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Die Verfüllung von Kiesgruben und Steinbrüchen-
Anhaltspunkt für das Vorliegen einer schädlichen Bodenveränderung?
Notwendigkeit der Qualifizierung der Überwachung
beim Einbau mineralischer Abfälle in Steine-Erden-Tagebauen
4. Sächsisch-Thüringische Bodenschutztage 16. / 17. Juni 2011 Chemnitz

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 2
(1) Rückblick
(2) Wo stehen wir heute
(3) Wo wollen wir hin
(4) Welche Defizite bleiben aus heutiger Sicht

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 3
2001 - Sächsische Bodenschutztage in Dresden
Die Zusammenarbeit von Berg- und Bodenschutzfachbehörden beim Vollzug des Abfall-, Berg-
und Bodenschutzrechtes für die Wiedernutzbarmachung von Bergbauflächen
Kontrollumfang und –inhalt der Überwachung zur Abfallverwertung in Bergbaubetrieben
Kontrollumfang
Kontrollinhalt
Abfallarten
Betriebsplangemäße Zulässigkeit der Ablagerung
bergbaufremder Abfallarten
Annahmekontrolle
Inhaltliche Vollständigkeit der Herkunftsnachweise
Personell abgesicherte Annahmekontrolle insbes. am Ort der Verkippung
Möglichkeiten der nachträglichen Sortierung geringfügig mit unzulässigen
Abfallarten vermischter Abfälle
Kennzeichnung
der Ablagerungsstellen
Vorhandensein eines Kippstellenrasters im Wiedernutzbarmachungsbereich
Risswerkmäßige Erfassung des Bereiches der Abfallverwertung, einschließ-
lich Zuordnung der angelieferten Abfälle
Probenahme für Eigenkontrolle/
Fremdüberwachung,
einschließlich Unterlagen
zum Nachweis der
chemischen Qualität des Abfalls
Vorhandensein und Informationsgehalt der Deklarationsanalysen,
soweit erforderlich
Repräsentativität der Abfallbeprobung (Probenanzahl, -beschreibung) am
Standort der Verwertung
Zuordnung der Beprobungen im Risswerk
Umsetzung der Empfehlungen der Gutachter
Volumen-/Massenbilanz
zu den eingelagerten Abfällen
Vorhandensein
Sonstige Maßgaben
zum Wiedernutzbarmachungsziel
Ablagerungsmächtigkeit
Textur und Struktur von Nichtbodenabfällen
Rückblick

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 4
2005 - 1. Sächsisch-Thüringische Bodenschutztage in Gera
Praxis der Abfallverwertung zur Wiedernutzbarmachung im Bergbau
im Länderdreieck Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen
– Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede im Vollzug von Abfall- und Bodenschutzrecht
Handlungsbedarf besteht in Sachsen
, besonders in Betrieben mit genehmigter Z 2-Verwertung
fortwährender Aufbau eines erheblichen Schadstoffpotenzials,
das durch die notwendigen technischen Sicherungs- und ggf. Überwachungsmaßnahmen
der nachsorgefreien Wiedernutzbarmachung und Entlassung aus der Bergaufsicht entgegensteht.
Vielfalt genehmigter Abfallarten lässt sich auch bei weitester Auslegung weder mit dem Begriff
einer bodenähnlichen Aufwendung noch mit bergtechnischen Maßnahmen erklären
aber!
Notwendige Änderung der Zulassungspraxis darf nicht losgelöst von sonst verbleibenden
Entsorgungsmöglichkeiten gesehen werden. Über die Erlangung von immissions- bzw. bau-
rechtlichen Genehmigungen können sie ebenfalls die Verwertung mineralischer Abfälle erzielen.
Darüber hinaus bestehen im Bereich des Braunkohlenbergbaus in Nordwestsachsen und im
angrenzenden Sachsen-Anhalt Anlagen, die zulassungskonform erhebliche Mengen mineralischer
Abfälle unter Nutzung einer Vielzahl von Abfallarten in Tagebaurestlöcher einbauen.
Rückblick

