may
jun
jul
aug
sep
oct
nov
dec
average of tempratures per month
temp 2001
temp 2002
temp 2003
temp 2004
temp 2005
temp 2006
temp 2007
13,7
9,5
11,8
12,5
4,2
6,3
4,6
7,9
1,3
5,1
Figure 1: Average temperatures per month in different years

An important time is the time of storage. These are the weeks to realize the vernalization. The
average outdoor temperatures in October, November of 2001 and 2002 were lower than 2006. The
highest average temperatures were in autumn 2006. In autumn 2001 and 2002, the vernalization
until week 50 was enough for species like Lychnis alpina and Erinus alpinus (successful flowering)
but not in 2006. The flowers were not induced or did not stretch above the leaves even with
supplementary light, which often has the opportunity to compensate the lack of vernalization. There
are still a lot of questions about the time and amount of degrees for exact vernalization for each
species. Michigan State University did a lot of research on the field of vernalization especially with
perennials. With a fix temperature at 5°C ,that was defined as an optimum for vernalization,
perennials were tested in an environmentally controlled chamber (25 to 50 foot-candle) for 4 up to
15 weeks. The result was often that the plants came into flowering after vernalization of 4 to 6
weeks but with more weeks of vernalization, there was an improved flowering characteristic such as
percentage of plants flowering, reduced time to flower and increased flower number. Michigan State
University tested about 31 species under rubric early spring ephemerals that means perennials
require vernalization and react day-neutral. There are results for species we had in this year Early
Spring Trial. These results will be mentioned later within the chapter of the single species. The
following table shows the sum of average temperatures from outdoor from the 6 October to the 11
December 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2006. That comparison shows that the autumn of 2006 was
extreme in temperatures (Table 4). The sum of average temperatures was 40% higher than the
average of the other years. The warm temperatures were useful for growing and compensating
quite often the late potting date but there was not enough time for effectual vernalization to week 50
the start of forcing.
Table 4: Sum of average temperature outdoor at Pillnitz in autumn 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006
Autumn
Sum of temp. from averages per days in °C x da ys 6 Oct to 11 Dec
2001
483.7
2002
414.4
2005
459.1
2006
635.8
For all environments in Early Spring Trial 2006/2007, the details are given in Table 5.
The temperatures for polythene tunnel are valuated. There was no extra data logger in the
polythene tunnel.
The table (Table 5) expresses the extreme situation in 2006/2007. In polythene tunnel, there were
only 11 days that had temperatures below 4°C. Compa red to the years 2001, 2002 and 2005 the
plants have had in average 70% more days below 4°C (about 40 days) during storage in polythene
tunnel. An interesting fact is that plants for the second start of forcing in week 01 at 2007 were able
to collect more days of lower temperatures to satisfy the need of vernalization.

Table 5: Temperature conditions at Pillnitz Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
Location
Sum
of
temp.
from
averages per days in °C x
days 11 Oct to 11 Dec
2006 (week 50)
Days
with
temp. below
4°C
Days
with
temp.
below
3°C
Days
with
temp
below
0°C
H13.2
650.9
H14.2
658.8
H14.3
637.7
4
H14.4
611.8
6
Polythene tunnel
618.5
11
8
3
Location
Sum
of
temp.
from
averages per days in °C x
days 11 Oct 2006 to 2
Jan 2007 (week 01)
Days
with
temp. below
4°C
Days
with
temp.
below
3°C
Days
with
temp
below
0°C
H14.3
788.2
7
H14.4
747.8
16
Polythene tunnel
725.2
29
24
6
During the forcing period, the four glasshouse compartments were exposed to different amounts of
light. This is illustrated in figure 2 With supplementary lighting in glasshouse compartment H 11.1
(20h-3000lx) plants received about 40% more light until Valentine’s Day compared to the
photoperiodic and ambient daylight treatments. The glasshouse compartment with the light sum
collection H 11.2 (80klxh) received 12% less light until Valentine’s Day compared to H 11.1 (20 h –
3000 lx). The average of hours of lamps burning time was until Valentine’s Day in glasshouse
compartment H 11.1-18:26 hours and in glasshouse compartment H 11.2-13:20 hours. This is in
average a difference of 5 hours less burning time per day. With the second start of forcing in week
01 the plants received a PAR 262.8 mol/m² in the two greenhouse compartments H 10.1 and H
10.2 until Valentine’s Day and reached the sum PAR 362.3 mol/m² one week later on 25 Feb 07 in
week 8.

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
12.12.2006
19.12.2006
26.12.2006
2.1.2007
9.1.2007
16.1.2007
23.1.2007
30.1.2007
6.2.2007
13.2.2007
20.2.2007
27.2.2007
6.3.2007
13.3.2007
20.3.2007
27.3.2007
3.4.2007
sum of light PAR in mol/m²
suppl 20 h
suppl 80 klxh
photo
suppl 20 h wk 01
ambient
364,4
321,0
208,5
204,6
262,8
14 Feb 2007
Figure 2: Development of light summaries in the different light treatments
In the glasshouse compartment with supplementary light, the temperature was a little higher
because of the radiation from the lamps.
Sum of temperatures from 12 December to the 14 February (65 days):
Glasshouse 11.1 supplementary light 20h:
889.2 °C x days
Glasshouse 11.2 supplementary light 80klxh:
878.2 °C x days
Glasshouse 11.3 photoperiodic light :
841.5 °C x d ays
Glasshouse 10.3 ambient daylight:
854.3 °C x day s
Sum of temperatures from 2 January to 2 March (60 days)
Glasshouse 10.1 supplementary light 20h and 12°C: 833.3 °C x days
Glasshouse 10.2 supplementary light 20h and 9°C: 72 7.2 °C x days
To compare results from different years it is helpful to compare sum of temperatures. From start of
forcing, the average temperatures from 80 days were added. The Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
collected about 1060°C x days compared to the Tria l 2002/2003 with about 870°C x days. In the
year 2002/2003, the heating was 10°C and ventilatio n 12°C. That makes an important difference
over the forcing period with 190°C. That seems to b e the reason that some species flowered earlier
than expected this year.

The light treatments finished at different dates:
Glasshouse 11.1 supplementary light 20h:
21 Feb 07
week 8
Glasshouse 11.2 supplementary light 80klxh:
2 March 07
week 9
Glasshouse 11.3 photoperiodic light:
8 March 07
week 10
Glasshouse 10.3 ambient daylight:
4 April 07
week 14
Glasshouse 10.1 supplementary light 20h and 12°C: 8 March 07
week 10
Glasshouse 10.2 supplementary light 20h and 9°C:
8 March 07
week 10
The data in the glasshouse compartments with supplementary light were all collected to the end of
rating. Only the glasshouse compartment with photoperiodic light treatment was earlier finished
then the data were complete collected but the glasshouse compartment was needed for the
bedding plants trial.
2.6
Recordation of data and biometric analysis
In all greenhouse compartments, the plants were monitored every second or third day during the
forcing period. If one plant fulfilled the specific criteria for flowering, the measurements and ratings
were carried out. Eight plants from each plot were measured wherever possible and the following
records were taken:
Date of flowering
Height of leaves in cm
Height of flower in cm
Number of flowers per plant
Number of buds per plant
Number of branches per plant (Lithodora)
General value (rating 1….9, 1 = very bad; 5 = middle; 9 = perfect)
During every period / regime of the trial, the temperature, the air humidity and irradiation levels
were recorded by data loggers. Appropriate visual observations on each plant species (e.g.
diseases) were documented.
Digital photos were made which show the plant species in different factorial combinations after
planting, at the beginning of storage, at the beginning of forcing and at flowering.
The data were analyzed with help of the statistic program SPSS. With the two factor analysis of
variance, the significances of the single factors were determined as well as the interactions
between the factors. The averages of data were compared by BONFERRONI test (with
α
= 0.05).
This test is more accurate than other multiple average tests because of the slightly different
numbers of plots in the trial. All data from the trials and the most important results of the analysis
by SPSS program were saved on a DVD, which is contained in the annex.

3
Results and Discussion
The main objective of the trial in Pillnitz was again to produce marketable plants by Valentine’s Day
(14 February) or at least to finish the crop before the bedding plant season after which the need for
the space in glasshouses rapidly increases. From the 34 tested species/varieties, 25 varieties
came in flowering successfully during the trial, 9 varieties failed because of low marketable value or
not enough data of flowering. The following table (Table 6) allows an overview over the successful
species/varieties. Table 7 lists the not successful species during this year trial. The successful
species will be mentioned separately in this chapter. The first part concentrates on species, which
were not in PGR Trial the second with species, which received growth regulators treatments. Not all
the plants within each plot (8 plants) had reached a flowering stage. The exact number is listed in
the average table of the species in the DVD annex.
Table 6: Successful species in Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
Species
number
Species
General
value < 4.9
less
data
PGR Trial
F01
Anacyclus
pyrethrum
var.
depressus
‘Silberkissen’
x
F02
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’
x
F09
Aquilegia vulgaris
‘Winky Double White- White’
x
F13
gest
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
x
F16
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’
x
F18
Horminum pyrenaicum
x
15
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
x
F21
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’
x
F22
Papaver nudicaule ’Gartenzwerg’
x
24
Phlox divaricata
x
26
Phlox divaricata (propagation Pillnitz)
x
F23
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’
x
3
Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’
4
Ajuga reptans ‘Braunhertz’
5
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’
25
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ (propagation
Pillnitz)
F03
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Blau -
Weiß’

Species
number
Species
General
value < 4.9
less
data
PGR Trial
F04
Aquilegia hybrida
‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot- Gelb’
F05
Aquilegia hybrida
‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot – Weiß’
F06
Aquilegia hybrida
‘F1 Spring Magic Marine – Weiß’
F07
Aquilegia hybrida
‘F1 Spring Magic Rosa - Weiß’
F08
Aquilegia hybrida ‘F1 Spring Magic Weiß’
F12
Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’
F15
Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’
13
Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’
14
Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’
20
Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’
Table 7: Species in Early Spring Trial 2006/2007 with a low general value or too less data
during the trial
Species
number
Species
General
value < 4.9
less data
PGR Trial
6
Arabis ferdinandi ‘Coburgii Variegata’
x
7
Arabis ferdinandi ‘Old Gold’
x
F11
Barbarea rupicola ‘Sunnyola’
x
10
Cymbalaria ‘Muralis’
x
F13
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
x
F14
Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’
x
F17
Horminum pyrenaicum ‘Rubrum’
x
16
Lithodora diffusa ‘Pete’s Favorite’
x
F19
Lychnis alpina
x
x
F20
Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’
x
x
The following table (Table 8) gives an overview, which weeks the species flowered exposed to
different lighting.
The weeks of flowering make clear that a lot of species are possible to grow for the same sale date
(Figures 4 and 5). Therefore, there is a real chance to produce mixed palettes to the same week of
sale (Figure 3).

image
image
Figure 3: week 04; mixed palette with 8 different early spring pot plants
Figure 4: week 04; arrangement for early spring sale with Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’; Papaver
nudicaule ‘Gartenzwerg’; Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’ and Erysimum perovskianum
‘Goldrush’

image
Figure 5: week 08; floriga trade fair; Leipzig 2007; presentation to highlight the
‘news’

Table 8: Species and their weeks of flowering exposed to different lighting and requirement of vernalization
Species number
Species
Start of forcing; lighting; temperature and the flowering in weeks
week
50*
20h
3000lx
12°C
week
50*
80klxh
12°C
week*
01
20h
3000lx
12°C
week
01*
20h
3000lx
9°C
week 50*
photoper./ 20h
100lx
12°C
week 50*
ambient
daylight
12°C
vernalization
required
x = yes
3
Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’
2-3
2 - 3
5 - 6
n.t.
long period: 5 -10
long period: 9 -13
x
4
Ajuga reptans ‘Braunhertz’
4
4 - 6
6 - 7
7
9 -10
10 -12
x
5
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’
3 - 4
3 - 4
5 - 6
6 - 7
6 - 8
7- 9
x
F01
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus
‘Silberkissen’
5 - 6
5 - 6
7 - 8
8 - 9
8 - 9
10
?
F02
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’
2 - 3
2 - 4
3 - 4
4 - 5
long period: 7 - 10
long period: 7 - 10
x
F04
Aquilegia hybrida
‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot- Gelb’
2 - 3
3 - 4
4 - 5
5 - 6
6 - 8
8 - 10
x
F09
Aquilegia vulgaris
‘Winky Double White- White’
4 - 5
5 - 6
8
n.t.
8 – 9
12 - 13
x
F12
Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’
4 - 5
6 - 7
7 - 8
9 - 10
8 - 9
no flower until week 14
?
F13 gest
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
4 - 5
4 - 5
7 - 8
9 - 10
7 - 9
8 - 10
?
F15
Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’
3 - 4
3 - 4
6 - 7
7 - 8
long period: 5 - 10
long period: 7 - 11
x
F16
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’
2 - 4
2 - 4
4 - 5
4 - 5
long period: 4 -10
long period: 4 - 13
x
F18
Horminum pyrenaicum
3 - 4
5 - 6
8
8 - 9
9 - 10
14
x
13
Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’
3 - 4
3 - 4
6 - 7
7
7 - 9
long period: 8 - 11
x
14
Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’
1
1
4 - 7
4 - 9
1
4
?
15
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
6 - 7
6 - 7
8 - 9
9
9 - 10
10 - 11
x
F21
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’
3 - 4
3 - 4
6
6 - 7
long period: 4 - 8
no flower until week 14
?
F22
Papaver nudicaule ’Gartenzwerg’
2 - 3
3 - 4
5 - 6
6 - 7
long period: 4 - 9
no flower until week 14
?
24
Phlox divaricata
3 - 4
3 - 4
6 - 7
7 - 8
long period: 5 - 8
11 - 12
x
20
Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’
6 - 7
6 - 7
9 - 10
9 - 10
6 - 8
7 - 9
?
F23
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’
4 - 5
5 - 6
5 - 6
6 - 8
long period: 6 - 9
long period: 9 - 14
x
Key to terminology:
n.t
– not tested variant
( * )
– 72 hours wake up treatment with higher temperatures at 20°C

image
Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
23
HDC Project No 267
Growing the plants outdoors or under polythene (unheated) or under glass (frost protected) had
sometimes significant effects on species. These effects will be mentioned for each species.
Most species were influenced by the lighting treatments. Supplementary lighting had the greatest
effect bringing flowering time forward and improving plant marketability and overall quality
All results, shown as bar charts for all species including the influence of lighting on plant
parameters, are included in the DVD annex.
The stages of growth and development are collected in a ULEAD Photo Impact album and in a web
browser readable slide show, which are saved on the DVD in the annex.
3.1
Species with no growth regulator treatment
3.1.1
Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’
This species develops attractive dark robust rosettes of leaves. The blue colour of the flowers is
nice and the species looks good in arrangements. The pot size would be better with 9cm. The small
ranking branches are not disturbing
(Picture 4).
The date of flowering was recorded when three
open flowers were present on a flowering stem.
Figure 6: Week 5; Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’

Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
24
HDC Project No 267
Duration of forcing: All plants exposed to supplementary light were 8 weeks earlier than plants
exposed to ambient daylight. The storage had no influence. The plants flowered after 30 to 32 days
(H 10.1, 11.1, H 11.2). There were no plants placed in H 10.2 (20h-9°C). The photoperiodic light
reacted only on plants from polythene tunnel until week 10 (end of rating). Only plants from
polythene tunnel exposed to photoperiodic light were 4 weeks earlier than plants exposed to
ambient daylight. In addition, plants exposed to ambient daylight and from polythene tunnel were
two weeks earlier compared to plants from frost-free glasshouse .That is a sign that vernalization is
necessary for Ajuga. The supplementary light compensates this lack of vernalization. Only plants
exposed to supplementary light flowered until Valentine’s Day. The plants from start forcing in week
50 were 100% flowering in weeks 2 to 3 and plants from start forcing week 01 were 100%
flowering in weeks 5 to 6.
2
3
5
6
7
9
10
11
12
13
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Ajuga pyramidalis, number: 3
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 7: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: There was no influence on
height of leaves and no mentionable influence on buds and flowers through lighting or storage. The
plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to supplementary light (especially plants
from outdoor) had significant longer flowers (difference in average 2cm) than in the other
glasshouse compartments. These plants received a longer cooling period.

image
image
Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
25
HDC Project No 267
General value: Only the plants with supplementary light were marketable. The general value was
around 6. The plants did not fill the 10 cm pot.
Shelf life test: The shortest period of time was 19 days whilst the longest time was 39 days. These
are in average 31 days. Ajuga reptans ‘Metallica Crispa’ is suitable for living room conditions.
Recommendation for Ajuga pyramidalis ‘Metallica Crispa’
Cuttings root in about three weeks. Potting should be latest week 31 to make sure that one rosette
can fill the pot size and the plants are bulked before vernalization. The 9 cm pot is adequate. Ajuga
needs well to be fed. The fertilization should be in the higher level of 500 to 700mg N per plant.
Make sure that the plants get a cooling period of about 9 weeks. That is important for flowering and
flower stretching. The effort for cleaning is low. With higher forcing temperatures of 12°C and
supplementary light, it is possible to sell the Ajuga to Valentine’s Day. With ambient daylight and at
10°C - 12°C the flowering expected middle of March.
3.1.2
Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’
This variety has nice blue flowers. The disadvantages are the long stem petioles (Figure 10).
Therefore, the general value was low for single plant, but in creation of arrangements, this crop
could be still interesting. The colour of leaves was different after different storage las the following
pictures (Figures 8 and 9) show. The bronze colour disappeared during forcing.
Figure 8 and Figure 9: week 50; Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’, storage: right polythene tunnel,
left frost-free greenhouse

image
Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
26
HDC Project No 267
Figure 10: week 04; Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’
Duration of forcing: All supplementary light treatments with 20hours - 3000lx (H 11.1+10.1+10.2)
flowered about the same time (38-41 days). The flowering in glasshouse compartment H 11.1 with
the start of forcing in week 50 was earlier than the 80klxh treatment (H 11.2). However, this delay is
mainly because of the plants from frost-free greenhouse with less vernalization. Flowers appeared
100% before Valentine’s Day in week 4 to 6 with the start of forcing in week 50. Plants with the start
of forcing in week 01 did not flower completely in weeks 6 to 7. A reason for that missing flowering
could be that developed flowers were damaged because of longer storage and were cleaned off or
flowers were not induced. Plants with photoperiodic light and ambient daylight were late (week 10
to 11) and not all plants flowered until week 14 (Figure 11).
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Ajuga reptans, number: 4
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp

Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
27
HDC Project No 267
Figure 11: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves was not
mentionable influenced by different lighting treatments. A significant difference showed the height of
flowers. Flowers stretched 5 to 7 cm higher with the start of forcing in week 01 and supplementary
lighting than flowers in other greenhouse compartments. With more vernalization, the flowers
stretched more above the leaves. There were no significant differences in amount of buds and
flowers. The amount was about 2 to 3. More vernalization would probably cause more flowers and
buds. In last year trial, the comparable Ajuga reptans ‘Rosea’ had more buds because of more
vernalization during storage.
General Value: Plants with supplementary lighting were barely marketable (marks 5 to 6) because
of long petioles and less flowers per plant. Best scores got plants from the start of forcing in week
01. Plants exposed to ambient daylight and photoperiodic light scored most under 5.
Shelf life test: The shortest period of time was 21 days whilst the longest time was 31 days
(average 27 days). Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’ is suitable for living room conditions.
Recommendation for Ajuga reptans ‘Braun Hertz’
Cuttings root in about three weeks. Potting should be latest week 31 to make sure that one rosette
can fill the pot size and the plants are bulked before vernalization. The 9 or 10 cm pot size is
adequate. Ajuga needs well to be fed. The fertilization should be in the higher level of 500 to 700mg
N per plant. Make sure that the plants get a cooling period of about 9 weeks. That is important for
flowering and flower stretching. The effort for cleaning is low. With higher forcing temperatures at
12°C and supplementary light, it is possible to sel l the Ajuga to Valentine’s Day. With ambient
daylight and 10 °C - 12 °C the flowering will be ex pected in the middle of March.
3.1.3
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’
Lovely blue long lasting flowering and almost no petioles at the time of flowering makes this species
to an early spring favourite (Figure 12). Pillnitz discovered this species during a green and structure
plant trial. The last year trial took this species first time in testing as an early spring pot plant. The
test was with different depot fertilizer and the results were amazing and successful. Ajuga reptans
‘Mini Mahagoni’ performs well as a single plant and in arrangements. In this year trial, the plants
performed not in the same quality like last year. Reasons for that are the plants were not fertilized
enough in autumn, the plants could not fill the 10 cm pot and the vernalization was definitely not
enough. Not enough flowers were induced. The data of flowering was recorded when three open
flowers were visible on a flowering stem. This year trial tested plants from different potting dates.

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HDC Project No 267
Plants which were potted in week 34 (number 5) performed better than plants which were potted in
week 38 (number 25).
Figure 12: week 04; Early Spring Display –Blue with Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’
Duration of forcing: Plants from earlier potting came 100% into flowering but not all plants from
later potting date (Figure 13 and 14). Older plants (number 5) exposed to supplementary light and
with the start of forcing in weeks 50 and 01 (H 11.1, H 11.2 and H 10.1) flowered after 34 -36 days.
With the start of forcing in week 50, the plants flowered in weeks 3 to 4 and with the start of forcing
in week 01 in weeks 5 to 6 - both before Valentine’s Day. The glasshouse compartment with
supplementary lighting and 9°C (H10.2) had one week delay in flowering (weeks 6 to 7). Plants
exposed to supplementary light flowered 4 weeks earlier than plants exposed to photoperiodic light
and 5 weeks earlier than plants exposed to ambient daylight. In last year trial this delay was just 2
weeks because the plants were better vernalized. The storage had significant influence in
glasshouses exposed to photoperiodic and ambient daylight. Plants from polythene tunnel were 3
weeks earlier in flowering (weeks 7 to 8) than plants from frost-free glasshouse (weeks 10 to 11).
Plants from later potting and exposed to supplementary light were flowering after 36 to 38 days.
Plants exposed to 80 klxh (H11.2) had a delay of 1 week. Plants exposed to 9°C with start forcing
week 01 were flowering with a half-week delay. Plants exposed to photoperiodic and ambient
daylight were both late and flowered weeks 10 to 11. The storage was not significant.

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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Ajuga reptans Jal, number: 5
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 13: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10);
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’, potting week 34
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Ajuga reptans LfL, number: 25
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 14: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahgoni’, potting week 38

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Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves was not
mentionable influenced by storage and lighting. However, the height of flowers was different
between the glasshouse compartments especially because of the different start of forcing. All plants
with more vernalization and with the start of forcing in week 01 stretched their flowers 6 to 7 cm
higher (11 to 14 cm, Figure 15) than plants with start of forcing in week 50 (5-7 cm). Plants with
start of forcing in week 01 and especially from polythene tunnel and outdoors had more buds and
flowers (12-14) compared to the other glasshouse compartments (7 to 8). All plants exposed to
supplementary light had in average more flowers and buds than plants exposed to photoperiodic
and ambient daylight.
General Value: All plants exposed to supplementary light scored better (6 to 8) than plants exposed
to photoperiodic and ambient daylight (4-5). The plants from earlier potting date scored better than
plants from later potting date. They were bulked better in autumn.
Shelf life test: The duration of shelf life was always 29 days. Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ is
absolute suitable for living room conditions.
Recommendation for Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’
Cuttings root in about three weeks. Potting should be latest week 33 to make sure that one rosette
can fill the pot size and the plants are bulked before vernalization. The 9 cm pot is adequate. Ajuga
needs to be fed well. The fertilization should be in the higher level of 500 to 700mg N per plant.
Make sure that the plants get a cooling period of about 9 weeks. That is important for flowering and
flower stretching. The effort for cleaning is low. With forcing temperatures at 10°C to 12°C and
supplementary light, it is possible to sell Ajuga on Valentine’s Day. Only effectual vernalized plants
got the chance to flower even under ambient daylight and at 12°C until Valentine’s Day.
Michigan State University allocates Ajuga to the Early Spring Ephemerals. Plants flower only
following a cooling treatment and photoperiod does not regulate flowering (day-neutral). Tested
Ajuga reptans ‘Bronze Beauty’ flowered within two weeks at forcing temperatures at 20°C after 15
weeks constant cooling period at 5°C. Ajuga has to b e bulked before forcing otherwise the flower is
inconsistent. Ajuga reptans has to be vernalized at least 6 weeks at 5°C.

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HDC Project No 267
Figure 15: week 7; Ajuga reptans ‘Mini Mahagoni’ from storage outdoor 2006/2007;
start of forcing in week 01
3.1.4
Aquilegia F1 Spring Magic Series
Aquilegia performed during last year trial 2005/2007 as an attractive flowering early spring pot
plant. This year Aquilegia F1 Spring Magic Series was tested in six different colours like the
following pictures (Figures 16 - 21) show. The date of flowering was given with one bud showing
colour.

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HDC Project No 267
Figure 16: F 03 ‘Blau-Weiß’
Figure 17: F 07 ‘Rosa-Weiß’
Figure 18: F 04 ‘Hellrot-Gelb’
Figure 19: F 04 ‘Hellrot-Weiß’

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HDC Project No 267
Figure 20: F 06 ‘Marine-Weiß’
Figure 21: F 08 ‘Weiß’
Duration of forcing: All Aquilegia from the F1 Series react almost similar in duration of forcing.
There was a 100% flowering. Plants were bulked enough before vernalization. Plants exposed to
supplementary light flowered 4 weeks earlier than plants exposed to photoperiodic light and 6
weeks earlier than plants exposed to ambient daylight. The plants flowered 2 weeks earlier under
supplementary light than last year because the start of forcing was one week earlier than last year
and the glasshouse compartments received not only the higher temperatures at the beginning of
forcing but also the supplementary light. All plants with supplementary light came into flowering
before Valentine’s Day. Storage had significant influence. Plants from frost-free glasshouse and
under supplementary light 12°C (H 11.1, H 10.1) wer e flowering in average after 31 days compared
to plants from polythene tunnel with 37 days. The plants with the start of forcing in week 50
flowered in weeks 3 to 4 and plants with start forcing in week 01 in weeks 5 to 6. The plants
exposed to the 80 klxh (H11.2) had a half a week to one week delay in comparison to plants from
20h 3000lx (H11.1). The same effect was with the plants exposed to 20h-3000lx at 9°C (H 10.2)
with almost one week delay compared to 20h-3000lx and at 12°C (H10.1). That points out the
correlations between temperatures and light amounts. It is important that plants exposed to ambient
daylight came 100% into flowering but plants performed not very well, the flowers were not
stretched above the leaves because of missing vernalization and the low light level (ambient
daylight) until week 50. The photoperiodic light was able to compensate that lack of vernalization.
Only plants from the frost-free glasshouse with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to
photoperiodic light flowered on Valentine’s Day. The following figure (Figure 22) of the percentage
of flowering plants of Aquilegia ‘F1 Hellrot -Gelb’ was chosen as an example for all tested Aquilegia
from this series because their display is similar.

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HDC Project No 267
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Aquilegia hybrida, number: F 04
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 22: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
Aquilegia ’F1 Spring Magic Hellrot-Gelb’
Figure 23 and Figure 24: Aquilegia ‘F1 Spring Magic Hellrot-Gelb’;
storage left: polythene tunnel, right: frost-free glasshouse, plants cleaned off old foliage
The figures show the differences in foliage after different storage. Plants from frost-free glasshouse
(Figures 23 and 24) win by a narrow margin because of a little more foliage.

