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UFIPOLNETnews No. 17; 6-Dec-2007
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UFIPOLNET Final conference: questionaire results + presentations (EN)
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Diesel-fueled Trucks Drive Up Air Pollution Exposure For Commuters (EN)
3
Santa Monica Airport Air Quality Study Results Are Reported (EN)
4
Air Quality over Europe (EN)
5
Adverse Effects of Diesel Exhaust Inhalation on Men with Heart Disease (EN)
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Feinstaubmessung analysiert Belastungen für Radler per Fahrrad (DE)
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Mangelhafte Rußfilter: Verkehrsexperte als Sündenbock (DE)
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UFIPOLNET Final conference: questionaire results + presentations (EN)
Thanks to the 70 participants who returned our questionnaire, we were able to collect feedback on the
2007 UFIPOLNET Ultrafine Particles in Urban Air Conference 23 to 24-Oct-2007 in Dresden. We received
some very helpful comments which allowed us to analyze how well we served our purpose.
Participants found out about the conference mostly through a direct invitation (two thirds) and on the
internet (12%). More than two thirds of the participants found the theme, its presentation, and the lectures
interesting. The overall impression of the conference was also very positive, with more than 80% who
found the overall impression and the management good and would recommend others to attend a similar
conference.
However, while 80% of the altogether more than 110 participants found it easy to understand the main
points, understanding the content of the presentations proved to be a more difficult task for almost half of
the audience. Some commented that the presentations contained too much scientific information. Others
stated that it was the differences in language proficiency which complicated the material. Many thought
that the conference should have been held in German.
Overall we are very happy with the results of the conference. We are also pleased to see that for about
20% of the participants from 14 nations, it was their first time attending a public forum organised by a
governmental organisation.
Overall impression of the conference
86
14
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Good
Satisfactory
Inadequate
Was the LfUG and ist duties known to you before
attending this conference?
52
10
9
7
22
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Yes,
somewhat
Yes,
interest
Yes, very
well
by hearsay
No
All presentations are now available as PDF on the UFIPOLNET website under "conference".
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Diesel-fueled Trucks Drive Up Air Pollution Exposure For Commuters (EN)
Science Daily (Nov. 1, 2007) — The daily commute may be taking more of a toll than people realize. A
new study by researchers at the University of Southern California and the California Air Resources Board
found that up to half of Los Angeles residents' total exposure to harmful air pollutants occurs while people
are traveling in their vehicles.
UFIPOLNETnews 17; 06-December-2007
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Although the average Los Angeles driver spends about six percent (1.5 hours) of his or her day on the
road, that period of time accounts for 33 to 45 percent of total exposure to diesel and ultrafine particles
(UFP), according to the study published this month in the journal Atmospheric Environment and available
online. On freeways, diesel-fueled trucks are the source of the highest concentrations of harmful
pollutants.
"If you have otherwise healthy habits and don't smoke, driving to work is probably the most unhealthy part
of your day," says Scott Fruin, D.Env., assistant professor of environmental health at the Keck School of
Medicine of USC. "Urban dwellers with long commutes are probably getting most of their UFP exposure
while driving."
Source:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071030150952.htm
Original Source:
http://www.usc.edu/;
S. Fruin, D. Westerdahl, T. Sax, C. Sioutas and P.M. Fine.
"Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and
associated pollutants in Los Angeles," Atmospheric Environment (2007). Doi:
10.1016/jatmosenv.2007.09.057
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Santa Monica Airport Air Quality Study Results Are Reported (EN)
by Hannah Heineman, Mirror Staff Writer
Elevated levels of pollutants have been found near Santa Monica Airport’s runways.
Philip M. Fine, Ph.D., the Atmospheric Measurements Manager of the South Coast Air Quality
Management District (SCAQMD), told the Airport Commission on October 22 are the results of a study of
the air quality around the Airport was funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that took
place for three-month intervals during two different seasons from November 2005 until March 2007. The
study found elevated levels of lead near runway sites and surrounding communities, but the levels found
were “below federal and state standards.” He also mentioned that “ultrafine particles (measured by
number concentration)” were significantly elevated near runways during aircraft operations and the “airport
influence on PM2.5 (Particulate Matter) concentrations may not be distinguishable, but appears to be
minor.”
Martin Rubin, Director of Concerned Residents Against Airport Pollution and a member of the Working
Group, noted in a letter to the SCAQMD his concerns about the inadequacies of the monitoring study.