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 5
Mit sogenannten
Unbedenklichkeitserklärungen
sollen die Abfallerzeuger
konkrete Auskunft über Art, Herkunft und Menge des Abfalls, einschließlich AVV-
ASN-Zuordnung geben.
Deklarationsanalysen
legen die Abfallerzeuger im Regelfall nicht freiwillig vor,
obwohl sie bsp.-weise bei größeren, insbesondere öffentlich geförderten
Abbruchvorhaben sowie großen Erschließungsmaßnahmen und Straßenbau-
vorhaben regelmäßig erarbeitet werden.
Es fehlt regelmäßig auch die
Probenahmebeschreibung
, wodurch die
Repräsentativität der Beprobung nicht einschätzbar ist.
In den letzten 16 Jahren hat sich Bergbaubereich mit Abfallverwertung
sukzessive weitgehend flächendeckend die „
5000 m³-Eigenkontrolle
“ durch die
Bergbauunternehmer für Abfälle im eingebauten Zustand zur Sicherstellung der
Schadlosigkeit durchgesetzt.
Es gibt
zunehmend Auffälligkeiten bei bauschutttypische Parametern
, wie Sulfat,
Leitfähigkeit und PAK, obwohl durch die Unbedenklichkeitserklärungen, die
Deklarationsanalysen und die Abfallzusammensetzung eigentlich die
Schadlosigkeit bestätigt war. Auch bei
Grundwasseruntersuchungen
an den
relevanten Standorten sind derartige Auffälligkeiten vermehrt zu registrieren.
Wo stehen wir heute

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 6
Schlussfolgerungen
Das vorgenannte
Beprobungs-/Untersuchungsregime reicht nicht
aus, um die
Schadlosigkeit der einzubauenden tatsächlich sicherzustellen.
Der Bergbauunternehmer bekommt jedoch nach Übernahme der
mineralischen Abfälle die
Verantwortung
für deren Qualität.
Tatsächlich hat er jedoch
keinen vollumfänglichen Überblick
über diese.
Die dafür notwendigen Information erhält er auch nicht über die alleinige
Beprobung/Untersuchung der Abfälle im Rahmen der Eigenkontrolle. Deren
Ergebnisse sollen eigentlich nur der
Beweissicherung
dienen und die
Richtigkeit der Deklarationsuntersuchungen bestätigen.
Die Verantwortung für die Qualität des Abfalls, muss entgegen
der bislang im Bergbau üblichen bisherigen Praxis wieder dorthin
rückverlagert werden, wo sie hingehört
auf den Abfallerzeuger
.
Wo stehen wir heute

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 7
Das bedeutet:
Die
strengen Anforderungen zur Abfalldeklaration
für die Andienung an Abfall-
beseitigungsanlagen müssen inhaltlich mindestens auch für den offenen Einbau
mineralischer Abfälle im Rahmen der Wiedernutzbarmachung von Tagebauen
des Steine-Erden-Bergbaus gelten.
Nach Übernahme des mineralischen Abfalls muss dem Bergbauunternehmer
die
Qualität des Abfalls mengenbezogen hinreichend genau bekannt
sein
(Deklarationsanalysen mit Probenahmebeschreibung, Herkunfts- und
Vornutzungsbeschreibung).
Die
Deklaration
der mineralischen Abfälle durch den Abfallerzeuger soll dabei
fachinhaltlich mindestens den strengen Anforderungen
für genehmigte Abfallbeseitigungsanlagen
entsprechen.
Bei Fehlen dieser Angaben darf der Bergbauunternehmer die Abfallqualität vor
dem Einbau selbst ermitteln (
Kleinmengenregelung
).
Der Bergbauunternehmer hat bei Annahme anderer mineralischer Abfälle als
jener, die mindestens eine der natürlichen Bodenfunktionen stabilisieren oder
verbessern, den
Nachweis der technisch/technologischen Eignung
zu erbringen.
Wo stehen wir heute

