Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
1
6. Sächsisches Forstpolitisches Forum
2. Dezember 2009
Bautzen-Schmochtitz
"Walderschließung"
"Rechtliche und praktische Probleme der Walderschließung und
Wegenutzung"
Dr. Christoph Schurr, Kreisforstamt Landratsamt Bautzen
1 Einleitung
1.1 Grundfrage: Zugang zur Landschaft
Wir leben in einer Kulturlandschaft, die von Menschen bewirtschaftet, gepflegt und
zur Erholung genutzt wird. Dazu müssen Menschen mit ihren Arbeits- oder auch
Sportgeräten in die Landschaft gelangen und ihre dort gewonnenen Produkte aus ihr
verbringen können. Diese Landschaft übt ferner für den Siedlungsraum Funktionen
der Daseinsfürsorge aus, die nicht von Natur aus da sind. Schließlich gehen von der
Landschaft Risiken für den Siedlungsraum aus, gegen die Vorsorge zu treffen ist und
die hier ggf. auch bekämpft werden müssen.
Wald als wichtiges Element unserer Kulturlandschaft muss deshalb zugänglich sein.
Wichtigste Form des Zugangs sind in unseren Breiten seit langer Zeit Waldwege.
1.2 Was sagt das Sächsische Waldgesetz zur Walderschließung?
(Regeln und Institutionen)
Das Waldgesetz verlangt vom Waldbesitzer deshalb im Rahmen der pfleglichen
Waldbewirtschaftung "die Erschließung des Waldes mit Waldwegen im erforderlichen
Maße". Walderschließung gehört damit zu den Grundpflichten jeden Waldbesitzers
(§ 18 I 6 SächsWaldG). Der Gesetzgeber macht allerdings den einschränkenden
Vorbehalt, daß der Waldbesitzer dieser Pflicht nur im Rahmen seines wirtschaftlichen
Leistungsvermögens nachkommen muss (§ 18 II; § 21 I S.2 SächsWaldG). Es han-
delt sich folglich mehr um einen Appell als um eine durchsetzbare Verpflichtung.

Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
2
§ 21 SächsWaldG gibt Erläuterungen zur Walderschließung:
o
Waldwege sind private Erschließungseinrichtungen. Privat bedeutet, dass die
Waldbesitzer aller Eigentumsarten grundsätzlich alleinige Entscheider über
Bau oder Auflassung, Unterhaltung oder Nichtunterhaltung, die Benutzung
oder den Ausschluss von der Benutzung eines Waldweges sind.
o
Waldwege dienen der Erschließung des Waldes zum Zweck seiner Bewirt-
schaftung. Umgekehrt heißt das:
wenn ein Wald nicht bewirtschaftet werden soll, muss er vom Eigentümer
nicht mit Wegen erschlossen werden;
und ferner: allein aus Gründen der Walderholung oder des öffentlichen In-
teresses lassen sich Bau und Erhaltung eines Waldweges vom Eigentümer
nicht einfordern.
o
Der Erschließungsappell richtet sich auf Anlage und Unterhaltung von Wald-
wegen gleichermaßen.
o
Auch die Walderschließung darf nur im Kontext des forstlichen Verständnisses
von Nachhaltigkeit stattfinden: Schonung des Bodens, Rücksichtnahme auf
Natur und Landschaftsbild sind dabei zu gewährleisten.
Weitere Aussagen zur Walderschließung lassen sich dem Waldgesetz entnehmen:
o
Ein Waldweg ist Wald im Sinne von § 2 SächsWaldG, seine Anlage ist keine
Waldumwandlung und somit genehmigungslos zulässig.
o
Aus dem gleichen Grund ist auch die Aufgabe eines Weges und seine Be-
pflanzung keine genehmigungsbedürftige Erstaufforstung.
o
Als Teil der ordnungsgemäßen Forstwirtschaft ist die Anlage eines Wald-
weges auch kein nach dem Naturschutzrecht zu bewertender Eingriff. Behörd-
liche Genehmigungsvorbehalte können allerdings in Schutzgebieten, Biotopen
oder bei möglichen Auswirkungen auf geschützte Lebensräume in FFH-
Gebieten bestehen (Verträglichkeitsprüfung).
o
Waldwege brauchen keine eigenen Flurstücke sein. Wenn ein Weg über meh-
rere Grundstücke verläuft, gibt es für seine Unterhaltung so viele Verantwort-
liche wie Eigentümer.

Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
3
Im Hinblick auf Finanzierung und Nutzung eines Waldweges geht das Waldgesetz
von einer traditionellen Vorstellung aus: Waldwege sind vorrangig betriebliche Ein-
richtungen, die von einem Forstbetrieb auf Dauer angelegt und finanziert werden und
nebenher von Dritten für ihre Zwecke mitbenutzt werden: von Spaziergängern und
Reitern, Hoheits- und Betreuungsförstern, Jägern und Feuerwehren, FFH-Gebiets-
und Wolfmanagern. Dem Waldwegbesitzer werden so eine Vielzahl von Duldungs-
pflichten zugemutet. Nur ausnahmsweise hat er dafür Ausgleichsansprüche, z.B. bei
Reitschäden. In der Regel muss er die Mitbenutzungen durch andere Personen un-
entgeltlich hinnehmen, unter Übernahme der damit verbundenen Kosten. Sie sind ein
Teil der Last, die er im Rucksack der Sozialpflichtigkeit tragen muss.
Die Duldungspflichten beziehen sich allerdings nur auf vorhandene Wege. Das säch-
sische Waldrecht bietet fast keine Möglichkeit, Anlage oder Erhaltung eines Weges
zu erzwingen, wenn der Eigentümer kein Interesse daran hat oder einen Weg gar
bewusst nicht will. "Nein" sagen zu dürfen oder schlichtweg nichts zu tun ist eines der
mächtigsten Instrumente, das unsere Rechtsordnung einem Waldeigentümer noch
gewährt, nicht nur bei der Walderschließung.
2 Gliederung des Vortrages
Ausgehend von diesen Regelungen des Waldgesetzes will ich mit Ihnen in folgender
Gliederung ausgewählte rechtliche und praktische Probleme der Walderschließung
und Wegenutzung beleuchten:
o
forstliche Verhältnisse im Landkreis Bautzen
o
Erschließung der Landschaft – Erschließung des Waldes
o
Waldrecht & Straßenrecht
o
ausgewählte Fragen zu Wegebau, -unterhaltung und –nutzung
o
Schlussfolgerungen und Vorschläge.

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Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
4
o
Waldfläche
~ 90.000 ha
o
Bewaldung
36 %
o
Baumarten
(Fläche)
~ 75% Nadel-, ~ 25 % Laubb.
o
P rivatwald
66%
~ 16.000 Waldbesitzer-Familien
o
H olzeinschlag
~ 270.000 m³/Jahr
o
Beschäftigte Forstwirtschaft
1.370 (1,2%) (svp, 2007)
o
Waldfunktionen
- 33% Erholung
- 90% Naturschutz
- Nordteil: Waldbrand GK A
3 Annäherung an die Problematik
3.1 Kurze Vorstellung der forstlichen Verhältnisse im LK Bautzen
o
Fragen der Walderschließung spielen in diesem waldreichen Kreis vor dem
Hintergrund eines großen Anteils von Kleinprivatwald und ertragsschwachen
Kieferngebieten einerseits sowie starker Interessen des Tourismus, des Na-
turschutzes und des Waldbrandschutzes eine beachtliche Rolle.
3.2 Erschließung der Landschaft – Erschließung des Waldes
o
Im Luftbild erkennen wir die heutige Struktur der landwirtschaftlichen Flur:
großflächig bewirtschaftete Betriebsflächen, eine hinsichtlich des Reliefs, der

image
Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
5
Strukturelemente und des Wasserhaushalts weitgehend umgestaltete (nor-
mierte) Landschaft.
o
Eine frühere Struktur wird durch die Flurstückseinteilung konserviert. Neben
dem Abrücken vom Flurstück als Einheit der Nutzung liegt der Hauptunter-
schied in der weitgehenden Extensivierung der Erschließung durch Wege. In
diesem Beispiel sind rd. 50% der Wege seit 1950 aus der Landschaft ver-
schwunden (orange markiert).
o
Trotz aller früheren Versuche zur Homogenisierung und einheitlichen großflä-
chigen Bewirtschaftung ist die Situation im bewaldeten Teil der Landschaft ei-
ne andere. Nicht nur bezüglich Relief, Böden sowie Tier- und Pflanzenarten,
sondern auch im Hinblick auf Eigentum und Bewirtschaftung wird unter dem
Kronendach oft eine vielfältige Struktur sichtbar. Diese geht einher mit einem
Erschließungsnetz, das stärker als in der Landwirtschaft historische Bewirt-
schaftungsfiguren konserviert und weiterhin die Grundlage der Waldbewirt-
schaftung bildet.
o
Ökonomisch gesehen gibt es eigentlich keinen Unterschied zwischen Land-
und Forstwirtschaft: Die Bewirtschaftung großer Flächen erlaubt eine ver-
ringerte Bindung von Kapital in Betriebswegen und die Einsparung laufender
Kosten für die Wegeunterhaltung. Die Erschließung der Landschaft reduziert
sich auf wenige, oft der Verbindung von Siedlungen dienende Wege.
o
Warum wird dann in Waldgebieten im Vergleich zur Landwirtschaft ein dichte-
res Erschließungsnetz konserviert? Dazu nur einige Hinweise:

Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
6
trivial und dennoch wichtig ist die Tatsache, dass selbst große landwirt-
schaftliche Flächen überschaubar und befahrbar sind, was bei dichter
Baumbestockung und empfindlichen Böden im Wald ausgeschlossen ist.
Schon die notwendige regelmäßige Kontrolle der Flächen durch den Be-
wirtschafter lässt einen Verzicht auf Waldwege deshalb nicht zu.
In der Landwirtschaft hat sich die Struktur der Bewirtschaftung von der
Struktur des Grundeigentums gelöst. Im Gegensatz dazu findet Wald-
bewirtschaftung heute wieder auf Flurstücken statt, so dass ein Bedürfnis
für einen individuellen Flächenzugang besteht.
Schließlich liegen auf dem Wald und der ihn erschließenden Infrastruktur
viel mehr Nutzungsansprüche anderer Personen - anderer Waldbesitzer,
von Erholungsnutzern - oder öffentliche Ansprüche wie die Brandvorsorge,
die eine Minimierung des Wegenetzes gar nicht zulassen.
o
Halten wir fest:
die im Vergleich zur Landwirtschaft extensivere und ertragsschwächere
Waldwirtschaft verfügt - noch - über ein dichteres permanentes Er-
schließungsnetz.
Ein dichteres Netz bedeutet allerdings nicht, dass es intakt ist. Verbreitet
gibt es schlechte Wegezustände, die die Befahrung nur noch ein-
geschränkt oder mit geländetauglichen Fahrzeugen zulassen.
Dies belegen auch die Zahlen der BWI II für Sachsen: von 17 m/ha Fahr-
wegen im Privatwald wiesen damals (2002) nur 12,4 m/ha keine oder ge-
ringe Schäden, erhebliche Schäden dagegen immerhin 27% der Fahrwege
auf.
3.3 Kernprobleme
Vor diesem ökonomischen und institutionellen Hintergrund bestehen spezifische
Probleme bei der Gewährleistung einer Wege-Infrastruktur in Waldgebieten:
o
die Koordination vieler Erwartungen und Ansprüche und ein fairer Interessen-
bzw. Lastenausgleich zwischen ihnen;
o
der Finanzierungsbeitrag insbesondere auch der nicht aus dem Forstbetrieb
selbst kommenden Nutzungsansprüche.

Landratsamt Bautzen
Kamenz, den 02.12.2009
Kreisforstamt
christoph.schurr@lra-bautzen.de
7
Besonders schwierig ist die Situation in kleinparzellierten Waldgebieten und teilweise
in den ertragsschwachen Kieferngebieten.
Derartige Problemlagen finden wir auch in anderen Bereichen der Gesellschaft. Doch
beim Waldweg kann man sich seine Partner nicht aussuchen - lagebedingt besteht
eine untrennbare Bindung an eine bestimmte Gruppe von Eigentümern und Nutzern.
Vor der Diskussion ausgewählter praktischer Probleme will ich zunächst noch weitere
institutionelle Regeln beleuchten, die für die Waldwege-Infrastruktur wirksam sind.
3.4 Konkurrierende Regeln und Institutionen – Wald- und Straßen-
recht
Neben der vom Waldgesetz präferierten Regelung des Waldweges als privater Ein-
richtung besteht ein weiteres, damit regelmäßig überlappendes Rechtsregime für
Wege im Wald - das Recht der öffentlichen Straßen. Das Straßengesetz kennt als
untergeordnete Straßen öffentliche Feld- und Waldwege:
o
Auf ihnen ist ein, meist für Land- und Forstwirtschaft beschränkter Kfz-Verkehr
zulässig.
o
Ein öffentlicher Waldweg erhält diesen Status durch die Widmung eines Stra-
ßenbaulastträgers, mit der Art und Umfang seiner Nutzung bestimmt werden.
o
Straßenbaulastträger ist regelmäßig die Gemeinde.
o
Öffentliche Straßen gelten nicht als Waldfläche, ihre Anlage bzw. Widmung ist
Waldumwandlung und damit in Sachsen auch ein Eingriff im Sinne des Natur-
schutzgesetzes. Eine spätere Aufforstung der Wegfläche wäre eine nur mit
Genehmigung zulässige Erstaufforstung.
o
Auch ein öffentlicher Waldweg kann über Grundstücke mehrerer Eigentümer
verlaufen. Mit der Widmung wird allerdings mit dem Straßenbaulastträger eine
vom Eigentum unabhängige, dauerhafte Verantwortungsstruktur für die Er-
haltung und Nutzung des Weges geschaffen, die aus der parzellierten Um-
gebung herausgehoben wird: die Erschließungsfunktion kann in der Theorie
langfristig gesichert werden.

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