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Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves was
influenced from lighting and storage. All plants under supplementary light were in average 5 to 6 cm
taller in foliage than plants under ambient daylight and 3cm higher then plants under photoperiodic
light. In most cases plants from frost-free glasshouse stretched their leaves higher than plants from
polythene tunnel. The difference between the height of plants exposed to supplementary light and
photoperiodic light and from frost-free glasshouse is about 2 cm higher then from polythene tunnel.
Even under ambient daylight, the plants from frost-free glasshouse are 1 cm taller then plants from
polythene tunnel. Plants from frost-free glasshouses were still better developed in foliage. Half of
the Aquilegia series (F03, F04 and F07) showed a significant difference between glasshouse
compartments. Plants with 80 klxh (H11.2) kept about 2cm shorter than the plants with
supplementary lighting 20h 3000lx (H11.1, H 10.1 and 10.2). The plants from the start of forcing in
week 01and at 9°C (H 10.2) were the highest especi ally plants from frost-free glasshouses with 12
to 14 cm compared to other treatments. The height of flowers was influenced from lighting and start
of forcing. Flowers with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to supplementary light stretched
about 4 to 7 cm longer than flowers with the start of forcing in week 50 exposed to supplementary
light. Plants were vernalized better. Plants exposed to supplementary light had significant higher
flowers than plants exposed to photoperiodic light. Always the shortest flowers had plants exposed
to ambient daylight. The flowers were sitting under the foliage because of missing vernalization.
Under photoperiodic light, the flowers were in average shortly above the leaves when the first bud
showed colour. One week after rating the flower stems under photoperiodic lighting were stretched
more above the leaves, the plant performed better but the first flower was already open. This has
disadvantages for transport and shelf life. The shortest flowers had the Aquilegia ‘F1 Blau-Weiß’
exposed to photoperiodic light. The colour showing buds were mainly under the leaves. The
photoperiodic lighting could not compensate the lack of vernalization this year by Aquilegia ‘F1
Blau-Weiß’. The highest flowers developed Aquilegia ‘F1 Marine-Weiß’ with a maximum of 29 cm
exposed to supplementary light at 9°C with the star t of forcing in week 01. That variety was on the
safe side with photoperiodic lighting. The colour showing buds were stretched above the leaves.
The other varieties of this series except Aquilegia ‘F1 Blau-Weiß’ were also successful under
photoperiodic light. The amount of buds and flowers was influenced from lighting, start of forcing
and in some cases from storage (Figures 25 and 26). In the case of Aquilegia one counted flower
and one counted bud means always a flower stem. One flower stem then developed more buds.
Plants had in most varieties more buds and flowers with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed
to supplementary light than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to
supplementary light. The plants had in most cases one flower and 2 to 4 buds. The most developed
flowers had the Aquilegia ‘F1 Hellrot-Weiß’ (F05) and Aquilegia ‘F1 Rosa-Weiß’. Plants exposed to
ambient daylight often had just the one sitting flower. Plants exposed to photoperiodic light
stretched to the time of rating one flower and developed 1 to 2 buds. Aquilegia ‘F1 Hellrot-Gelb’ and
‘F1 Marine-Weiß’ had different amounts of flowers and buds because of different storage. Plants
from frost-free glasshouses developed 1 to 2 flowers more than plants from polythene tunnel and
outdoor. The plants from outdoors had also significant less flowers and buds compared to plants

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HDC Project No 267
from frost-free glasshouses and exposed to supplementary light. The outdoor conditions sometimes
with degrees under zero set the plants back in development.
wk
50
/
photo
/
12
°C
wk
50
/
amb
/
12
°C
wk
50
/
80
klxh
/
12
°C
wk
50
/
20
h
/
12
°C
wk
01
/
20
h
/
9
°C
wk
01
/
20
h
/
12
°C
start / light / temp
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
Mittelwert buds & flowers
species: Aquilegia hybrida, number: F 05
outdoor
frostfree
glasshouse
unheated
polytunnel
storage
Figure 25: Bar chart of the average number of buds and flowers; Aquilegia ‘F1
Spring Magic Hellrot-Weiß’
wk
50
/
photo
/
12
°C
wk
50
/
amb
/
12
°C
wk
50
/
80
klxh
/
12
°C
wk
50
/
20
h
/
12
°C
wk
01
/
20
h
/
9
°C
wk
01
/
20
h
/
12
°C
start / light / temp
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
Mittelwert buds & flowers
species: Aquilegia hybrida, number: F 04
outdoor
frostfree
glasshouse
unheated
polytunnel
storage
Figure 26: Bar chart of the average of number buds and flowers; Aquilegia ‘F1
Spring Magic Hellrot-Gelb’

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HDC Project No 267
General Value: Plants exposed to supplementary light scored significantly higher (6 to 7) than
plants exposed to photoperiodic light (5 to 6) and ambient daylight (3to 4). The Aquilegia ‘F1 Blau-
Weiß’ scored lower (4-5) because the colour showing bud was often under the leaves. Plants
performed significantly better from storage frost-free greenhouse than plants from polythene tunnel
or outdoors. The plants developed more foliage.
Shelf life test: The tested Aquilegia received a longer shelf life in this year trial than last year
because the plants developed more buds. The shortest time in shelf life was 15 days and the
longest 26 days. This makes Aquilegia F1 series suitable for living room conditions
Recommendation for Aquilegia F1 series
Potting should be latest week 36 (better earlier) to get enough bulking before vernalization. The
vernalization is necessary to stretch the induced flowers above the leaves. Keep plants for
vernalization in frost-free glasshouse as cold as possible about 9 weeks. Plants which are enough
vernalized are able to produce quality under photoperiodic light until Valentine’s Day. The effort for
cleaning is high. Plants will be successful under ambient daylight too but at a later flowering date at
the beginning of March. Growing Aquilegia successfully depends on bulking, vernalization and
correlations of amounts of light and temperatures.
Michigan State University allocates Aquilegia to the Early Spring Ephemerals. Plants flower only
following a cooling treatment and photoperiod does not regulate flowering (day-neutral). The tested
Aquilegia flabellata ‘Cameo’ needs at least 6 weeks for bulking. The weeks of vernalization at
constant 5°C are recommended with 6 to 9 weeks and the tested plants need 4 weeks to flower at
20°C.
3.1.5
Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’
Many yellow flowers on wirily flower stems hover above dark green rosettes of leaves (Figure 27).
This species was in last year trial first time in testing and attracted attention. Calceolaria biflora
‘Goldcap’ performs well as a single plant and in arrangements. Calceolaria biflora requires long-day
photoperiods. The critical day length seems to be 14 hours as known from other Calceolaria
species. It is not known whether Calceolaria needs an obligate vernalization and how long this has
to be. The date of flowering was recorded with one open flower on a plant.

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Figure 27: week 06; Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’; supplementary light
Duration of forcing: The plants exposed to supplementary light came 100% into flowering (Figure
28). Plants exposed to photoperiodic light flowered almost to 100%. Only a couple of plants had no
buds at the end of rating. There was no flowering under ambient daylight until week 14. The storage
had not a significant influence in all compartments. Only the plants with the start of forcing in week
50, supplementary light and from polythene tunnel were one week earlier than plants from frost-free
glasshouse. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light 20h-
3000lx (H11.1) were one week earlier then the plants exposed to 80 klxh (H11.2). The similar effect
was because of the lower temperatures on plants with the start of forcing in week 01. Plants
exposed to supplementary light at 12°C (H10.1) were one week earlier than plants exposed to
supplementary light and 9°C. Plants exposed to suppl ementary light and 12°C flowered in average
after 50 days. The plants in the other light and temperature combinations (H11.2 and 10.2) flowered
after 57 days. Plants with supplementary light and the start of forcing in week 50 flowered before
Valentine’s Day. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light
flowered in weeks 4 to 5 and plants with the start of forcing in week 01 in weeks 7 to 8. Crop was
earlier then last year where plants exposed to supplementary light flowered in weeks 7 to 8. The
reasons for this earlier flowering are that plants received light treatment one week earlier and
received a higher sum of light and temperatures until Valentine’s Day compared to last year. Plants
exposed to photoperiodic light flowered in average after 72 days in weeks 8 to 9. The plants with
the start of forcing week 01 flowered about the same time weeks 7 to 9.

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HDC Project No 267
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Calceolaria biflora, number: F 12
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 28: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves was
influenced by storage. Especially plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and from frost-free
glasshouse were 2 cm higher than plants from polythene tunnel. Most plants were in average 7 to 8
cm high. The height of flowers was not influenced by lighting and storage. Flowers were in average
17 to 18 cm high. The number of buds was not influenced by storage but by lighting and start of
forcing. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to supplementary light developed 2
to 3 buds more (14 to 16) than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 (11-12). Plants received a
longer cooling period. Plants under photoperiodic light developed significant fewer flowers and buds
(9 to 10).
General Value: The storage had no influence on the general value. Plants under photoperiodic light
scored significantly lower (about 6) compared to the other treatments with 7 to 8. The habitus was
slacker and flower stems stretched not that equal like under supplementary light.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 21 days and the longest 31 days. This makes
Calceolaria suitable for living room conditions.

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HDC Project No 267
Recommendation for Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’
Potting should be latest week 35. The 10cm pot is adequate. Storage can take place in frost-free
glasshouse or polythene tunnel from week 40 to 50. Calceolaria needs an obligate long day. The
effort for cleaning is middle. Under supplementary light (20hours) at 12°C and the start of forcing in
week 50 the Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’ will flower until Valentine’s Day.
3.1.6
Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’
This species was last year first time in trial and only exposed to supplementary light and attracted
attention as an early spring pot plant. The flowers have a fascinating yellow colour (Figure 29) and
spread a sweet scent of spring. Not all plants came into flowering during this year trial. The reason
is not clear. Some plants flowered already before the forcing started and flowers were removed in
week 45 but most plants were able to produce many side flowers. The vernalization seems to be
more responsible for the success of flowering. The plants with the start of forcing in week 01
flowered 100% (except a couple of plants from frost-free glasshouse) because of longer
vernalization. Only plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and plants from polythene tunnel
flowered 100% but not the plants from frost-free glasshouse. That is why the curves are in average
under 100% and flowering occurred over a longer period of weeks. The date of flowering was
recorded when three open flowers were present at a flowering stem.
Figure 29: week 03; Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’ ; supplementary light

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Duration of forcing: All plants exposed to supplementary light at 12°C needed in average 38 days
until flowering. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 flowered in weeks 3 to 4 and plants with
the start of forcing in week 01 flowered in weeks 6 to 7 just before Valentine’s Day (Figure 30).
Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to supplementary light at 9°C flowered
almost one week later than at 12°C. Plants exposed t o supplementary light were 2 weeks earlier
than plants exposed to photoperiodic and 4 weeks earlier than plants exposed to ambient daylight.
The flowering was over a long period. There were also early flowers under ambient daylight.
Erysimum reacts day-neutral. Storage was significant under photoperiodic light and ambient
daylight. Plants from polythene tunnel were 1 to 2 weeks earlier than plants from frost-free
glasshouse.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Erysimum perovskianum, number: F 15
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 30: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves was not
influenced by storage or lighting but the height of flowers. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01
and especially from outdoor stretched their flowers 4 cm higher (17 to 19 cm) than plants with the
start of forcing in week 50 (14cm). Plants received a longer cooling period. Flowers exposed to
photoperiodic and ambient daylight stretched significantly less (10 to 11cm) than plants exposed to
supplementary light. In half of glasshouse compartments, the influence of storage was significant.
Plants from polythene tunnel and outdoors stretched taller compared to plants from frost-free

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HDC Project No 267
glasshouse. The number of buds was influenced by storage and the start of forcing. Most plants
with start of forcing in week 50 and from polythene tunnel had 2 buds more than plants from frost-
free glasshouse. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 developed 2 to 3 buds more (7 to 9)
than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 (polythene tunnel; 5 to 7).
General Value: The significant best marks scored plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and
exposed to supplementary light at 12°C (6 to 7). Th e significant lowest marks scored plants
exposed to ambient daylight and photoperiodic light (4 to 6). The plants from polythene tunnel
scored better marks than plants from frost-free glasshouse. The plants could not fill the 10 cm pot.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 19 days and the longest 39 days. It depended on
the number of buds per plant that were present at the beginning of shelf life. Erysimum
perovskianum ‘Goldrush’ is suitable for living room conditions.
Recommendation for Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’
Potting should be latest week 36. The 9 cm pot is adequate. Storage can take place in frost-free
glasshouse or polythene tunnel from week 40 to 50. Important is plants receive enough
vernalization. Erysimum perovskianum ‘Goldrush’ belongs to the Early-Spring Ephemerals: species
reacts day-neutral and flowers only following a cooling treatment. The effort for cleaning is low.
Supplementary light forces flowering and is able to compensate lack of vernalization. Plants flower
until Valentine’s Day even under ambient daylight.
3.1.7
Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’
The bright white flowers of Iberis are attractive in early spring arrangements. This year the Iberis
was not so successful in flowering than in former trials (Figure 31). The plants were not bulked
enough before cooling. There was not a 100% flowering. The date of flowering was recorded when
there were 3 to 4 open flowers per plant.
Figure 31: week 08; Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’; ambient daylight; polythene tunnel

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HDC Project No 267
Duration of forcing: All plants exposed to supplementary light flowered in average after 36 days.
Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 flowered in weeks 3 to 4 and plants with the start of
forcing in week 01 flowered in weeks 5 to 7 before Valentine’s Day (Figure 32). All supplementary
lighting treatments were about 5 weeks earlier than plants exposed to photoperiodic light and 6
weeks earlier than plants exposed to ambient daylight. This delay was because of less vernalization
of plants during storage. In former trials, it was possible to receive the flowers until Valentine’s Day
under ambient daylight. This year the supplementary light compensated the lack of vernalization.
The influence of storage was significant under photoperiodic light. Plants from polythene tunnel and
with the start of forcing in week 50 flowered earlier (week 7) compared to plants from frost-free
glasshouse (week 9).
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Iberis, number: 13
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 32: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves was
measured in the height were the plant branched. This was always in about 3 to 5 cm. There was
no significant influence of lighting and storage. The height of flowers was significant influenced.
Plants exposed to supplementary light stretched the flowers 15 to 17 cm high compared to
photoperiodic light 10 cm high and ambient daylight 8 cm high. The number of buds and flowers
was not influenced by lighting or storage. Only plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and from
outdoors were influenced by storage. Plants developed 2 buds more than all other treatments. That
points out the relevance of vernalization.

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General Value: The plants could not fill the 10 cm pot. The general value was low. Plants under
photoperiodic light, ambient daylight and plants with start of forcing in week 01 scored better
compared to plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light. Best
scored the plants from outdoors with more developed flowers per plant (average 4.8).
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 11 days and the longest 14 days (average 13
days). In former trials, the shelf life was 17 days because of more buds per plant. Iberis
sempervirens ‘Snowflake’ is suitable for living room conditions.
Recommendation for Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’
Potting should be latest week 32. The 8-9 cm pot size is adequate with one plant per pot. Trim
plants after 4 weeks to increase branching. Plants have to be bulked enough with probably up to
more than 40 leaves before cooling starts. Storage can take place in a frost-free glasshouse or
polythene tunnel from week 40 to 50. It is important that plants receive enough vernalization. The
effort for cleaning is zero. Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’ belongs to the Early-Spring Ephemerals:
species reacts day-neutral and flowering only following a cooling treatment. Supplementary light
forces flowering and is able to compensate lack of vernalization. Plants flower until Valentine’s Day
even under ambient daylight.
Michigan State University allocates Iberis sempervirens ‘Snowflake’ and ‘Alexander’s White’ and
others to the Early Spring Ephemerals. Plants flower only following a cooling treatment and
photoperiod does not regulate flowering (day-neutral). The bulking before cooling is a must. The
weeks of vernalization at constant 5°C are recommen ded with at least 8 weeks and the tested
plants flowered after 2 to 3 weeks at 20°C forcing temperatures.
3.1.8
Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’
Amongst its tiny green heart-shaped leaves emerge lots of small dark blue and white flowers that
never quit blooming (Figure 33). The creeping foliage is able to cover o pot quickly. It is a
newcomer in perennial gardens and could also be a new early spring pot plant attractive as a
hanging basket or in arrangements. The species is a Florida native and belongs more to the tropical
regions. According to a perennial prospectus Lindernia belongs to Hardy Zone 8b (-7to - 9°C) and
more. That species has to be protected against frost. Surprising was the performance in shelf life
test. 100% of plants came into flower far before Valentine’s Day except plants from polythene
tunnel and with the start of forcing in week 01. Plants received a little frost in polythene tunnel and

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foliage had to establish again before flowering. The date of flowering was recorded when there
were 3 to 4 open flowers per plant.
Figure 33: week 06, Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’, supplementary light
Duration of forcing: All plants exposed to supplementary light flowered with 3 to 4 open flowers
after 23 days except plants from polythene tunnel and start forcing in week 01. They flowered after
40 to 60 days. Plants exposed to ambient daylight flowered after 40 days. Plants with the start of
forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary and photoperiodic light flowered in week 1
(Figure 34). Plants exposed to ambient daylight and plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and
only from frost-free glasshouse flowered in week 4 compared to plants from polythene tunnel (week
9 and week 7).