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 8
Anpassung der Nebenbestimmungen
in der bergrechtlichen Zulassungen
an den aktuellen Kenntnisstand
im Bereich Verwertung mineralischer Abfälle in und auf Böden
mit Schaffung vereinheitlichter Überwachungsanforderungen
für Bergbauunternehmen,
die im Rahmen der Wiedernutzbarmachung
mineralische Abfälle in die Restlöcher einbauen
- in einem ersten Schritt für Unternehmen unter Bergrecht
Durchsetzung nachfolgend auch für Unternehmen,
die nach Bauordnungs- oder Immissionsschutzrecht
genehmigt sind.
Wesentliches Vollzugselement dafür ist das Projekt „U-Monitor“
des SMUL
Wo wollen wir hin

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 9
vereinheitlichte Überwachungsanforderungen
Annahmeverfahren
Anforderungen an Betriebsunterlagen
und die Dokumentation
Definition von Mindestanforderungen
für die Qualitätssicherung
Wo wollen wir hin

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 10
Annahmeverfahren
durch den Bergbauunternehmer ist für jede vorgesehene Anlieferung zu realisieren:
- Annahmeerklärung i. d. R. vorab
- organoleptische Annahmekontrolle
- stichprobenhafte Kontrolluntersuchungen
- anlassbezogene Verdachtsuntersuchungen
- Einbau in das jeweilige Rasterfeld bzw. in das Bauwerk
zu diesen Punkten ist ein Qualitätssicherungssystem zu erstellen und dem OBA zur Zulassung vorzulegen.
Probenahmen und -vorbereitung nur nach einschlägigen DIN EN- bzw. LAGA-Vorschriften
chemische Untersuchungen nur in dafür akkreditierten Laboren
Entgegennahme des vollständig ausgefüllten und vom Abfallerzeuger unterzeichneten
Musteranlieferungsscheines
bei jeder ersten Anliefercharge eines Abfallerzeugers, einer Abfallart und eines Herkunftsbereiches
stichprobenhafte Kontrolluntersuchungen der angelieferten Abfälle im Annahmestrom
Die Stichprobe bezieht sich dabei auf eine konkrete Lieferung (z. B. Container oder LKW) bei der Annahme.
Zu beproben/untersuchen ist diejenige Abfallanlieferung, die je angefangene 3000 t angeliefert wird
ebenfalls stichprobenhafte Kontrolluntersuchung bei Annahme der ersten Abfallanlieferung einer Erstanliefercharge
eines Abfallerzeugers nach zuvor erklärter Annahme von mehr als 500 t.
unabhängig davon an zufällig ausgewählter Abfallanlieferung mind. eine Kontrollbeprobung-/untersuchung je Halbjahr
Anlieferung von Kleinmengen von bis zu 7 m³ mit Herkunft aus dem nicht gewerblichen/industriellen Bereich
- keine Annahmeerklärung vorab, wenn im übergebenen Anlieferschein alle Angaben vollständig sind.
- Kleinanlieferermengen gehören auf separates Zwischenlager, getrennt nach Abfallarten
- dort zusätzliche organoleptische Prüfung vor dem Einbau
- jede 25. Anlieferung ist einer Kontrolluntersuchung zu unterziehen.
Wo wollen wir hin

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 11
Das
Annahmeverfahren
für mineralische Abfälle zum Einbau
im Rahmen der Wiedernutzbarmachung von Kiesgruben und Steinbrüchen
besteht nach dem derzeitigen Abstimmungsstand aus den Komponenten:
Abfallerzeuger
- verbale Herkunftsdeklaration bei natürlichem Boden
ohne Fremdbestandteile und ohne Belastungsverdacht
im Sinne LAGA-TR Boden, Stand 2004)
- PN98-gerechte Beprobung und Untersuchung
für alle anderen Abfallarten
Bergbauunternehmer
- Plausibilitätsprüfung der erzeugerseitigen Abfalldeklaration
- stichprobenhafte analytische Beprobung und Untersuchung
der Abfälle im Annahmestrom
Welche Defizite bleiben

