Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden, Saxony
(PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM
10
limit value)
H. Gerwig
1
, H. Bittner
2
1
Section Regional Air Pollution Control, Climate Change, LFUG - Saxon State Agency for Environment and
Geology, Dresden, Germany, Holger.Gerwig@lfug.smul.sachsen.de
2
Department of Umwelt Service, TÜV Industrie Service GmbH TÜV SÜD Group, Dresden, Germany
Keywords: Chemical composition, Urban aerosols, Anthropogenic sources, PM and source apportionment.
In 2003 daily PM
10
concentrations in Dresden
were 53 days higher than > 50 μg/m³. Only 35 times
are allowed in the EU. Episode analysis is a method
to evaluate contributions of sources and source types
to the PM
10
concentrations (Kuhlbusch
et al.
2002).
184 PM
10
respectively PM
2.5
samples (quartz
fibre filter, 720 m³ in 24 h) were collected from
11/8/2003 until 8/8/2004 every second week for 7
days at a traffic site in Dresden (55,000 vehicles per
day). Samples were analysed for main components,
trace elements and PAH (Gerwig, 2004).
Average concentrations were:
29.1±12.4 μg/m³ PM
10
and 18.7±9.9 μg/m³ PM
2.5
.
The maximum PM
10
concentration (in case of
making chemical analyses) was 99.9 μg/m³ on
26/1/04. On this day a high proportion of fine
particles (PM2.5/PM10 = 84%) and the highest
arsenic und sulphate concentration (29,2 ng/m³
respectively 14,47 μg/m³) was observed. 96h-
backward trajectories (Draxler & Rolph, 2003) show
the origin of air masses from the Czech basins
through the Elbe Valley.
Obviously the high concentrations can be
attributed mainly to emissions from industrial brown
coal burning in the Czech basins (Steinhoff, 2003).
On 9 of 184 days (27/01/04 d, 29/2/04 f,
26/1/04 c, 9/3/04 h, 28/1/04 e, 8/3/04 g, 18/12/03 b,
13/8/03 i, 21/10/03 a; Group H) the daily average
was > 50 μg/m³. 96h backward trajectories indicated
at least one of following source regions: Czech
basins (b-d), the Ruhr area (b-e, i) or southwest
Poland (a, f-h) and never solely from North Atlantic
or Scandinavia.
For Group L 39 days were averaged with
concentrations < 20 μg/m³ PM
10
.
When comparing the contents of group H with
L in %, H consists of less earth crust, less elemental
carbon / organic matter and less sea salt but more
secondary aerosol. The wind speed was half. All
measured components showed less concentration in
group G compared to H with exception of Mg.
Group H can be subdivided in 2 classes:
Days 21/10/03, 18/12/03 and 13/8/03 were averaged
to class H_crust. 3 times more Earth crust (Si, Al, Fe,
Ti calculated as oxides) (30-38%) was observed at
these days compared to the other 6 days of H
(<10%), but only 17-29% secondary aerosol
(ammonium, sulphate, nitrate).
In contrast days attributed to H_second
consisted mainly of secondary aerosols (32-55%) and
a small amount of Earth crust (4-14%).
0
20
40
60
80
100
PM10 in μg/m³
earthcrust
secondary Ions
sea salt
EC + OM
UM (water+?)
H
ø>50μg/m³
L
ø<20μg/m
³
d
a
i
b
g
e
h
c
f
H_second
H_crust
Figure 1. Chemical composition of daily averages
> 50 μg/m³ and average of these days
compared to days < 20μg/m³.
Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Gnauk, Konrad Müller
and Erika Brüggeman from Department of
Atmospheric Chemistry, Leibniz – Institute for
Tropospheric Research, Leipzig for giving helpful
hints. This work was supported by the Saxon State
Agency for Environment and Geology under
reference number 13-8802-3520/10.
Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2003): HYSPLIT
(HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated
Trajectory) NOAA Air Resources Laboratory,
Silver Spring, MD.
http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html.
Gerwig, H (2004): Near traffic source apportionment
in the City of Dresden, Saxony (PART I: PM10
and PM2.5); Proceedings of the European
Aerosol Conference 2004,
J. Aerosol Sci.
, 35,
S695-696.
Kuhlbusch, Th.A.J., John, A.C., Fissan, H., Schmidt,
F. & Schmidt, K.G. (2002) in
workshop
Herausforderung Aerosole vor dem Hintergrund
der europäischen Umweltgesetzgebung,
(Frankfurt, GVC/DECHEMA, DECHEMA/
GDCh/DBG, GAeF, FZ Karlsruhe) ISBN 3-
89746-032-7, 85-96.
Steinhoff, G. (2003): Dissertation, University of
Hamburg.
http://www.chemie.uni-hamburg.de
/bibliothek/2003/DissertationSteinhoff.pdf