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1
4
7
9
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Lindernia, number: 14
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 34: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The flowers occur at the end of
foliage. The measured height for leaves and height of flowers is the same. Plants exposed to
supplementary light and start of forcing in week 50 were longer (11-12 cm) compared to plants
exposed to supplementary light and start of forcing in week 01 (7- 9 cm) and plants exposed to
photoperiodic light (9-10 cm).
General Value: The plants could not fill the 10 cm pot. Plants were not branched enough. The
general value was low. Plants from frost-free glasshouse scored best (average 4.8).
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 38 days and the longest 47 days (average 43
days). That is amazing. All buds opened up and the plants were covered with flowers. Lindernia
loves the higher temperatures. Lindernia is absolutely suitable for living room conditions.
Recommendation for Lindernia ‘Grandiflora’
Cuttings root in about three weeks. Potting should be earlier than week 31 to allow trimming that
plants branch better and fill 9 cm pots. Alternatively, start with 2 to 3 cuttings in a 10 to 11 cm pot.
Lindernia seems to be a plant, which flowers regardless of cooling and photoperiod. There is more
dependence on temperatures. The effort for cleaning is low. At forcing temperatures at 12°C (after
a time of frost-free storage), flowers appear after 3 weeks.

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3.1.9
Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’
That species could have a great future under the new early pot plants. The species is a little shrub
and performs like a little Bonsai ready for selling until Valentine’s Day (Figures 35 and 36). The
small leaves are white and green and the flowers remind on lots of pink and white Stars. The name
in German for the species Serissa foetida is Baum der 1000 Sterne (tree of 1000 stars) or
Junischnee (snow in June). This species is sold as a Bonsai. 100% of plants came into flower until
end of rating except plants from polythene tunnel and with the start of forcing in week 01 at 9°C.
Serissa is not hardy to frost and prefers warmer temperatures. The date of flowering was recorded
when one flower was open per pot.
Figure 35 and Figure 36: week 05 left and week 08 right; Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’;
supplementary light
Duration of forcing: The 100% flowering was received over a longer period of weeks. The storage
had significant influence. Plants exposed to supplementary light and photoperiodic light and from
frost-free glasshouse flowered about 1 week earlier than plants from polythene tunnel. Plants
exposed to ambient daylight react the other way round that plants were 1 week earlier from
polythene tunnel than plants from frost-free glasshouse. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50
and exposed to supplementary light flowered until Valentine’s Day in weeks 6 to 7 (Figure 37).
Plants exposed to photoperiodic and ambient daylight flowered in weeks 6 to 8and 6 to 9. Plants
with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to supplementary light flowered in week 9 to 10.
Only plants from polythene tunnel and exposed to supplementary light at 9°C did not flower until the
end of rating. That’s why the curve stops at 50%.

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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Serissa foetida, number: 20
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 37: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers: The height of leaves and flowers was not influenced by lighting
and storage.
General Value: The plants could not fill the 10 cm pot. The average was about 6. With a suitable
pot size and the knowledge that all buds will open up in shelf life the Serissa could have scored
much better.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 19 days and the longest 24 days (average 22
days).
Serissa loves the higher temperatures. Serissa is absolutely suitable for living room
conditions.
Recommendation for Serissa foetida ‘Pink Mystic’
Cuttings root in about three weeks. Potting should be latest week 31 in a 9 cm pot. Plants develop
branches without trimming. The effort for cleaning is zero. The duration of forcing until flowering
depends on amount of light and temperatures. Flowering is possible before Valentine’s Day at 12°C
and with the start of forcing in week 50.
3.1.10
Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’
This pink flowering plant is actually a recommendable early spring pot plant (Pillnitz trial 2002/2003;
Figure 40). However, this year the data were too low to allow an evaluation. The reasons were the

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late potting date and the lack of vernalization until week 50 (Figures 38 and 39). Plants with the
start of forcing in week 01 received three weeks more vernalization until forcing and the flower
stems stretched under supplementary light. However, the number of flowers per plant was still too
low.
Figure 38 and Figure 39: week 09; Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’; supplementary light 12°C left:
start of forcing in week 50, right: start of forcing in week 01 and plants from outdoor
Figure 40: 2003; week 10; Erinus alpinus ‘Dr. Hähnle’; supplementary light at 10°C

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3.1.11
Barbarea rupicola ‘Sunnyola’
This species failed this year because the general value scored low. The flowers are very nice
compared to the dark leaves rosettes. However, the flowers stretched not enough above the leaves
to make this species marketable. The period for vernalization was not long enough during this
extreme mild autumn and winter even until week 01 when the second set of forcing started. There
was a sign that flowers stretched a bit higher with the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to
supplementary light than plants with the start of forcing in week 50. There has to be more testing
about vernalization. Barbarea rupicola ‘Sunnyola’ needs a longer period with temperatures about
5°C. This species should be tested in cooling chamb ers.
3.2
PGR Trial
During this year trial 13 species were tested on reaction to growth regulators treatments. The both
Lychnis failed right from the start. Flower stems did not stretch because of the missing vernalization
until week 50. The table (Table 9) gives an overview about the inhibition effects of growth regulators
on tested species. Then the tested 11 species will be extra explained. At first will the untreated
species reaction be mentioned and then the results to its reaction of growth regulators treatments.
Table 9: Early spring pot plants and their reaction to Topflor und Cycocel 720
number
species/variety
Topflor
Cycocel 720
15
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
++
+
24
Phlox divaricata
++
+
26
Phlox divaricata (Abvermehrung Pillnitz)
++
+
F01
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’
+
+
F02
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’
+
0
F09
Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’
+
+
F13
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
++
+
F16
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’
0
+
F18
Horminum pyrenaicum
0
+
F19
Lychnis alpina
F20
Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’
lack of vernalization
no flowers
F21
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’
+
+
F22
Papaver nudicaule ’Gartenzwerg’
0
0
F23
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’
+
++
0 = no reaction, + = less inhibition effect, ++ = strong inhibition effect

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3.2.1
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’
Species performed very well in this year trial again. The single flower has white colour at the top
and purple colour on the underside of the flower petals (Figure 41). 100% of plants came into
flowering. The data of flowering was recorded when there were three open flowers per plant.
Figure 41: week 07; Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’; supplementary light
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’ and no growth regulator treatment:
Duration of forcing:
The supplementary light forces the duration of forcing compared to
photoperiodic and ambient daylight. Storage had no influence. Plants with the start of forcing in
week 01 at 12°C were the fastest with an average of 49 days compared to plants with start of
forcing in week 01 at 9°C and plants with start of forcing in week 50 with an average of 55 days.
Plants exposed to photoperiodic light were 2 weeks earlier then plants exposed to ambient daylight.
The flower was earlier then expected this year because the sum of temperatures and the sum of
light were larger until Valentine’s Day than in former trials. It is not clear how far Anacyclus depends
on vernalization. Important seems to be the correlation of temperatures and light level. Plants
exposed to supplementary light and with the start of forcing in week 50 at 12°C flowered before
Valentine’s Day in weeks 5 to 6 (Figure 42).

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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus, number: F 01
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 42: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The flowers occur at the end of
foliage. The measured height for leaves and height of flowers were the same. All plants were about
the same height (better long- foliage spreads to the side) about 14 cm. There were two exceptions.
Photoperiodic light stretched the plants more than other lighting (22 cm) and plants from the start of
forcing in week 01 and from outdoors were about 17 cm. The number of buds and flowers was not
influenced by lighting except plants in glasshouse compartment H 11.2 (20-80klxh) had in average
2 to 3 buds more than the others but this seems to be more accidentally. The storage had influence
on plants exposed to ambient daylight and photoperiodic light. Plants from polythene tunnel had in
average 2 buds more then plants from frost-free glasshouse. It is not sure whether there is a
correlation to vernalization. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and from outdoor developed
less buds because the low temperatures were disadvantageous for development.
General Value: The best scored plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and supplementary light
(6-7) compared to all other. The lowest scored plants exposed to photoperiodic light and plants with
the start of forcing in week 01 and from outdoors because of the long stretched foliage.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 14 days and the longest 26 days (average 22
days). Anacyclus is suitable for living room conditions.

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Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’ and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves = Height of flowers: Topflor and CCC 720 had influence with lower application
rates (supplementary light). Plants were in average 2 to 3 cm shorter than untreated plants and
plants treated with the higher application rate. Plants exposed to ambient daylight were more
influenced by the higher application rates and were 2 cm shorter then untreated plants. Plants
exposed to photoperiodic light were 5 cm shorter (17 cm) in all growth regulators treatments than
untreated plants (22 cm).
Duration of forcing: no influence
Number of buds and flowers: no influence
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus ‘Silberkissen’
Potting should be latest week 36 to allow the good covering with foliage before storage. The
necessity of vernalization during storage is not clear. However, with the start of forcing in week 50
at 12°C and supplementary light the plants will flo wer before Valentine’s Day. The effort for
cleaning is middle. Photoperiodic and ambient daylight will be later in flower. Growth regulator can
be useful in combination with photoperiodic light.
3.2.2
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’
This species appears with short rosettes of leaves and flowers with many white flowers (Figure 43)
like Gypsophila (baby’s breath). Especially in arrangements, Androsace performs very well.
Androsace is becoming a little more popular than an early spring pot plant. Growers start to
discover Androsace as a simple growing crop. The date of flowering was recorded when three open
flowers were presented on a flower stem.

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Figure 43: week 03; Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’; supplementary light
Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’ and no growth regulator treatments:
100% of plants came into flowering. There was an appearance of buckled flower stems the first
time. The reason for that appearance is not clear.
Duration of forcing: Plants exposed to supplementary light were 5 to 7 weeks earlier than plants
exposed to photoperiodic and ambient daylight. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 at 12°C
(supplementary light) and from outdoors were the fastest in forcing with 23 days, one week faster
than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 (30 days). Plants from polythene tunnel were always
1 to 2 weeks earlier than plants from frost-free glasshouses. More difference in storage was under
ambient daylight and photoperiodic light. Plants from polythene tunnel were 2 to 3 weeks earlier
than plants from frost-free glasshouse. Plants with the starts of forcing in week 50 and week 01
flowered before Valentine’s Day (Figure 44). The photoperiodic and ambient daylight flowered over
a long period of time and late this year because of missing vernalization. That points out the must of
vernalization.

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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Androsace septentrionalis, number: F 02
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 44: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: There was not a mentionable
influence on height of leaves but on height of flowers through lighting or storage. Flowers of plants
with start of forcing in week 01 and from outdoor (only tested) stretched 3 to 4 cm higher (23 cm)
than flowers with the start of forcing in week 50 (19 cm) and 4 to 5 cm higher than flowers exposed
to photoperiodic and ambient daylight (17 cm) . Plants from polythene tunnel stretched the flowers
higher than plants from frost-free glasshouse. The more vernalization the more the flowers
stretched above the leaves. Androsace develops a whole bunch of buds. This year was one single
plant potted per pot. It was surprising that this little rosette was able to fill the 10 cm pot during
autumn. However, one rosette develops one main flower in the middle of the plant, which stretches
first. That’s why this year we often counted only 1 to 2 flowers. The buds were not measured.
General Value: Plants exposed to supplementary light scored better (6 to 7) than plants exposed to
photoperiodic light and ambient daylight (5 to 6). These are lower scores than the years before
because of the one rosette with its single stretched flower stem. It was hard for flowers and buds to
stretch above the leaves especially under photoperiodic light and ambient daylight because of the
less vernalization during storage. The storage had no influence on general value.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 23 days and the longest 23 days (average 23
days). Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’ is suitable for living room conditions.

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Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’ and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves: no influence
Height of flowers: Flowers of plants treated with Topflor were 2cm shorter than untreated plants
(Figure 45). The influence of CCC 720 was not significant.
Figure 45: week 05; Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’ from left to right: untreated, 2x
Topflor, 4x Topflor
Duration of forcing: Plants treated with Topflor (2 times and 4 times) had almost one week delay in
flowering.
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Androsace septentrionalis ‘Star Dust’
Sowing should be weeks 29 to 31 and potting week 32 to 33 to allow the good covering with foliage
before storage. Three plants (seedlings) per pot perform a better flowering until Valentine’s Day. 9
to 10 cm pot size is adequate. Use liquid fertilizer. Fertilizing should be in the lower level and not
above 200mg N per plant. If the vernalization is enough during storage, plants are able to flower
until Valentine’s Day even under ambient daylight (start of forcing in week 50 at 12°C). Flowering
will be earlier and uniform under supplementary light. Supplementary light is able to compensate
the lack of vernalization. The effort for cleaning is almost zero. The growth regulator Topflor was
effectual on the height of flowers but plants flowered with delay.

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3.2.3
Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’
This year trial tested only the white colour of this series. The species performs very pretty with the
double filled flowers (Figures 46 and 47) and is suitable as a background plant in spring
arrangements. 100% of plants came into flowering except three plants exposed to ambient daylight.
The flower stem could not stretch because of lack of vernalization. The date of flowering was
recorded with one opening bud on a flower stem.
Figure 46 and Figure 47: week 05; Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’;
supplementary light Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’ and no growth regulator
treatments
Duration of forcing: Plants exposed to supplementary light were 4 to 5 weeks earlier in flowering
than plants exposed to photoperiodic light and 8 to 9 weeks earlier than plants exposed to ambient
daylight. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 (20h-3000lx) were one week earlier than plants
exposed to 80klxh. Plants from frost-free glasshouse were one week earlier than plants from
polythene tunnel. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and supplementary light flowered in
weeks 4 to 6 before Valentine’s Day (Figure 48).

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4
5
6
8
9
10
13
14
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Aquilegia vulgaris, number: F 09
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 48: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers: Plants exposed to supplementary and photoperiodic light were
higher in leaves than plants exposed to ambient daylight. Storage had no influence on height of
leaves. Plants from start forcing in week 01 and from outdoor (only tested) stretched highest with 30
cm. All other plants were shorter about 25 cm and the plants exposed to ambient daylight were the
shortest in flower with about 13 cm. The flowers could not stretch enough because of lack of
vernalization. Supplementary light and photoperiodic light compensates this lack of vernalization.
Storage had not a mentionable influence on height of flowers. The measured flowers and buds
were actually flower stems. One flower stem developed many more flowers (Figure 47). There were
always one flower stem and some times a second flower stem visible.
General Value: Plants exposed to supplementary light and photoperiodic light scored better (6 to 7)
than plants exposed to ambient daylight (4 to 6). Plants from frost-free glasshouse scored better
than plants from polythene tunnel. The reason is again the missing vernalization that plants could
not stretch the flower stems above the leaves.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 19 days and the longest 26 days (average 20
days). Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’ is suitable for living room conditions.