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 12
Aufbringung erheblicher Frachten an mineralischen Abfällen auf Böden
allgemeine oder konkrete Hinweise auf den Eintrag von Schadstoffen
(§ 3 Abs. 2 Satz 2 Nr. 1 BBodSchV)
Regelvermutung der LD Chemnitz
Die Verfüllung von Kiesgruben und Steinbrüchen
ist Anhaltspunkt für das Vorliegen einer schädlichen Bodenveränderung.
Diese Regelvermutung muss der Bergbauunternehmer schlüssig widerlegen!
Dazu hat er bislang:
- Deklarationsanalysen des Abfallerzeugers (kein Einfluss auf deren Qualität)
- analytische Beprobung und Untersuchung der Abfälle im Annahmestrom
(nur stichprobenhaft)
kein vollständiger Überblick über den Schadstoffgehalt
der eingebauten mineralischen Abfälle
zusätzliche Untersuchung des aus bergbaufremden mineralischen Abfällen
bestehenden Verfüllkörpers erforderlich (analog zu bisherigen Eigenkontrolle)
Welche Defizite bleiben

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 13
Vorteile der (neuen) Eigenkontrolle
Bergbauunternehmer
- kann selbst die Qualität seiner organoleptischen Annahmekontrolle überprüfen und ggf.
anpassen (Selbstkontrolle),
- kann bei auffälligen Untersuchungsergebnissen in eigener Verantwortung Häufigkeit und
Umfang seiner stichprobenartigen Annahmekontrolle adaptieren,
- hat bei späteren Eingriffen in den Boden durch nachfolgende Flächennachnutzer mit ggf.
auftretenden analytischen Auffälligkeiten ein umfangreiches Datenmaterial,
um den Belastungsverdacht plausibel widerlegen zu können,
- vermag erst dadurch die ihm obliegende Eigenverantwortung in Bezug auf die Erfüllung
der Vorsorgepflicht nach § 7 BBodSchG tatsächlich umzusetzen.
Die zuständige
Vollzugsbehörde
(hier Oberbergamt)
- kann damit über die Qualität der Deklarationsanalysen, der organoleptischen
Annahmekontrolle und der stichprobenartigen Untersuchungen befinden,
- kann daraus ggf. Anordnungen für die Präzisierung der Annahmekontrolle ableiten,
- ist erst mit den Ergebnissen aller 3 Komponenten in der Lage, bei Entlassung aus der
Bergaufsicht eine fachlich begründete Entscheidung zu den erfüllten Anforderungen der
bodenschutzrechtlichen Vorsorgepflicht in Bezug auf den konkreten Standort zu treffen.
Welche Defizite bleiben

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 14
Nachteile der (neuen) Eigenkontrolle
eigentlich keine!
denn:
kein größerer zusätzlicher Aufwand, da bislang schon
gegeben, ggf. Präzisierung des Probenahmeumfangs
die Anforderungen an die Abfalldeklaration
durch den Abfallerzeuger und
die Kontrolle im Annahmestrom durch den Bergbauunternehmer
sind abfallrechtlich definiert und waren auch bislang schon
erforderlich (wurde aber nicht stringent vollzogen).
Welche Defizite bleiben

image
image
image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 15
Welche Defizite bleiben
Bodenschutz, Heft 02 / 11, S. 54
Die Verfüllung
von Kiesgruben und Steinbrüchen-
Anhaltspunkt für das Vorliegen einer
schädlichen Bodenveränderung?
Andreas Henke, Olaf Penndorf

image
Autor:
Dr. Olaf Penndorf, LD-C Sachgebietsleiter Bodenschutz
Folie 16
Ausblick
Die neuen Anforderungen / Nebenbestimmungen werden
Eingang in die künftigen Zulassungen
der Haupt-, Sonder- und Abschlussbetriebspläne finden.
Die umfängliche Darstellung der neuen Anforderungen
erfolgt in
Informationsveranstaltungen
des Oberbergamtes.
Die LD werden in Ausübung ihrer aufsichtlichen Aufgaben
gegenüber den LRÄ auch die Durchsetzung dieser
Anforderungen im Bereich des
bauordnungs- bzw.
immissionsschutzrechtlich genehmigten Bergbau
anstreben.
Welche Defizite bleiben

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