Size Segregated Characterization of Main Components in Kerbside Particulates
in Dresden, Germany
H. Gerwig
1
, E. Brüggemann
2
, Th. Gnauk
2
, K. Müller
2
, A. Plewka
2
, H. Herrmann
2
1
Section Regional Air Pollution Control, Climate Change, LFUG - Saxon State Agency for Environment and
Geology, Dresden, Germany, Holger.Gerwig@lfug.smul.sachsen.de
2
Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Leibniz – Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany
Keywords: Chemical composition, Urban aerosols, Ultrafine particles, MOUDI.
High concentrations of PM
10
have been
frequently measured at air quality monitoring stations
in the agglomerations areas near road traffic. To
understand the reasons for the exceedences of the
EU-PM
10
limit values in a great number of cities in
Europe it is very important to know more about the
chemical composition of urban aerosols at kerbsides.
The analysed size fractions of aerosols for main
components (Brüggemann
et al.
, 2000) and metals
(Singh
et al.
, 2002) have been used for source
apportionments.
Nine 96 h (172.8 m³) measurements by Micro
Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) from
0.056 to 10 μm particle diameter have been made
from October 2003 until July 2004 usually from
Monday to Thursday. Additionally 24h Berner
Impactor samples were taken at the same time on
Thursdays. The traffic site (A) with about 55,000
vehicles per day were compared to one sample from
a nearby urban background site (B), at least 100 m
away from streets with less than 5,000 vehicles per
day (Gerwig
et al.
2004).
Three maxima of mass concentration are in
the size range from 0.32 – 0.56 μm, 1.0-1.8 μm and
3.2 – 5.6 μm (Tab. 1).
Table 1. 4 day averaged mass conc. of main
components in 9 PM size ranges in kerbside
particulates at Dresden, n = 9 Oct-03 – Jul-04.
0,056 –
0,100
0,10 –
0,18
0,18 –
0,32
0,32 –
0,56
0,56 –
1,00
1,0 –
1,8
1,8 –
3,2
3,2 –
5,6
5,6 –
10
Conc.
in μg/m³
NH4+
0,01
0,04
0,11
0,31
0,19
0,31
0,01
0,00 0,00
Na, Mg, Cl
0,004
0,01
0,01
0,03
0,02
0,05
0,10
0,15 0,14
NO3-
0,004
0,01
0,05
0,17
0,13
0,35
0,11
0,11 0,04
SO42-
0,02
0,07
0,25
0,65
0,42
0,66
0,07
0,06 0,03
EC
0,25
0,64
0,48
0,66
0,30
0,45
0,07
0,07 0,05
OM
0,14
0,38
0,50
0,88
0,24
0,50
0,13
0,18 0,13
UM
0,22
0,44
0,81
1,48
0,75
1,44
0,87
1,88 1,31
PM
0,65
1,59
2,20
4,19
2,05
3,77
1,35
2,45 1,69
Dp (μm)
The main components were uneven
distributed between the size ranges (Fig. 1). In the
coarse fraction (1.8 – 10 μm) was the highest
percentage of Na, Cl, Mg and unknown material
(crustal matter, water).
The secondary aerosol components
ammonium, sulphate and nitrate were mainly found
in the accumulation mode (0.32 – 1.8 μm), nitrate
also in the coarse mode.
The percentage of elemental carbon increased
with decreasing particle sizes. Two thirds of ultrafine
PM (0.056 – 0.100 μm) was carbonaceous.
During the winter samples more elemental
carbon in the ultrafine PM and more Na, Cl, Mg was
found in the coarse mode.
39%
40%
22%
16%
15%
12%
5%
3%
3%
22%
24%
23%
21%
12%
13%
10%
7%
8%
33%
28%
37%
35%
36%
38%
64%
77%
77%
3%
4%
11%
16%
20%
17%
5%
2%
2%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0,056 –
0,100
0,10 –
0,18
0,18 –
0,32
0,32
– 0,56
0,56 –
1,00
1,0 –
1,8
1,8 –
3,2
3,2 –
5,6
5,6 – 10
Dp (μm)
EC
OM
UM
SO42-
NO3-
NH4+
Na, Mg, Cl
Figure 1. Percent particle size distribution in 9 size
ranges of 4 day averaged mass conc. of main
components in kerbside particulates at Dresden.
This work was supported by the Saxon State Agency
for Environment and Geology. under reference
number 13-8802-3520/10.
Brüggemann, E., Franck, U., Gnauk, T., Müller, K.,
Neusüß, Ch., Plewka, A., Spindler, G., Stärk, H.-
J., Wennrich, R. & Herrmann, H. (2000)
Korngrößendifferenzierte Identifikation der
Anteile verschiedener Quellgruppen an der
Feinstaubbelastung, final report for Saxon State
Agency for Environment and Geology, Zur
Wetterwarte 11, 01109 Dresden, Germany
(Reference number 13-8802.3521/46).
Gerwig, H., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T., Müller, K.,
Plewka, A. & Herrmann, H. (2004):
Atmospheric
particle size distributions for source
apportionment in Dresden, Saxony
in Proc. 13th
World Clean Air and Environmental Protection
IUAPPA Congress and Exhibition 22.-27.8.2004
London.
Singh, M., Jaques, P.A & Sioutas, C. (2002)
Atmospheric Environment,
36, 1675-1689.