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Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’ and growth regulator treatments:
There were only the higher application rates in testing.
Height of leaves: Topflor (2x) and CCC 720 (2x) had a little influence on height of leaves. Plants
were about 2 cm shorter than untreated plants.
Height of flowers: Plants treated with CCC (2x) were about 3 cm shorter than the untreated plants.
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Aquilegia vulgaris ‘Winky Double White-White’
Potting should be latest week 36 better earlier to get the chance of good bulking before
vernalization and to improve the flowering. The 10 cm pot is adequate. The vernalization is a must
before forcing and with forcing under ambient daylight. Supplementary and photoperiodic light can
compensate the lack of vernalization. The effort for cleaning is high. With start of forcing in week 50
and under supplementary light plants will flower before Valentine’s Day.
The test with growth regulators was not so conclusive this year to give a recommendation on it.
3.2.4
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
This species has a more creeping than upright growth. The flowers are like little daisies and are
white and pink coloured (Figure 49). The date of flowering was recorded when three open flowers
were presented on a plant. This chapter evaluates only the trimmed Erigeron karvinskianus
‘Stallone’ (F13 gest) because the untrimmed scored to low general values.
Figure 49: week 06; Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’; supplementary light and no growth
regulator treatment

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Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: 100% of plants came into flowering. Plants exposed to supplementary light and
with start of forcing in week 50 flowered in weeks 4 to 5 before Valentine’s Day (Figure 50). Plants
exposed to photoperiodic light flowered three weeks later and plants exposed to ambient daylight
flowered 5 weeks later. The plants with the start of forcing in week 01 had to establish themselves
especially plants from outdoor (received frost) and had a delay in flowering. Plants exposed to
photoperiodic light and ambient daylight and with the start of forcing in week 50 had significance in
storage. Plants from polythene tunnel were 1 week earlier than plants from frost-free glasshouse.
During the last year trial 2005/2006 the plants exposed to supplementary light were 2 weeks later in
flowering and only plants from polythene tunnel could reach the Valentine’s Day. The reason for the
earlier flowering is the earlier start of forcing during this year trial and the larger sum of light and
temperatures over the period of time. Vernalization seems to have an influence on Erigeron
karvinskianus ‘Stallone’.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Erigeron karvinskianus gestutzt, number: F 13 gest
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 50: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers: The flowers occurred at the end of branches so that the height
of leaves was similar the height of flowers. Plants were about the same height (better long in
branches and flower) 18 to 20 cm excepted plants with the start of forcing in week 50 under 80 klxh
and under photoperiodic light were 5 to 7 cm longer stretched especially through plants from frost-
free glasshouse.

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General Value: All plants with the start of forcing in week 50 scored higher (6 to 7) than plants with
the start of forcing in week 01. The longer period of lower temperatures was not advantageous for
foliage. Plants perform much better when they are kept in a frost-free glasshouse.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 25 days and the longest 32 days (average 29
days). Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ is absolutly suitable for living room conditions.
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ and growth regulator treatments:
This species reacts on growth regulator treatments in all application rates.
Height of leaves = Height of flowers: Plants treated with Topflor were 8 to 9 cm shorter than
untreated plants and plants treated with CCC 720 were 6 to 8 cm shorter than untreated plants
(Figures 51 and 52).
Figure 51: week 05; Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ left to right: 2x Topflor, 4x Topflor; 2x
CCC 720, 4x CCC 720

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Figure 52: week 05; Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ left to right: untreated, 2x Topflor; 4x
Topflor
Duration of forcing: Plants treated with the higher application rate (2 x Topflor and 2 x CCC 720)
had in average one week delay in flowering compared to the untreated plants. Plants treated with
the lower application rates (4 x Topflor and 4x CCC 720) had two weeks delay in flowering
compared to the untreated plants.
General Value: The application of growth regulators improved the general value compared to
untreated plants.
Recommendation for Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’
Potting should be latest week 36. Trimming is necessary for better performance. It is better to keep
Erigeron karvinskianus ‘Stallone’ in a frost-free glasshouse. Frost damages the leaves too much.
The need of vernalization is not clear but seems to be advantageously. The effort for cleaning is
low. Start forcing in week 50 at 10°C to 12°C and e xpose plants to supplementary light and the
plants will flower before Valentine’s Day. The application of growth regulators (Topflor; CCC 720) is
recommendable. Plants stay more compact.
3.2.5
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’
This species has striking orange coloured flowers (Figure 53). The species is both attractive as a
single plant and in arrangements. At the end of trial 2005/2006 was recommended that it is better
to pot plants earlier to reach a higher flowering percentage. However, plants were potted 6 weeks
earlier than last year and there were still a lot of plants, which looked well in foliage but developed
no flowers. That raises questions. There was always one single plant per pot, which branched in

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autumn into many side branches at the bottom of the plant. Is there an exact number of leaves per
branches necessary so that the plants are able to induce flowers? The vernalization can be an
important reason. Plants received not enough vernalization during storage in both years.
Supplementary light is able to compensate the lack of vernalization but not to all plants. Plants
under supplementary light had a higher flowering percentage. Plants with start of forcing in week
01, exposed to supplementary light and from polythene tunnel and outdoors flowered with 100%.
The date of flowering was recorded when there was one open flower per plant.
Figure 53: week 02; Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’; supplementary light; polythene tunnel
Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’ and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: Plants exposed to supplementary light flowered in average after 31 days. Plants
with start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light flowered in weeks 2 to 4 and
with start of forcing in week 01 in weeks 4 to 5 before Valentine’s Day. Plants exposed to
photoperiodic light and ambient daylight flowered over a long period. Only some plants flowered
before Valentine’s Day (Figure 54).

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11
12
13
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Geum coccineum, number: F 16
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 54: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: Plants exposed to
supplementary light stretched their leaves 1 to 2 cm higher compared to plants exposed to ambient
daylight and photoperiodic light. The storage had no influence. The height of flowers was about the
same with 18 cm except plants exposed to ambient daylight with about 5 cm shorter flowers.
Storage had no influence. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 had in average 2 to 5 buds
more per plant than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary ,
photoperiodic and ambient daylight. Especially plants with start of forcing week 01 and 9°C and
from polythene tunnel (only tested storage in H 10.2) had the most flowers and buds. Plants
developed more buds when they were from polythene tunnel and then exposed to supplementary
light. Supplementary light compensated the lack of vernalization with a better effect on plants from
polythene tunnel. That marks the must of vernalization.
General Value: Plants exposed to supplementary light scored better (6 to 7) than plants exposed to
ambient and photoperiodic light (5 To 6). Storage was only significant in the glasshouse H 11.1.
Plants from polythene tunnel scored better (7) compared to plants from the frost-free glasshouse
(6).
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 11 days and the longest 15 days (average 11
days). Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’ is suitable for living room conditions.

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Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’ and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves: Plants treated with 2 x CCC 720 were in average a little shorter (1 cm) than
untreated plants
Height of flowers: Plants treated 2 times and 4 times with CCC 720 had in average 3 to 4 cm
shorter flower stems than untreated plants. Topflor was not significant (Figure 55).
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Figure 55: week 05; Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’ left to right: 2x Topflor; 4x Topflor; 2x CCC
720; 4 x CCC 720; supplementary light (H 11.1)
Michigan State University tested Geum chiloense ‘Mrs Bradshaw’. This species belongs to the
Early- Spring Ephemerals, it is day-neutral, and vernalization is required. No plants flowered without
vernalization. The only tested vernalization was 15 weeks at 5°C under controlled conditions. The
plants flowered after 8 weeks at 20°C.
Recommendation for Geum coccineum ‘Cooky’
Potting should be not later than week 36. The plant has to be bulked enough before vernalization.
Store the plants at least 10 weeks as cool as possible. Vernalization is a must to be successful
even under ambient daylight before Valentine’s Day. The effort for cleaning is low. Supplementary
light is able to compensate the lack of vernalization. There has to be more testing on growth
regulators to get the flower stems shorter.

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3.2.6
Horminum pyrenaicum
This species occurs with green rosettes of leaves and lovely blue-violet flowers on a flower stem
(Figure 56). This species attracted attention in former trials and tested this year to force the flower
earlier and its reaction on growth regulators treatments. Pre-cultivation was not so sucessful this
year. The rosettes were potted to deep and that forced fungus diseases. Vernalization was not
enough during storage. However, supplementary light was able to compensate the lack of
vernalization and many plants flowered surprisingly before Valentine’s Day. Many plants had no
visible buds at the end of rating. That’s why the curves are under 100% flowering. The species
Horminum pyrenaicum ‘Rubrum’ is more violet coloured flower. There were not enough data
collected this year to give a recommendation for it. The date of flowering was recorded when there
were three open flowers per one flower stem.
Figure 56: week 07; Horminum pyrenaicum ; supplementary light; start of forcing week 01;
outdoor
Horminum pyrenaicum and no growth regulator treatments
Duration of forcing: Plants exposed to supplementary light were 4 to 5 weeks earlier than plants
exposed to photoperiodic light and 7 to 8 weeks earlier than plants exposed to ambient daylight
(Figure 57). Storage had no influence. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 at 12°C were the
fastest with 40 to 43 days compared to the plants exposed to 80 klxh and plants with
supplementary light and start of forcing in week 01 with about 50 days. There is a correlation
between temperature and light. The higher the sum of temperature and light the faster the flowers
occur.

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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Horminum pyrenaicum, number: F 18
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 57: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: There was no mentionable
influence on height of leaves. Plants from ambient daylight were a little (2 cm) shorter than plants
exposed to supplementary light. Storage had no influence. The flowers were definitely higher and
stretched up to 22 cm with the start of forcing in week 01 (outdoor) and supplementary light
compared to plants with the start of forcing in week 50 (14 to 16 cm). More vernalization stretches
the flower stems higher. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to ambient daylight
had the shortest flower stems often sitting between the leaves. Storage had no influence on height
of flowers. In most cases, there was one flower and sometimes one bud visible.
General Value: The plants scored about the same (5 to 6). The lowest general value scored the
plants with start of forcing week 01 at 12°C becaus e the flower stems were too high in correlation to
the small leave rosettes.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 11 days and the longest 22 days (average 14
days). Horminum pyrenaicum is suitable for living room conditions.

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Horminum pyrenaicum and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves: Plants treated with 2 x CCC 720 were 1 to 2 cm shorter than other treatments and
untreated plants.
Height of flowers: There is no influence of growth regulators in average over all glasshouse
compartments. Plants with the start of forcing week 50 and exposed to supplementary light reacted
on Topflor and CCC 720 and were shorter than untreated plants. Because of the lack of
vernalization during storage, it is not possible to get a conclusive result. There has to be more
testing with growth regulators.
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Horminum pyrenaicum
Potting should be week 28 that plants can bulk enough before vernalization. 3 plants per pot are
better for performance and later percentage of flowering. One plant is able to fill a 9 cm pot size;
three plants fill a 12 cm pot size. Vernalization is required. Horminum reacts day –neutral. Good
vernalized plants are able to flower in the middle of March. Vernalization should be at least 10
weeks as cool as possible (5°C). Supplementary light compensates the lack of vernalization and
forces the flowering. The correlation between sum of light and temperature can steer the crop. The
effort for cleaning is middle. With the start of forcing in week 50 at least at 12°C, flowering is
possible before Valentine’s Day. There might be a possibility to shorten the length of flower stems
with growth regulators. There has to be more testing in the future.
3.2.7
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
This species is an eye catcher because of its clear blue coloured flowers (Figures 59 and 60). The
species was in testing over several years. The trial 2005/2006 tested different amounts of depot
fertilizer. The rooting of cutting took a long period during this year Early-Spring trial. The plants
were potted late (week 38) and could not fill the pot size (Figure 58). 100% of plants came into
flowering except some plants exposed to photoperiodic light and from frost-free glasshouse
because the rating finished week 9 in this glasshouse compartment. The data of flowering was
recorded with three open flowers per plant.

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Figure 58: week 50; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’; polythene tunnel
Figure 59: week 08; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
Figure 60: fascinating blue
colour of ‘Lithodora diffusa
‘Heavenly Blue’

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Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’ and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 and supplementary light were 1 week
faster (needed about 52 days) than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to
supplementary light (needed about 62 days). A good vernalization forces the earlier flowering.
Plants with start forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light and from polythene tunnel
reached the Valentine’s Day (Figure 61). Plants exposed to photoperiodic light were almost one
week earlier (flowered weeks 9-10) than plants exposed to ambient daylight (flowered weeks 10 to
11). The storage was significant in glasshouse H 11.2 (80klxh) and H 11.3 (photoperiodic). Plants
from polythene tunnel were one week faster than plants from frost-free glasshouse.
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
14
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Lithodora, number: 15
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 61: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves = Height of flowers: The flowers occur at the end of branches that’s why the height
of leaves and height of flowers are measured in the same height. All plants exposed to
photoperiodic light and supplementary light were higher stretched than plants exposed to ambient
daylight.
Number of branches: Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 were better branched (10 to 11
branches) than plants with the start of forcing in week 50 (8 to 9 branches). Plants with start forcing
in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light were better branched from polythene tunnel than
from the frost-free glasshouse. That marks the importance of vernalization during storage.

