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Near traffic source apportionment
in the City of Dresden, Saxony
PART II: Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
Holger Gerwig
1
, Hartmut Bittner
2
1
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden
2
Department of Umwelt Service, TÜV Industrie Service GmbH TÜV
SÜD Group, Dresden, Germany
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 2
Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
1.
Introduction: Why detecting PM10 exceedances ?
2.
Measurements in Dresden
3.
Results
PM10 source apportionment according to Lenschow
Exceedances of limit values by long range transport
Saharan dust caused exceedances
4.
Conclusions

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 3
EU-directive
for protection of health
EU/1999/30 + in Germany: 22. BImSchV
(PM10)
Limit value: 35 x > 50 μg/m³
PM10 daily
av.
Dresden traffic
2003: 53 x > 50 μg/m³
2005: 39 x > 50 μg/m³ (until 08-2005)
->
air quality plan
for 2005 necessary
Contents
of main components varies in
time, place, particle diameter
:
Ammonia, sulphate, nitrate, soot, earth crust,
sea salt, organic matter
Project:
“Korngrößendifferenzierte Feinstaubbelastung
in Straßennähe in Ballungsgebieten Sachsens”
mucous
membrane of
Nose
>10 μm
larynx
4.7 – 6.8 μm
trachea and
bronchial tubes
3.3 – 4.7 μm
sec. + terminal
bronchial tubes
1.1 – 3.3 μm
alveole
< 1.1 μm
size dependent
depth
of penetration of
particulate matter
into human

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 4
“visible” urban aerosol and Saharan dust in the atmosphere
outskirts Dresden
16-12-2004
52 μg/m³ PM10
Kufstein
21-02-2004

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 5
Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
1.
Introduction: Why detecting PM10 exceedances ?
2.
Measurements in Dresden
3.
Results
PM10 source apportionment according to Lenschow
Exceedances of limit values by long range transport
Saharan dust caused exceedances
4.
Conclusions

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 6
Measurements in Dresden
11-08-2003 - 08-08-2004
outskirts
10 km Northwest
urban background
400 m Northeast
roadside station
55 000 vehicles per day

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 7
HVS Samples
11-08-2003 - 08-08-2004
Sampling
every second week
for 7 days (24h)
PM10 and PM2.5
location 1:
roadside
period:
1 year:
11-08-2003 - 08-08-2004
number:
184
location 2 + 4 :
urban background and outskirts
period:
5 weeks
: 3 summer + 2 winter
number:
35
Analysis
main components
earth crust
(calculated oxides of Ca, Fe,
Ti, Mn + calculated Si, Al from Fe)
trace elements
PAH

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 8
Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
1.
Introduction: Why detecting PM10 exceedances ?
2.
Measurements in Dresden
3.
Results
PM10 source apportionment according to Lenschow
Exceedances of limit values by long range transport
Saharan dust caused exceedances
4.
Conclusions

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 9
PM
2.5
14%
9%
8%
1%
13%
25%
18%
0,6%
11%
18.7±9.9 μg/m³
PM
10-2.5
6%
9%
2%
6%
10%
10%
1,2%
9%
46%
10.4 μg/m³
PM
10
11,3%
9,2%
5,8%
2,7%
12,1%
20,0%
14,6%
0,8%
23,6%
soot
org. mat.
dust+earth crust
SO4
NO3
NH4
sea salt
trace el.
water + UM
Roadside traffic station
annual average of main components
(8-2003 – 8-2004)
29.1±12.4 μg/m³
Dust + earth crust: more in coarse mode

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 10
Horizontal profile of PM10 in Dresden
PM
10
in μg/m³
Fig. modified from. LENSCHOW et. al. (2001) Atmospheric Env. 35, S23-33
urban origin
conglomeration Dresden
0
50
1-2 = local street
traffic fraction
2-4= urban origin
4= outskirts + background
1 traffic
2 urban background
3 regional background
4 outskirts

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 11
Roadside traffic
urban background
suburban
loc. 1
loc. 2
loc. 4
PM
10
10,7%
11,4%
6,0%
4,2%
13,2%
19,7%
14,0%
0,7%
20,2%
PM
10
13,3%
13,6%
7,7%
3,2%
15,1%
23,4%
9,4%
0,5%
13,7%
PM
10
15,8%
11,4%
7,9%
2,4%
21,9%
20,0%
7,5%
0,5%
17 μg/m³
12,7%
27 μg/m³
21 μg/m³
Feb-2004 + Jul-Aug-2004

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 12
Sources of PM10 at roadside station in Dresden
Emission inventories + PM10 compound concentrations at 3 stations
(Lenschow)
28.1%
23.4%
3.5%
24.8%
12.3%
7.9%
local street
traffic in city
traffic in suburbs and
long range transport
households
industry
agriculture and nature
(5 % ammonia)
= 43,6%
traffic
PM
10
sources
(5.1 % soot