Rubin’s letter stated that the study would not address health risks associated with exposure to aircraft
emissions or evaluate the extent of kerosene odors throughout the neighboring community. Other study
deficiencies, according to Rubin, include the “inability to separate sources of measured pollutants” and “its
limited sensitivity to measure pollutants and odor.”
One community member asked Fine if he would be willing to live in an area affected by the jet fumes. He
responded, “I would not want to live there if I had a choice. I would not want to live there because there’s
a nuisance issue regarding the jet fumes.”
Next steps include a complete analysis of the results, the development of a draft report to be reviewed by
the EPA and the Working Group, and the completion of the final report.
Source:
Santa Monica Mirror:
http://www.smmirror.com/MainPages/DisplayArticleDetails.asp?eid=6551
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Air Quality over Europe (EN)
"Air pollution has been one of Europe's main political concerns since the late 1970s. The classic major air
pollutants emitted into the atmosphere in Europe are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx),
ammonia (NH3) non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM). (...) PM
can shorten life expectancy and increase the number of premature deaths, hospital admission and
emergency room visits. Particularly dangerous is the fine fraction, that is particles with a diameter up to
2.5μm (PM2.5), as it penetrates more deeply into the lungs. (...)
A recent report by EEA analyses changes in air pollutant emissions during the period 1997-2004 (...):
UFIPOLNETnews 17; 06-December-2007
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The PM precursors (...) and primary PM emissions fell by approximately 45% between 1990 and 2004. In
spite of this significant reduction, between 23% and 45% of the urban population was exposed to
concentrations above the EU quality limits for PM10 (...) between 1997 and 2004.
(...) The observed high PM and O3 concentrations can partially be explained by meteorological variability,
which can produce annual variations in the concentrations of 15%-20%, and thus mask the effect of
decreasing PM and O3 precursors emissions.
(...) PM and O3 concentrations, however, have not shown any improvement since 1997, despite the
decrease in emissions of the gasses that participate in their formation.
Source:
Science for Env Policy 22 November, 2007 Issue 87;
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/themes_en.html
Original Source:
http://reports.eea.europa.eu/eea_report_2007_2/en/Air_pollution_in_Europe_1990_20
04.pdf (2007, p.84)
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Adverse Effects of Diesel Exhaust Inhalation on Men with Heart Disease
Previous studies have shown that
short-term exposure to air pollution
is generally associated with
increased cardiovascular mortality
, with deaths
due to ischaemia
(reduced blood flow to the heart),
arrhythmia (abnormal disturbance of the heart rhythm),
and heart failure
. These
correlations
between
air pollution and cardiovascular diseases are
strongest for fine particulate air pollutants
, which can be
produced during the combustion of diesel oil in cars. It is difficult to quantify the effects of inhaled
particulates on patients with heart disease through observational research, partly because of the
difficulties in accurately estimating personal exposures to air pollution.
(...) Twenty middle-aged men with prior myocardial infarction (heart attacks) were studied in a specially
built exposure chamber. Diesel exhaust was generated from an idling diesel engine with the exhaust
diluted to achieve particle concentrations of 300 μg/m3; a level actually reached in heavy traffic,
occupational settings and the world’s largest cities. In two sessions, at least two weeks apart, the subjects
were exposed for one hour to diesel exhaust or filtered air.
(...) This study suggests that myocardial ischaemia and impaired fibrinolytic function are important
mechanisms to explain the association between fine particulate air pollution and adverse cardiovascular
events.
Environmental
health policy interventions
targeting reductions in pollutant emissions by cars, (euro4,
Euro 5)
should be considered in order to decrease the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.
Source:
Science for Env Policy 22 November, 2007 Issue 87
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/themes_en.html
Original Source:
Mills, N.L. et al (2007) ,« Ischemic and Thrombotic Effects of Dilute Diesel-Exhaust
Inhalation in Men with Coronary Heart Disease », The New England Journal of
Medicine 357(11): 1075-1082.