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General Value: All plants scored about the same (5 to 6). Only plants exposed to photoperiodic light
scored a little lower (4-5). The plants were slacker in growth. Plants with the start of forcing in week
50 and from polythene tunnel scored better than plants from frost-free glasshouse.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 14 days and the longest 19 days (average 18
days). Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’ is suitable for living room conditions.
Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’ and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves = Height of flowers: The growth regulators treatments had influence on plants
exposed to supplementary and photoperiodic light (Figure 62). Plants treated with Topflor were 2 to
3 cm shorter than untreated plants (Figure 64). Plants treated with CCC 720 were 1 to 2 cm shorter
than untreated plants (Figure 63).The lower application rate was a little more successful with
Topflor and CCC 720 than the higher application rate.
4
x
CCC
2
x
CCC
4
x
Topflor
2
x
Topflor
untreated
pgr
20,0
15,0
10,0
5,0
0,0
Mittelwert hight of flower in cm
species: Lithodora, number: 15
wk 50 / photo /
12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80 klxh
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h / 9
°C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 62: Bar chart of the average of height of flowers in cm; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly
Blue’

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Figure 63: week 07; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’; supplementary light;
left to right: 2x Topflor; 4x Topflor; 2x CCC 720; 4x CCC 720
Figure 64: week 07; Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’; supplementary light;
left to right: untreated; 2x Topflor; 4x Topflor
Duration of forcing: All plants treated with growth regulators had a half to one week delay in
flowering.
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Lithodora diffusa ‘Heavenly Blue’
Potting should be latest week 30 to allow a two times trimming. Plants will be better branched and
fill a 9 to 10 cm pot size. Three rooted cuttings are possible in a 12 cm pot size. The substrate
should be with a lower pH (4.5 to 5.5). In case of lack of iron, which shows yellow intercostal fields,
a special iron fertilizer can eliminate that appearance (Fetrilon 1g/ 10l water). The fertilization
should not be above 200 mg N per plant. The vernalization is a must. Keep Lithodora for 9 to 10
weeks as cool as possible but not under -5°C. Better vernalization forces more branching and
flowering during forcing.
Lithodora is day-neutral. Lithodora reacts on the sum of light and

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temperatures during forcing. The effort for cleaning is zero. With the start forcing in week 50 and
higher temperatures for about 72 hours (wake up at 20°C) and following 12°C and supplementary
light, the plants will flower until Valentine’s Day. It is possible to keep the plants more compact with
growth regulators (Topflor, CCC 720) under supplementary light. Plants exposed to ambient
daylight at 12°C will flower in the middle of March .
3.2.8
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’
This species has light yellow lemon flowers (Figure 65). It is one of the compact growing species of
Papaver and that makes it interesting as an early spring pot plant. It performs well as a single plant
and in arrangements. When flowers are withered, the seed vessels look still interesting. Papaver
requires the long day. All plants flowered except the plants exposed to ambient daylight. The date
of flowering was recorded when there was one opening flower per plant.
Figure 65: week 04; Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’; supplementary light
Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’ and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: All plants exposed to supplementary light (20h-3000lx) at 12°C flowered after
35 days. Plants exposed to 80 klxh at 12°C and plant s exposed to 20h- 3000lx at 9°C had almost
one week delay in flowering. Plants exposed to photoperiodic light flowered with two weeks delay.
Plants exposed to supplementary light flowered before Valentine’s Day (Figure 66). The
photoperiodic light had a longer period to finish the crop and not all plants flowered until Valentine’s
Day. Plants exposed to supplementary light with the start of forcing in week 50 flowered earlier than

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in former trials. That is because of the higher collected sum of temperatures and light until
flowering.
3
4
5
6
7
8
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Papaver miyabeanum, number: F 21
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 66: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: The height of leaves (about 9
cm) and the height of flowers (about 18 cm) were about the same height, except plants exposed to
photoperiodic light. They stretched the leaves 3 cm higher and the flowers 4 cm higher compared to
all others. The number of buds and flowers was about the same except plants exposed to
photoperiodic light. They had in average 2 buds less than all others. The storage had no
mentionable influence on the height of leaves. The plants from polythene tunnel with the start of
forcing in week 50 were 2 cm shorter than plants from frost-free glasshouse.
General Value: All plants scored about 6 to 7 except plants exposed to photoperiodic light scored
in average 5. The plants were slacker in growth under photoperiodic light.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 7 days and the longest 15 days (average 14 days).
The duration of shelf life depended on the number of buds, which were able to open up in shelf life
room. Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’ is suitable for living room conditions.

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Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’ and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves: no influence
Height of flowers: Plants treated with the higher application rate of Topflor were about 3 cm shorter
and treated with CCC 720 about 2 cm shorter than the untreated plants.
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Papaver miyabeanum ‘Pacino’
Potting should be latest week 32 to allow the plants to fill the 10cm pot size. A group of plants in 1
pot could produce a better amount of flowers and buds. It is not sure how important a cooling period
is for Papaver. Keep plants frost-protected. That results in less cleaning. However, the effort for
cleaning is high. Plants exposed to supplementary light at 12°C and with the start of forcing in week
52 at the latest will flower before Valentine’s Day.
3.2.9
Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’
The clear vibrant colours of these species were striking, although single plants were not so
attractive because of the high flower stems above the leaves. However, in arrangements as a
background plant or as a cut flower, the crop could be interesting (Figures 67 and 68). During the
Early Spring trial 2006/2007 this species was tested again especially with the attention on reaction
on growths regulators treatments. Papaver needs the long day. All plants flowered except the
plants exposed to ambient daylight until week 14.

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Figure 67 and Figure 68: left: week 03; Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’; supplementary
light; right: February 2007; Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’ in arrangement at fairy
floriga Leipzig 2007
Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’ and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: Plants exposed to supplementary light (20h-3000lx) at 12°C flowered after 32 to
35 days. Plants exposed to 80klxh at 12°C and plants with 20h-3000lx at 9°C flowered with delay
after 40 days. That demonstrates the correlation between temperatures and light and the duration
of forcing. Plants exposed to photoperiodic light flowered 3 to 4 weeks later and the rating was over
a longer period of time. All plants with supplementary light with the start of forcing week 50 and
week 01 at 12°C flowered completely until Valentine’ s Day (Figure 69). The crop was earlier than
last year because of more light and temperatures until flowering.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Papaver nudicaule, number: F 22
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 69: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves, height of flowers and number of buds and flowers: There was no influence on the
height of leaves. They were all about 14 cm. The plants exposed to photoperiodic light stretched
their flowers 5 to 7 cm higher (~38 cm) than plants exposed to supplementary light (~32 cm). The
storage had no influence. There was influence on the number of buds and flowers. Plants exposed
to photoperiodic light developed about 2 buds less than all others with about 5 to 7 buds.

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General Value: Plants scored about the same (5 to 6) except plants exposed to photoperiodic light
scored 4 to 5 because of the long stretched flower stems.
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 11 days and the longest 15 days (average 13
days). The duration of shelf life depended on the number of buds, which were able to open up in
shelf life room. Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’ is suitable for living room conditions.
Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’ and growth regulator treatments:
There was a hope to keep the flower stems shorter with Topflor or CCC 720 but there was no
consequent reaction during this year trial.
Height of leaves: no influence
Height of flowers: no mentionable influence
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Papaver nudicaule ‘Garden Gnome’
Potting should be latest week 32 that the plants can fill the 10 cm pot size. More plants in a bigger
pot have advantage to more flowering and there is a better correlation between pot size and height
of flowers. The storage is better under frost-free conditions. The need of vernalization is not clear.
Papaver is a long-day plant. There will be no flowering under ambient daylight until week 14. The
effort for cleaning is high. Plants exposed to supplementary light at 12°C and a start of forcing in
week 52 at the latest will flower before Valentine’s Day. There is no recommendation for growth
regulators now.
3.2.10
Phlox divaricata
This species occurs with many sky-blue flowers (Figures 70 and 71). It spreads a sweet spring
smell. This species could be an attractive early spring pot plant. The disadvantage is the height of
flowers. The plants need something to hold on and not to tip over. This species was successful in
former trials. During this year trial was the first testing with growth regulators to shorten the height
of plants. Plants exposed to supplementary light flowered before Valentine’s Day. The number 24
were tiny divided plants propagated in multi cell palettes in week 27 until potting. The number 26
were cuttings from the divided stock plants and were propagated in week 27, too. Plants developed
comparable to the same level and the results were about the same. The following facts associate
both Phlox divaricata (24) and Phlox divaricata (26).

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Figure 70 and Figure 71: week 03, Phlox divaricata (24); supplementary light;
left: 1 plant per pot;
right: 2 plants per pot
Phlox divaricata and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: All pants exposed to supplementary light at 12°C f lowered in average after 38
days. Plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light flowered early
in weeks 3 to 4. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 at 12°C flowered just before Valentine’s
Day in weeks 5 to 7 (Figure 72). Plants with start of forcing week 01 at 9°C had one week delay.
Plants exposed to photoperiodic light flowered in average 2 weeks later than plants exposed to
supplementary light and the rating was over a longer period. Plants exposed to ambient daylight
and only the plants from polythene tunnel were in average 7 weeks later and flowered in weeks 11
to 12 much later than in former trials. Because of the not flowering plants from frost-free
glasshouse, the curve in diagram finishes after 50% in week 14. An explanation for that could be
the lack of vernalization during storage. The supplementary and photoperiodic lighting is able to
compensate this lack of vernalization. There were a couple of plants with no visible buds. These
plants were not bulked enough before storage to induce flowers.

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3
4
5
6
7
8
11
12
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Phlox divaricata orig., number: 24
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 72: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves=height of flowers: The flowers occur at the end of branches that’s why the height
was the same. The plants with the start of forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light
and photoperiodic light were about the same height (~ 32 to 34 cm). Plants with the start of forcing
in week 01 stretched 6 to 8 cm higher (37 to 38cm) than plants with the start of forcing in week 50.
Plants were more vernalized and stretched higher. Plants exposed to ambient daylight with the start
of forcing in week 50 were 15 cm shorter than plants exposed to supplementary light (Figure 73).
Figure 73: week 11, Phlox divaricata (24), ambient daylight from polythene tunnel

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General Value: Plants scored lower than in other years because plants did not have a hold, the
branches tipped over, and there was not enough branching per plant. Plants exposed to ambient
daylight scored better (5 to 6) because of the compact growth than all others (4 to 5).
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 19 days and the longest 24 days (average 19
days). Phlox divaricata is absolutely suitable for living room conditions.
Phlox divaricata and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves = Height of flowers: Plants treated with 2x and 4x Topflor and exposed to
supplementary light were 8 cm shorter in average than untreated plants (Figure 74). Plants treated
with 2x CCC and 4x CCC and exposed to supplementary light were about 4 to 6 cm shorter than
untreated plants. Plants exposed to ambient daylight were not influenced by growth regulations.
4
x
CCC
2
x
CCC
4
x
Topflor
2
x
Topflor
untreated
pgr
40,0
30,0
20,0
10,0
0,0
Mittelwert hight of flower in cm
species: Phlox divaricata orig., number: 24
wk 50 / photo /
12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80 klxh
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h / 9
°C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 74: Bar chart of the average of height of flowers in cm; Phlox divaricata
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Michigan State University tested Phlox divaricata ‘Laphammi’, ‘London Grove’ and ‘May Breeze’.
This species belongs to the Early- Spring Ephemerals, it is day-neutral, and vernalization is
required. The only tested vernalization was 15 weeks at 5°C under controlled conditions. The plants
flowered after 3 weeks at 20°C. The recommendation is a prolonged bulking to overcome juvenility
prior to cooling.

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Recommendation for Phlox divaricata
Potting should be in week 32 at the latest. Make sure plants are well developed (bulked) to fill the
10 cm pot size before vernalization. Three rooted cuttings can fill a 12 cm pot size, perform better
and develop more flowers at the end of crop. The plants with no height control need a holding. The
use of growth regulators like Topflor and CCC 720 is recommendable. However, there has to be
more testing with growth regulators on this species in future. Phlox needs vernalization for at least 9
weeks and as low as possible (about 5 °C). The effo rt for cleaning is low. With the start the forcing
in week 52 at 12°C at the latest and with supplemen tary light the plants will flower before
Valentine’s Day. Plants exposed to ambient daylight will flower at the beginning of March.
3.2.11
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’
This species was recommended as an early spring pot plant in former years 2000 to 2003. The pink
colour of flowers is very pleasing (Figure 75). This species is attractive as a single plant or in spring
arrangements. Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’ reacts day-neutral and requires vernalization. All plants
flowered with 100% except plants exposed to ambient daylight. Plants did not receive enough
vernalization during storage. The date of flowering was recorded when there were three open
flowers per plant.
Figure 75: week 04; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light; 2x CCC 720

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Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’ and no growth regulator treatments:
Duration of forcing: Plants exposed to supplementary light at 12°C flow ered after 44 to 49 days.
The fastest were plants from outdoors followed from plants from polythene tunnel and then frost-
free glasshouse. These plants flowered until Valentine’s Day (
Figure 76).
Plants with the start of
forcing in week 50 and exposed to supplementary light flowered in weeks 4 to 5. Plants exposed to
the 80klxh flowered in average with almost one week delay in weeks 5 to 6. Plants with the start of
forcing in week 01 at 12°c and 20h 3000lx flowered in weeks 5 to 6. Plants with the start of forcing
in week 01 at 9°C (20h-3000lx) had also one week de lay in average and flowered in weeks 6 to 8
and did not all flower until Valentine’s Day. Plants exposed to photoperiodic light flowered in weeks
6 to 9. Therefore plants from polythene tunnel were earlier in weeks 6 to 8 than plants from frost-
free glasshouse in weeks 8 to 9. The better vernalized the earlier the flower.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
week of flowering
100
80
60
40
20
0
KuSumme % flowering plants
species: Silene pendula, number: F 23
wk 50 / photo
/ 12 °C
wk 50 / amb /
12 °C
wk 50 / 80
klxh / 12 °C
wk 50 / 20 h /
12 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
9 °C
wk 01 / 20 h /
12 °C
start / light / temp
Figure 76: Percentage of flowering plants relative to the light treatments used in the trial.
(photoperiodic lighting treatment H 11.3 stopped in week 10)
Height of leaves =Height of flowers: Flowers occurred at the end of branches that’s why the
measured heights are the same. Plants exposed to supplementary light were about the same
height (15 to 16 cm). Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 (20h-3000lx) at 9 and 12°C and
from outdoors were a little shorter (14 to 15 cm). These 1 to 2 cm were important. Plants stood
upright and branches did not tip over. Plants exposed to photoperiodic light stretched about 1 to 2
cm higher than plants exposed to supplementary light. More branches tipped over like the following

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picture shows (Figure 77). Plants exposed to ambient daylight were shorter but developed more a
creeping than the upright appearance (Figure 78).
Figure 77: week 09; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; photoperiodic light
Figure 78: week 09; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; ambient daylight
General Value: Plants exposed to supplementary light scored about the same (6 to 7). Plants with
the start of forcing in week 01 and exposed to supplementary light and from outdoor scored in
average a little better (6.8). Plants were taut in growth and branches did not tip over. Plants
exposed to ambient daylight scored 4 to 5 because of the uneven flowering per plant. Plants

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exposed to photoperiodic light scored all around 4 because the branches of plants tipped over
(Figure 77).
Shelf life test: The shortest time in shelf life was 11 days and the longest 21 days (average 14
days). Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’ is suitable for living room conditions. The bright pink colour of
flowers keeps better under cooler conditions than in the shelf life room.
Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’ and growth regulator treatments:
Height of leaves = Height of flowers: Plants exposed to ambient daylight were not influenced by
growth regulations treatments. The treatment with Topflor was not so successful. Only plants
treated with the higher application rate of Topflor were in average 1 to 2 cm shorter. The 2 x Topflor
was more effective in glasshouses H 11.2 (80klxh) and H 11.3 (photoperiodic) than in glasshouse H
11.1 (20h). Plants exposed to supplementary and photoperiodic light react more effective on CCC
720 (Figures 79 - 81). Plants treated with the higher application rate were 3 to 4 cm shorter and
plants treated with the lower application rate were 2 cm shorter compared to the untreated plants.
Figure 79: week 05; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light;
left to right: 2xTopflor; 4x Topflor; 2x CCC 720, 4x CCC 720
Figure 80: week 05; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light;
left to right: untreated, 2xTopflor; 4x Topflor

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Figure 81: week 05; Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’; supplementary light;
left to right: untreated, 2x CCC 720, 4x CCC 720
Duration of forcing: no influence
General Value: no influence
Recommendation for Silene pendula ‘Lausitz’
Potting should be latest week 31 that plants can bulk well before storage. A 10 cm pot size is
adequate. Silene reacts day-neutral and requires vernalization. Keep the plants for at least 6 weeks
as cool as possible (about 5°C) in a frost-free gla sshouse or in a polythene tunnel. With higher
forcing temperatures, the flowers will be earlier but the plants stretch more and can tip over. In that
case, a growth regulation with CCC 720 is recommendable. The effort for cleaning is middle. Start
forcing at week 50 at 10°C to 12°C and expose plant s to supplementary light, then plants will flower
until Valentine’s Day. Provided the plants are well vernalized and the ambient daylight is in higher
levels in December, January and February the crop can even finish without supplementary light
until Valentine’s Day.
3.2.12
Lychnis alpina and Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’
This pink flowering Lychnis alpina is actually a recommendable early spring pot plant (Pillnitz trial
2002/2003; Figure 84). Lychnis alpine ‘Snow Furry’ has white flowers. However, this year the data
were too insufficient to allow an evaluation. The reason was the lack of vernalization until week 50.
Flowers could not appear or stretch enough above the leaves (Figure 82). Supplementary light
could not compensate this lack of vernalization. Plants with the start of forcing in week 01 received
three weeks more vernalization until forcing and the flower stems stretched under supplementary
light (Figure 83).