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 13
Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
1.
Introduction: Why detecting PM10 exceedances ?
2.
Measurements in Dresden
3.
Results
PM10 source apportionment according to Lenschow
Exceedances of limit values by long range transport
Saharan dust caused exceedances
4.
Conclusions

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 14
Days PM
10
> 50 μg/m³
9 of 27 days >50 μg/m³ during sampling period were analyzed
0
25
50
75
100
27-1
29-2
26-1
9-3
28-1
8-3
18-12
13-8
21-10
PM
10
in μg/m³
earthcrust+metals
NH4
NO3
SO4
org. mat.
soot
sea salt
UM (water)
earthcrust
Hcr
secondary aerosol
Hsec

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 15
Hsec
32-55%
secondary aerosols ; < 0°C
Hcr
30-38%
earth crust
L
< 20 μg/m³
PM10
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Hsec
Hcr
L<20
PM10 in %
earthcrust+metals
NH4
NO3
SO4
org. mat.
soot
sea salt
UM (water)
secondary aerosol
Hsec
earthcrust
Hcr

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 16
26-01-2004, Hsec
31-08-2003, L
Class Hsec + Hcr (> 50μg/m³)
,n = 9
no rainfall
1-6 days before
wind velocity half of group L (
1.1 m/s
)
more
inorganic secondary aerosol
or
earth
crust
96h backward trajectories: at least one source
regions:
Czech basins, the Ruhr area or
southwest Poland
Class L (< 20μg/m³)
, n = 39
Almost
every day rain
Wind velocity: 2.2 m/sec
96h backward trajectories:
14 x North Atlantic
,
Scandinavia
; 12 x from West; 13 x different
origins
Conc. all compounds:
L < H
exception
magnesium

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 17
27 days of exceedance (During sampling period)
could probably reduced with traffic reduction by x days:
0
25
50
75
100
125
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
reduction in number of days > 50μg/m³ PM
10
with less traffic
PM
10
μg/m³
traffic in suburbs and long range transport
traffic in city
local street
diesel soot
- 16
- 8
- 6
- 3

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 18
Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
1.
Introduction: Why detecting PM10 exceedances ?
2.
Measurements in Dresden
3.
Results
PM10 source apportionment according to Lenschow
Exceedances of limit values by long range transport
Saharan dust caused exceedances
4.
Conclusions

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 19
PM2,5 / PM10 minimum, (< 0,75) on 22-02-2004
y = 0,75x - 2,98
R
2
= 0,90
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
PM10
PM2.5
Saharan dust 22-02-2004

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 20
22-2-04 Saharan dust over Sizily
NASA (MODIS)
22-2-2004 96h Backwards trajectories
(Draxler, NOAA HYSPLIT)
21-2-04 Saharan dust over
Sardinia
NASA (MODIS)
Saharan dust events
10 days per year in Leipzig on av.
(ANSMANN, 2004)
more of coarse fraction
(PM2,5/PM10<0,75)

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 21
Exceedances of the EU-PM10 limit value
1.
Introduction: Why detecting PM10 exceedances ?
2.
Measurements in Dresden
3.
Results
PM10 source apportionment according to Lenschow
Exceedances of limit values by long range transport
Saharan dust caused exceedances
4.
Conclusions

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 22
Conclusions
Traffic
is the
source
of
44%
of
PM10
at a
roadside station
in Dresden,
5%
from
diesel soot
from
local street
emissions
Exceedances
of limit value > 50 μg/m³ PM10 daily average:
no rain
, low wind speed, air masses from
polluted areas
2 classes
Hsec:
high conc.
secondary aerosols
+ days < 0°C
Hcr
: high conc.
earth crust + street dust
Saharan dust caused exceedances on 22-02-2004
with about
40 μg/m³
and
PM2,5/PM10 < 0,75
Interpretations regarding Size Segregated Characterization
of Main Components with MOUDI + Berner Impactors:
EAC-presentation
: Tuesday 11:30 Aerosol Chemistry (J. v. Eyck room)
report
:
www.umwelt.sachsen.de/lfug/luft-laerm-klima_5356.html

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 23
Acknowledgements
Department
Umwelt Service
,
TÜV
Bau und Betrieb GmbH,
Dresden, Dr. Bittner
Analytics of PM
10
und PM
2.5
filter
Staatliche Umweltbetriebsgesellschaft
Mr. Lohberger, Dr. Müller et al.
Sampling PM
10
and PM
2.5
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden
Financing the project

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EAC Ghent, August 28 – September 2, 2005
22 Air Quality
Department 2 - Integrative Environmental Protection, Air/Climate, Radiation
Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology, Dresden, Germany
Holger Gerwig et al.: Near traffic source apportionment in the City of Dresden,
Saxony PART II: Exceedences of the EU-PM10 limit value
Slide 24