Contact:
nick.mills@ed.ac.uk
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6 Feinstaubmessung analysiert Belastungen für Radler per Fahrrad (DE)
"Mit einem speziell entwickelten Fahrrad haben
der Allgemeine Deutsche Fahrrad Club (ADFC)
und die Kooperationsstelle Hamburg (ein Referat
der Behörde für Wissenschaft und Forschung)
gestern damit begonnen, die Feinstaub-
Belastung für Radfahrer in der Hansestadt zu
messen. Damit wurde das internationale
Kooperationsprojekt Vector in Deutschland
gestartet. Die ersten Messfahrten innerhalb
dieses von der Europäischen Kommission
geförderten Projekts fanden im September 2007
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im niederländischen Utrecht statt. Nun ist das
Vector-Messfahrrad mehrere Tage lang in
Hamburg unterwegs."
"Die ersten Ergebnisse: Je nachdem, welches Fahrzeug auf der Straße vorbeifährt, ändert sich die
Feinstaub-Belastung. "Besonders hoch ist die Belastung, wenn zum Beispiel ältere Lkw, Diesel-Pkw ohne
Rußfilter und Mopeds und Mofas mit Zweitaktmotoren vorbeifahren", sagt Roland Huhn vom ADFC-
Bundesverband.
Auch Überraschendes haben die Messungen schon zutage gebracht: Die Feinstaub-Belastung ist im Auto
höher als auf dem Fahrrad. "Die Partikel, die über die Lüftung angesaugt werden, reichern sich im Auto
an", erklärt Huhn dieses Phänomen. "
Source:
Hamburger Abendblatt 19.10.2007
http://www.abendblatt.de/daten/2007/10/19/806433.html
Original Source:
http://www.vectorproject.eu/
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Mangelhafte Rußfilter: Verkehrsexperte als Sündenbock (DE)
"60.000 Autofahrer lassen einen mangelhaften Rußfilter in ihren Diesel einbauen. Umweltminister Gabriel
macht für die Panne den renommierten Verkehrsexperten Friedrich verantwortlich. VON TARIK AHMIA
Das Bundesumweltministerium aber weist alle Vorwürfe von sich und kündigte personelle Konsequenzen
an - in seiner untergeordneten Behörde, dem Umweltbundesamt. "Ein Mitarbeiter des Umweltbundesamt
hat durch falsche Vorgaben ein dafür nötiges Gutachten unbrauchbar gemacht", erklärte SPD-Minister
Sigmar Gabriel. Dadurch habe sich der Nachweis der unbrauchbaren Filter um Monate verzögert.
Der Beschuldigte ist allerdings nicht irgendwer, sondern Axel Friedrich, Leiter der Abteilung "Verkehr,
Lärm" im Umweltbundesamt. Er gilt seit vielen Jahren als Kämpfer für den Umweltschutz und genießt
international ein hohes Renommee für seine wissenschaftliche Arbeit. Friedrich wurde - wie am Montag
bekannt wurde - schon die Woche zuvor von seinem Posten abberufen.
Der Vorgang ist erstaunlich. Denn es war Friedrich, der schon vor einem Jahr die Wirkungslosigkeit der
Filter aufdeckte. Als er zu ahnen begann, dass da etwas nicht stimmen könnte, gab seine Abteilung bei
dem renommierten Schweizer Prüfinstitut TTM Meyer ein Gutachten in Auftrag. Diese wies tatsächlich bei
drei Fabrikaten mangelhafte Filterwirkung nach. Aber ausgerechnet das Ministerium lehnte auf einem
ersten Krisengipfel im Herbst 2006 ab, die Daten zu veröffentlichen. Denn sie seien nicht nach der in
Deutschland dafür gültigen Prüfverordnung erhoben worden. "Außerdem waren die Messungen nicht
schlüssig und fehlerhaft", erklärte am Montag ein Gabriel-Sprecher der taz. " (...)
Source:
Die Tageszeitung, 27.11.2007
http://www.taz.de/1/zukunft/umwelt/artikel/1/gabriel-feuert-
autokritiker/?src=MC&cHash=53f7e4c2d8
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Acknowledgement:
This issue is partly edited by Adriani Leon.
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CONTACT
Dr. Holger Gerwig
Chemist / Desk officer
Project manager of UFIPOLNET
Email: Holger.Gerwig@smul.sachsen.de
http://www.umwelt.sachsen.de/lfug
UFIPOLNET
= Ultrafine particle size distributions in air pollution monitoring networks
UFIPOLNET
is realised with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community, Contract No.: LIFE04 ENV/D/000054
UFIPOLNET Information:
http://www.ufipolnet.eu
UFIPOLNETnews 17; 06-December-2007
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