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Figure 82: week 05; Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’; left: 2 x supplementary light ; right: 2 x
photoperiodic light; start of forcing in week 50
Figure 83: week 07; Lychnis alpina ‘Snow Furry’; supplementary light at 12 °C from outdoor;
start of forcing in week 01
Figure 84: week 09; Lychnis alpina; supplementary light at 9°C from outdoor; start of forcing
in week 01

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The experiences from former trials and compared to this year trial allows the conclusion that
Lychnis has to be vernalized at least 6 weeks with lower temperatures (about 5°C) before forcing.
Provided the plants are vernalized and plants exposed to supplementary light (20h – 3000lx) at
12°C, Lychnis will flower after 43 to 47 days. Plan ts exposed to supplementary light at 9 to 10°C will
flower after 53 to 55 days. The flower stems stretch higher with raising forcing temperatures. There
are no results concerning reaction on growth regulators.
3.3
Shelf life under living room conditions and frost hardiness test
The shelf life test with the ’new’ early spring pot plants was successful. The minimum requirement
was 7 days and all species stood more days in shelf life test under living room conditions. 14
species reached even above 20 days. The table (Table 10) demonstrates the species, the amount
of tested plants (n) and how many days they stood in shelf life test.
Table 10: Early spring pot plants and their shelf under living room conditions
Species / variety
Shelf life in days
n
Min.
Max.
average
Ajuga pyramidalis 'Metallica Crispa'
5
19
39
31
Ajuga reptans 'Braun Hertz'
5
21
31
27
Ajuga reptans 'Mini Mahagoni'
5
29
29
29
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus 'Silberkissen'
5
14
26
22
Androsace septentrionalis 'Star Dust'
14
23
23
23
Aquilegia hybrida 'Spring Magic Blau-Weiß'
5
15
15
15
Aquilegia hybrida 'Spring Magic Hellrot-Weiß'
5
23
23
23
Aquilegia hybrida 'Spring Magic Weiß'
5
15
26
22
Aquilegia vulgaris 'Winky Double White-White'
15
19
26
20
Arabis ferdinandi 'Old Gold'
5
19
19
19
Barbarea rupicola 'Sunnyola'
5
11
19
17
Calceolaria biflora 'Goldcap'
4
21
31
26
Cymbalaria 'Muralis'
5
24
24
24
Erigeron karvinskianus 'Stallone'
15
25
32
29
Erinus alpinus 'Dr. Hähnle'
5
13
13
13
Erysimum perovskianum 'Goldrush'
5
19
39
28
Geum coccineum 'Cooky'
15
11
15
11
Horminum pyrenaicum
15
11
22
14
Horminum pyrenaicum 'Rubrum'
5
11
19
17
Iberis sempervirens 'Snow Flake'
5
11
14
13
Lindernia 'Grandiflora'
5
38
47
43
Lithodora diffusa 'Heavenly Blue'
5
14
19
18
Lithodora diffusa 'Pete's Favorite'
5
13
13
13

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Species / variety
Shelf life in days
n
Min.
Max.
average
Lychnis alpina
10
10
24
19
Lychnis alpina 'Snow Furry'
15
3
24
13
Papaver miyabeanum 'Pacino'
15
7
15
9
Papaver nudicaule 'Gartenzwerg'
15
11
15
13
Phlox divaricata original
15
19
22
19
Phlox divaricata Abvermehrung
15
19
22
19
Serissa foetida 'Pink Mystic'
5
19
24
22
Silene pendula 'Lausitz'
15
11
21
14
The most tested species are perennials but with the higher forcing temperatures in greenhouse
compartments, the plants are not stabil against frost any more. The next diagram (Figure 85)
explains that plants which came directly to the frost hardiness test came along with + 3 °C and 0 °C
and had no damage. However, plants exposed to - 3 °C and - 6 °C were damaged with the frost
temperatures. Those temperatures simulate the case that flowering plants come directly to outdoor
conditions a short time after buying.
+3 °C
0 °C
-3 °C
-6 °C
Kältebehandlung
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Mittelwert
Gesamteindruck 4 d
nach KB
Gesamteindruck
nach KB
Gesamteindruck vor
KB
Mittelwert – average; Kätebehandlung (KB) = cooling treatment; Gesamteindruck vor KB = general value before
cooling treatment; Gesamteindruck nach KB = general value after cooling treatment; Gesamteindruck 4d nach
KB = general value 4 days after cooling treatment;

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Figure 85: Effect of frost hardiness test on general value of early spring species a short time
after their forcing treatment in greenhouse (29 species/varieties, general value: 1 = very bad
to 9 = perfect)
The following diagram (
Figure 86
) explains the effect of cooling treatments on plants, which came
from shelf life test under living room conditions. That’s why the general value is already in the lower
level before the cooling treatments started. Many species were damaged at +3 °C and 0 °C but
there was more damage at - 3 °C and - 6°C. That wou ld be the situation when plants transferred
from the living room directly into the garden.
+3 °C
0 °C
-3 °C
-6 °C
Kältebehandlung
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Mittelwert
Gesamteindruck
nach ZH + KB + 4 d
Gesamteindruck
nach ZH + KB
Gesamteindruck
Ende ZH
Gesamteindruck
Beginn ZH
Mittelwert – average; Kätebehandlung (KB) = cooling treatment; Gesamteindruck Beginn ZH = general value at
start of shelf life test; Gesamteindruck Ende ZH = general value at the end of shelf life testt; Gesamteindruck
nach ZH + KB = general value after shelf life test and cooling treatment; Gesamteindruck nach ZH + KB + 4d =
general value after shelf life test; cooling treatment and after 4 days
Figure 86: Effect of frost hardiness test on general value of early spring species after shelf
life test under living room conditions (29 species/varieties, general value: 1 = very bad to 9
= perfect)

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The total evaluation involved the average of all tested species. Each species reacts a bit different.
Species, which were tough against cooling treatments a short time after greenhouse:
Barbarea rupicola 'Sunnyola‘
Ajuga pyramidalis 'Metallica Crispa‘
Ajuga reptans 'Braun Hertz‘
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus 'Silberkissen‘
Androsace septentrionalis 'Star Dust‘
Geum coccineum 'Cooky‘
Ajuga reptans 'Mini Mahagoni‘
Aquilegia vulgaris 'Winky Double White-White‘
Calceolaria biflora 'Goldcap'
Species, which were tough against cooling treatments a short time after shelf life test under living
room conditions:
Androsace septentrionalis 'Star Dust‘
Geum coccineum 'Cooky’
4
Consideration of economics
The last calculation for early spring pot plants was made 2003 in Dresden-Pillnitz. It was interesting
to know how higher costs for energy changed the situation for early spring pot plants during this
year trial. The results give growers an idea about the financial benefits of cultivation of early spring
pot plants. The calculations were realized with the help of a database and software for pot plant
production by Arbeitskreis Betriebswirtschaft Hannover e.V. The calculations based on the
production of 1000 pots for sale. For the new economic calculation, the following basic data were
used:
Greenhouse:
1000 m²; single-layer energy screen, 90 % netto area
Marketing charge:
10 %
Costs for transport:
15 %
Payment:
7 Euro per hour
Heating oil:
0.50 Euro/ Liter
Electricity:
0.15 Euro/ kwh
Pot size:
10 cm
Potting:
500 pots per hour, week 32
Moving:
400 pots per hour, week 40
Moving and cleaning:
300 pot per hour, week 50
Burning time of lamps:
forcing periods of 2006/2007
Storage until week 50:
polythene tunnel

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The examples 1 to 3 in table (Table 11) base on the purchase of young plants, which were seed
propagated like Andosace septentrionalis, Papaver nudicaule, Papaver miyabeanum, Silene
pendula, Calceolaria biflora and Lychnis alpine and accepts this year conditions of cultivations.
Except Papaver all species are possible to calculate with ambient day light (example 3).
These species were earlier 2007 than the years before because of the higher forcing temperature
and the lighting treatment started at the same time with higher temperatures at the beginning of
forcing. The 72 hours of higher temperatures were simulated with calculated 15 °C for one week
(week 50). The example 2 with the lighting treatment of 80 klxh per day safes electricity but the
flowering starts one week later than in example 1 and the costs for oil are higher. That is why the
amounts of coverage are about the same. The calculated amount of coverage based on the price of
1 Euro per pot. Plants were sold at wholesaler. There are higher costs through 10 cm pot size. The
costs for marketing charge are high. In 2003 the calculation run with 9 cm pot size and the price of
0,80 Euro (wholesale) realized a much higher amount of coverage (~ 350 Euro). The same amount
of coverage would be possible with a price of 1,20 Euro per 10 cm pot. The example 3 with the
ambient day light makes a higher amount of coverage possible but the selling date is later.
The examples 4 to 6 in table (Table 12) base on the purchase of young plants, which were seed
propagated like Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus, Horminum pyrenaicum, Erinus alpinus. These
species start later with flowering and need more space and lighting during forcing. The amounts of
coverage were realized with 1,20 Euro per pot. The amounts of coverage were not very high with
the supplementary light. However, the supplementary lighting makes the flowering before
Valentine’s Day possible.
The examples 7 to 9 in table (Table 13) base on young plants, which have a higher cost price and
are vegetative propagated like Ajuga reptans, Lithodoa diffusa or seed propagated like Aquilegia
hybrida. The calculated amounts of coverage base on a selling price of 1,30 Euro (wholesale).
These species are special and have to be sold as high value plants for Valentine’s Day.
These are only examples and the growers have to analyse their own conditions in cultivation. The
advantage of supplementary light is the early selling date and the plants flower uniform at the same
time. Whoever has supplementary light installed should use it. There should be always the chance
to sell the ‘news’ with the higher prices. The situation of primroses and pansies is getting even
harder with the higher costs for energy. This year was a testing in selling. A couple of growers with
their own florist tried the ‘new’ species. The reached retail price was in average 2,30 Euro. The
highest price reached the Calceolaria biflora ‘Goldcap’ with 3,25 Euro. The Aquilegia was
successful in selling and reached 2,75 Euro. Androsace was sold with 1,80 Euro to 2,75 Euro.
Some florists loved the Androsace very much for arrangements. Many customers, often from older
generation, were surprised about the early selling date. There was the association to perennials
and their garden. The customers could not imagine that there are new pot plant for the living room.
At this point, the right recommendation and advertising is necessary. However, florists mentioned a
different group of customers, which were lucky to find something new to that early selling date.
These customers accept the ‘news’ as pot plants for indoors.

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Table 11: Economic calculations, examples 1 to 3
examples
1
20 h 3000lx
2
80 klxh
3
ambient daylight
start
week
32
32
32
start of sale
week
3
4
6
end of sale
Week
5
6
9
duration of crop
Weeks
26
27
30
plants/m²
start>end
62>49
62>49
62>49
area netto
m² x days
3318
3465
3906
amount for sale
pots
1000
1000
1000
Selling rate at the market
in %
95
95
95
revenue
950
950
950
oil
litre
499
545
670
oil costs
250
272
335
seeds and plants
seedlings
unit
1050
1050
1050
price
€/unit
0.10
0.10
0.10
costs of seedlings
105
105
105
pots and substrates
size of pots
10 cm
10 cm
10 cm
number of pots
units
1050
1050
1050
costs of pots
32
32
32
amount of substrate
litre
431
431
431
costs of substrate
20
20
20
fertilisation, plant protection
water, fertiliser
(low level)
6
6
6
plant protection
(low level)
8
9
10
lighting
W/m²
50
50
lighted area
20
20
lighting duration
h
1030
840
costs of lighting
155
126
selling
package
units
125
125
125
costs of package
23
23
23
marketing charge
95
95
95
summary of direct costs
692
687
625
manpower
hours
12.1
12.2
12.5
costs of manpower
85
85
71
output without direct costs
258
263
325
- per hour manpower
€/hour
21
22
26
- per area
€/1000 m² x
days
78
76
83
amount of coverage
173
178
238

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Table 12 : Economic calculations, examples 4 to 6
examples
4
20 h 3000lx
5
80 klxh
6
ambient daylight
start
week
32
32
32
start of sale
week
5
6
9
end of sale
Week
7
8
12
duration of crop
Weeks
28
29
33
plants/m²
start>end
62>34
62>34
62>34
area netto
m² x days
4442
4452
5292
amount for sale
pots
1000
1000
1000
Selling rate at the market
in %
95
95
95
revenue
1140
1140
1140
oil
litre
839
903
1083
oil costs
420
451
542
seeds and plants
seedlings
unit
1050
1050
1050
price
€/unit
0.10
0.10
0.10
costs of seedlings
105
105
105
pots and substrates
size of pots
10 cm
10 cm
10 cm
number of pots
units
1050
1050
1050
costs of pots
32
32
32
amount of substrate
litre
431
431
431
costs of substrate
20
20
20
fertilisation, plant protection
water, fertiliser
(low level)
7
7
9
plant protection
(low level)
11
11
13
lighting
W/m²
50
50
lighted area
30
30
lighting duration
h
1277
930
costs of lighting
287
209
selling
package
units
125
125
125
costs of package
23
23
23
marketing charge
114
114
114
summary of direct costs
1018
972
857
manpower
hours
12.6
12.8
13.2
costs of manpower
89
89
93
output without direct costs
122
168
283
- per hour manpower
€/hour
10
13
21
- per area
€/1000 m² x
days
29
38
54
amount of coverage
34
79
190

