Traffic and Meteorological Influence on Size Segregated Trace Elements at a Kerbside
in Dresden, Germany
H. Gerwig
1
, E. Brüggemann
2
, Th. Gnauk
2
, K. Müller
2
, H. Herrmann
2
1
LfUG - Section Air Quality, Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, 01109 Dresden, Germany,
Holger.Gerwig@smul.sachsen.de
2
Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
Keywords: size seggregated aerosols, trace elements, urban aerosols, ultrafine particles
High concentrations of PM
10
have been
frequently measured at air quality monitoring stations
in the agglomeration areas near road traffic. To
understand the reasons for the adverse health effects
it is very important to know more about the chemical
composition of urban aerosols at kerbsides. Traffic is
often the most important source for PM
10
and for
toxic substances like antimony, copper and soot
(Gerwig et al. 2006).
At roadsite (55,000 vehicles per day, 8 %
heavy duty vehicles, Dresden, Schlesischer Platz)
24h Berner Impactor samples were taken on
Thursdays or Fridays (9), on Sundays (2) and on new
years day between Aug-2003 and Aug -2004.
Additionally 2 samples were taken from a
station of urban background (400 m to north east
from traffic station at least 100 m away from streets
with less than 5,000 vehicles per day).
Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn were
analysed by PIXE. Ca, K, Mg and Na were analysed
by special Ion Chromtography.
Crustal enrichment factors (CEFs) are
calculated to assess anthropogenic contributions. For
all elements CEFs are calculated by dividing the
average concentration in the stages by their average
abundance in the upper continental crust (UCC). We
refer to UCC as described by Mason and Moore
(1985). CEFs > 10 are commonly interpreted as PM
sources different from natural origin. Si was chosen
as reference element, because it is main component
of silicate minerals. Often Al is used as reference
element (Birmili et al. 2006).
Pb, Zn and Cu had crustal enrichment factors
(CEFs) above 100 for all particle sizes.
The CEFs and concentrations of Fe and Cu
are higher for workdays compared to Sundays. On
working days Cu and Fe showed a concentration
maximum on stage 4. When working day is
compared to Sunday for Cu and Fe, the maximum of
the normalised mass concentration shifted from
coarse particles to fine particles.
3 Types of mass size distributions were found:
unimodal in fine (stage 3): K, Pb, and Zn; unimodal
in coarse: Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, Ti and Cu;
Multimodal Mn, Cr and Ni.
Higher concentrations in winter were found
for: mass, Pb, Zn, K and Cr, Ni, Ti. The higher
concentrations for Pb, Zn and were mainly caused by
fine particles. The Pb-concentration was more than
two times higher in winter compared to summer. Ca,
Cu and Fe showed no relation to summer/winter as
well as Si and Ti.
The anthropogenic elements Pb and K show
highest concentration with air masses from the east.
Greatest part of the sea salt elements Na and Mg
came from northern or western air masses from the
sea. The origin of air masses had almost no influence
on concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Ca, Ti, Si and Fe.
New Year’s Day is characterised in Dresden
by lowest number of vehicles during the whole year.
Only 50% of the average numbers of vehicles were
observed.
The daily average concentration of New Years
Eve compared to the annual average was at least 3
times higher for K (24.1), Mg (6.0), Pb (5.3), Ti (4.2)
and Cu (3.2). The size distribution maximum of Cu,
Ti and Mg shifted from coarse particles to fine
particles because of high concentration of firework
burning products in the fine particulate range.
1,E-01
1,E+00
1,E+01
1,E+02
1,E+03
1,E+04
Pb
Zn
Cu
Cr
Ni
Na Mn
Fe
K
Ca
Ti
Mg
Crustal enrichment factor
PM10
0.05 -0.14
0.14 - 0.42
0.42 - 1.20
1.2 - 3.5
3.5 - 10
Figure 1: Crustal enrichment factors at traffic station
This work was supported by the Saxon State
Agency for Environment and Geology. under
reference number 13-8802-3520/10. The authors
would like to thank the University of Lund (Per
Kristiansson) for analysing the elements by PIXE.
Birmili, W., Allen, A. G., Bary, F., Harrison, R. M.
(2006).
Environ. Sci. Technol
., 40, 1144-1153.
Gerwig, H.; Bittner, H.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.;
Herrmann, H.; Löschau, G.; Müller, K. (2006).
Gef. Reinhalt. Luft
, 66, 175 – 180.
Mason, B., Moore, C.B. (1985). Grundzüge der
Geochemie, Monographie; Ferdinand Enke Verlag
Stuttgart.