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Table 13: Economic calculations, examples 7 to 9
examples
7
20 h 3000lx
8
80 klxh
9
ambient daylight
start
week
32
32
32
start of sale
week
3
4
7
end of sale
Week
5
6
10
duration of crop
Weeks
26
27
31
plants/m²
start>end
62>34
62>34
62>34
area netto
m² x days
3822
4032
4872
amount for sale
pots
1000
1000
1000
Selling rate at the market
in %
95
95
95
revenue
1235
1235
1235
oil
litre
713
778
996
oil costs
357
389
498
seeds and plants
seedlings
unit
1050
1050
1050
price
€/unit
0.25
0.25
0.25
costs of seedlings
263
263
263
pots and substrates
size of pots
10 cm
10 cm
10 cm
number of pots
units
1050
1050
1050
costs of pots
32
32
32
amount of substrate
litre
431
431
431
costs of substrate
20
20
20
fertilisation, plant protection
water, fertiliser
(low level)
6
7
8
plant protection
(low level)
10
10
12
lighting
W/m²
50
50
lighted area
30
30
lighting duration
h
1030
840
costs of lighting
232
189
selling
package
units
125
125
125
costs of package
23
23
23
marketing charge
124
124
124
summary of direct costs
1064
1055
997
manpower
hours
12.4
12.5
13.0
costs of manpower
87
88
91
output without direct costs
171
180
256
- per hour manpower
€/hour
14
14
20
- per area
€/1000 m² x
days
45
45
53
amount of coverage
84
92
165

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5
Summary and conclusions
From 34 species/varieties tested during this year early spring trial 2006/2007 in Dresden- Pillnitz 25
species are recommendable for the cultivation as early spring pot plants. The results of the
research project give detailed information about the requirements of successful species like
vernalization and reaction on different lighting treatments.
The selling date Valentine’s Day is attached for most species with supplementary light.
Supplementary lighting advances the crop and improves the quality. Some species like Papaver
and Calceolaria will only flower with photoperiodic or supplementary lighting. The quantity of light
should be at least 80 klxh per day during forcing. But there are species which are able to flower
until Valentine’s Day exposed to photoperiodic light or even ambient daylight (provided the right
precultivation): Ajuga reptans ’Mini Mahagoni’, Androsace septentrionalis ’Star Dust’, Aquilegia
hybrida ’F1 Spring Magic’ series, Erysimum perovskianum ’Goldrush’, Geum coccineum ’Cooky’,
Lindernia ’Grandiflora’, Papaver miyabeanum ’Pacino’ and Phlox divaricata.
The use of growth regulators like Topflor and CCC 720 is possible with the corresponding
application rate. The species react differently on growth regulators. It depends also on the
development of plants and the forcing conditions at the time of application. There are still open
questions about the use of growth regulators in combination treatments and the best time for
applications. That could be optimized in future research work.
Many species need to be enough vernalized before forcing otherwise the flowering is less, flower
stems do not stretch above leaves, the quality degrades and the period of forcing prolongs. High
temperatures during storage in autumn and early winter can become a problem for successful
growing. The early spring trial 2006/2007 in Dresden-Pillnitz and Stockbridge (UK) was strongly
influenced by the high temperatures during storage 2006. Possibly, for the future work on early
spring pot plants could be the controlled storage in climate chambers to satisfy the vernalization.
The cultivation of early spring pot plants can take place between other crops. The pre-cultivation is
possible in outdoor terrain, the storage in frost- free glasshouse or in a polythene tunnel and the
forcing on qualified space starts relatively late in greenhouses after for instance poinsettias. The
required energy for forcing at 10 °C to 12 °C is in an exactable scope.
The changing climate conditions in temperatures and quantity of light from year to year make it
difficult to steer the crop to an exact selling date. However, with adapted temperatures and
supplementary lighting a steering of the crop is possible.

Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
96
HDC Project No 267
The costs for the cultivation of new spring plants rose in the same way like all other crops in
horticulture. The input for energy got higher. The profitability depends on the conditions of each
grower. With the input of supplementary light, the most species flower before Valentine’s Day. The
installed supplementary light is profitable when the use is all year round. The new pot plants for
early season sale can realize a higher prices then primroses and pansies. This is a great chance for
growers. The ‘new’ species will find their way on the market as early pot plants in the future.
The recommended species are ‘new’ as pot plants. The new species have a high aesthetical value
and a good shelf life under living room conditions. Most species are perennials and have natural
frost hardiness. However, with the early start of forcing the species become sensitive to frost. That
is important for selling. It is not recommendable to use the label perennial as an extra bonus for
selling. It is better to present the ‘new’ species as new pot plants for indoor. Anyway, after staying
under warm indoor conditions, the customer can keep the species at a light and cool place and can
transfer the plants with a risk of survival to outdoor conditions at the end of April.
The results of the research program PC 267 assist growers in the U.K and Germany to improve
their economic returns and develop the market for early season sales of pot plants.

Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
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HDC Project No 267
6
Literature
Altmann, A.; Hell, B.; Lolies, F.; Hanke, H.; Hoffmann, U.; Ruttensperger, U. (2007): Results from
actual research programs; Brochure IPM Essen February 2007
Altmann, A.; Losekrug, C. (2005): Fruhjahrsblueher, Alternativen zu Primeln und Violen; Versuche
im Deutschen Gartenbau 2005-012
Brockmann,
M.
(2000):
Alternativkulturen,
Landwirtsschaftskammer Westfalen-Lippe,
Gartenbauzentrum, Reihe: Fachinformationen und Arbeitsunterlagen, Zierpflanzenseminar Mai
2000
Cameron A. and author collective (1996): Firing up perennials; Brochure of Greenhouse Grower
special series 1996
Fausey, B.; Padhye, S.; Runkle, E. and Cameron, A. (2005): Some perennials like it cold;
Greenhouse Grower; article series vernalization: part 1; Oct 2005 S.38
Fausey, B.; Padhye, S.; Runkle, E. and Cameron, A. (2006): Vernalization: Life in the cold;
Greenhouse Grower; article series vernalization: part 2; Jan 2006
Fausey, B.; Padhye, S.; Runkle, E. and Cameron, A. (2006): Day-Neutral Vernalization;
Greenhouse Grower; article series vernalization: part 3 (extra: GG,grower tools online: day neutral
spring-flowering perennials); March 2006
Fausey, B.; Padhye, S.; Runkle, E. and Cameron, A. (2006): Life after Cold; Greenhouse Grower;
article series vernalization: part 4 (extra: GG grower tools online: Life after cold -perennials,
vernalization and long day); May 2006
Fausey, B.; Padhye, S.; Runkle, E. and Cameron, A. (2006): Improving Flowering; Greenhouse
Grower; article series vernalization: part 5; June 2006
Freyberg, C. (2007): Stauden als Top – Zierpflanzen; DEGA 17/2007; S. 14 – 15
Hell, B. (2004): Aquilegia Hybrida Spring Magic-Duengung, Versuche im Deutschen Gartenbau
2004-025
Hell, B. (2005): Fruhjahrsbluher Stauden-Kaltebedurfnis,
Versuche im Deutschen Gartenbau
2005-093

Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
98
HDC Project No 267
Hell, B. (2004): Lithodora diffusa ‘Blue Bird’ – Kaltebeduerfnis, Versuche im Deutschen Gartenbau
2004-094
Hell, B. (2007): Ein Frühjahrsblüher in duftigem Weiß: Androsace; Gärtnerbörse 5/2007 S. 20-23
Hell, B. (2007): Frühlingserwachen- Technical seminar; documents; seminar Ahlem: 07 March 2007
Hoffmann, U. (2003): Roduktionsentwicklung alternativer Frühjahrsblüher; Technical report F/E-
project LfL 2000-2003
Hoffmann, U. (2006): "New" ornamental plant for early season sale; Technical report HDC project
No PC 247 2006
Kuhn, J. (2000): Fruehjahrsbluhende Topfstauden, Lohnender als Violen, DeGa 30/2000, S. 15-19.
Ruttensperger, U.; Koch, R. (2003): Topfstauden Sorten-Kulturverfahren. Versuche im Deutschen
Gartenbau 2003-011
Schmitt, B. (2004): Papaver nudicaule zum Schnitt, Bayrische Landesanstalt für Weinbau und
Gartenbau, Versuchsergebnisse 2004/2005
Schmitt, B. (2004): Schnittblumen aus Frankreich - Comtpoir paulinois-Spezialist fur Ranunkeln
und Anemonen (Poppy ‘Bussana’),
Bayrische Landesanstalt fuer Weinbau und Gartenbau,
Versuchsergebnisse 2004/2005
Schramm, B and Wartenburg, S. (2004): Fruehjahrsblueher, Zusatzlicht, Temperatur, Versuche
im Deutschen Gartenbau 2004

Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
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Appendices
Appendix 1
Content of the annex on DVD:
Data files
sheets
contents
UKprojektdatenEndboni020407.xls
3……….F23
data of single varieties
UKDatenEndboni020407.xls
all data
combined data of all varieties
with pgr
Overview of the number of
plants and average values for
all variants of the species with
pgr treatments
Bigtable06-07PC267.xls
no pgr
Overview of the number of
plants and average values for
all variants of the species
without pgr treatments
Fruehjahr.ab3
ULEAD PhotoImpact album of
all picture with the option of
automatic search (needs special
ULEAD software)
Diag2
diagram: amount of light in klxh
evaluations
Light summaries of the different
treatments in klxh
burning time lamps
greenhouse compartments and
the real burning time of lamps
per day
Diag mol m²
diagram: sum of PAR mol/m²
LightUKPC267.xls
mol m²
data
temp storage
temperature during storage
temp humidity
temperature and air humidity
during forcing period
average temp per day
real average temperature during
forcing period
TemperaturesUKPC267.xls
wm
accumulated heating energy per
glasshouse in MWh
Stockbridge170507.ppt
Powerpoint presentation from
the meeting at stockbridge, May
17
th
2007
Report PC 267.doc
this technical report as pdf file

Appendix 2: Germination and Cropping Details Early Spring Trial 2006/2007
Nr.
UK
No
species
variety
source amount
prop-
week
saw-
wee
k
germ-
date
pr-date
pr-
week
pr-
amount
po-date
po-
week
po-
amount
trimm
-week
3
Ajuga pyramidalis
’Metallica Crispa'
Jal
100
27
31
31
99
4
Ajuga reptans
’Braun Hertz'
Jal
100
27
31
31
112
5
1
Ajuga reptans
’Mini Mahagoni'
Jal
500
27
34
34
539
6
Arabis ferdinandi
’Coburgii Variegata'
Jal
115
27
34
34
94
7
2
Arabis ferdinandi
’Old Gold'
Jal
100
27
34
34
84
10
3
Cymbalaria
’Muralis'
Jal
100
27
34
34
99
45
13
4
Iberis
’Snow Flake'
Jal
500
27
12.9.06
37
486
45
14
5
Lindernia
’Grandiflora'
Jal
100
27
31
31
114
15
6
Lithodora
’Heavenly Blue'
Jal
500
27
20.9.06
38
427
45
16
Lithodora
’Pete's Favorite'
Jal
100
27
20.9.06
38
50
45
20
7
Serissa foetida
’Pink Mystic'
Jal
100
27
31
31
99
F 01
14
Anacyclus pyrethrum var.
depressus
’Silberkissen'
Je
2 g
29
27.7.06
1.8.06
31
770
4.9.06
36
763
F 02
12
Andosace septentrionalis
‘Star Dust'
LfL
29
27.7.06
4.8.06
31
770
4.9.06
36
760
F 03
18
Aquilegia hybrida
‘Spring Magic Blau-Weiß'
Be
1000 K
29
31.7.06 15.8.06
33
616
12.9.06
37
598
F 04
Aquilegia hybrida
’Spring Magic Hellrot-Gelb'
Be
1000
29
31.7.06 16.8.06
33
770
5.9.06
36
756
F 05
Aquilegia hybrida
’Spring Magic Hellrot-Weiß'
Be
1000
29
31.7.06 14.8.06
33
770
5.9.06
36
765
F 06
Aquilegia hybrida
’Spring Magic Marine-Weiß'
Be
1000
29
28.7.06 10.8.06
32
770
5.9.06
36
762
F 07
Aquilegia hybrida
’Spring Magic Rosa-Weiß'
Be
1000
29
31.7.06 15.8.06
33
770
11.9.06
37
765
F 08
Aquilegia hybrida
’Spring Magic Weiß'
Be
1000
29
31.7.06 15.8.06
33
770
11.9.06
37
763
F 09
11
Aquilegia vulgaris
’Winky Double White-White'
Kieft
300 K
29
27.7.06 16.8.06
33
231
11.9.06
37
239
F 11
8
Barbarea rupicola
’Sunnyola'
Kieft
1500 K
29
31.7.06 14.8.06
33
616
5.9.06
36
616
F 12
Calceolaria biflora
’Goldcup'
Kieft
2000 K
29
27.7.06 16.8.06
33
770
11.9.06
37
766
F 13
10
Erigeron karvinskianus
’Stallone'
Kieft
2000 K
29
27.7.06 15.8.06
33
770
5.9.06
36
763
45
F 14
Erinus alpinus
’Dr. Hähnle'
Je
1 g
29
28.7.06 14.8.06
33
770
12.9.06
37
620
F 15
9
Erysimum perovskianum
’Goldrush'
Kieft
2000 K
29
27.7.06
1.8.06
31
770
4.9.06
36
747
F 16
17
Geum coccineum
’Cooky'
Be
1000 K
29
28.7.06 16.8.06
33
616
5.9.06
36
591
F 17
15
Horminum pyrenaicum
’Rubrum'
Je
1 g
29
28.7.06 16.8.06
33
308
12.9.06
37
314
F 18
Horminum pyrenaicum
Je
1 g
29
28.7.06 16.8.06
33
770
11.9.06
37
752
F 19
Lychnis alpina
Je
1 g
29
27.7.06 15.8.06
33
770
12.9.06
37
695

Nr.
UK
No
species
variety
source amount
prop-
week
saw-
wee
k
germ-
date
pr-date
pr-
week
pr-
amount
po-date
po-
week
po-
amount
trimm
-week
F 20
16
Lychnis alpina
’Snow Furry'
Je
1 g
29
28.7.06 11.8.06
32
770
12.9.06
37
714
F 21
19
Papaver miyabeanum
’Pacino'
Be
0,5 g
29
31.7.06 16.8.06
33
770
12.9.06
37
709
F 22
20
Papaver nudicaule
’Gartenzwerg'
Be
0,5 g
29
27.7.06
8.8.06
32
770
4.9.06
36
733
F 23
13
Silene pendula
LfL
29
27.7.06
1.8.06
31
770
4.9.06
36
736
24
21
Phlox divaricata original
bGD
400
27
432
5.9.06
36
408
45
26
21
Phlox divaricata propagation
bGD
400
27
415
5.9.06
36
486
25
Ajuga reptans Eigenv.
’Mini Mahagoni'
LfL
35
20.9.06
38
598

Impressum
Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft / Saxon State Institute for Agriculture
Fachbereich Gartenbau / Division of Horticulture Dresden-Pillnitz
Projektleiter / project leader: Stephan Wartenberg
Projektbearbeiterin / project worker: Ute Hoffmann
Fotodokumentation / photo documentation: Margret Dallmann
Söbrigener Str. 3a
01326 Dresden
Germany
phone: +49-351/2612-700
fax: +49-351/2612-704
e-mail: stephan.wartenberg@smul.sachsen.de
Redaktionsschluss / editorial deadline:
30.06.07