INSTITUT FÜR CHEMISCH-TECHNISCHE UND ÖKONOMISCHE FORSCHUNG UND BERATUNG
SÄCHSISCHES STAATSMINISTERIUM FÜR UMWELT UND LANDWIRTSCHAFT, DRESDEN
VERTRETEN DURCH DAS
SÄCHSISCHE LANDESAMT FÜR UMWELT UND GEOLOGIE, DRESDEN
VERMINDERUNG DER EMISSION SCHWER ABBAUBARER
KOMPLEXBILDNER IN SACHSEN
PHASE I, TEIL 2: ARBEITSPROGRAMM VOLLZUGSUNTERSTÜTZUNG
ABSCHLUSSBERICHT
TEXTBAND
NOVEMBER 2001
ECOTEC

Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie
Sachgebiet: Abwasserinhaltsstoffe
Abschlussbericht:
Nr.:
FuE2001-323-2-21
Berichtszeitraum:
2001
Seitenzahl:
57 (inkl. Inhaltsverzeichnis und Anhang)
Tabellen (Anzahl):
8
Abbildungen (Anzahl):
25
Sonst. Anlagen:
Materialienband (257 Seiten)
zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben:
Bewertung, Untersuchung und Verminderung von Emissionen ausgewählter, die Gewässerbe-
schaffenheit beeinträchtigender Abwasserinhaltsstoffe im Freistaat Sachsen
- Teilprojekt 1: Quantitativer Stofffluss - Arbeitsprogramm Vollzugsunterstützung
Aktenzeichen:
13-8802.3502/64
von:
Autoren:
Dr. Rainer F. Nolte, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Klaus Schuller
Durchführende Institution:
ECOTEC
Institut für chemisch-technische und
ökonomische Forschung und Beratung
Schlagintweitstraße 11
80638 München
Projektleiter:
Dr. Rainer F. Nolte
Datum
Unterschrift
29. November 2001

Gesamtinhaltsverzeichnis
Textband
1.
Hintergrund unf Zielsetzung
2.
Methodik
3.
Analytik
4.
Ergebnisse
5.
Fazit
Anhang
Materialienband
Datenblätter und Probennahmenprotokolle - Betriebe
Datenblätter und Probennahmenprotokolle - Kläranlagen

Inhaltsverzeichnis Textband
Abkürzungsverzeichnis
1.
Hintergrund und Zielsetzung.......................................................................................1
2.
Methodik....................................................................................................................3
Top-Down-/Bottom-Up-Analyse................................................................................. 3
Differenzierung nach Hauptflussgebieten (HFG).........................................................3
Auswahl der Betriebe..................................................................................................5
Auswahl der Kläranlagen............................................................................................7
Auswahl der Vorfluter ................................................................................................9
3.
Analytik.................................................................................................................... 11
Analytik der betrieblichen Proben.............................................................................11
Analytik der Proben aus Kläranlagen und Vorflutern ................................................13
Fehlerbetrachtung Probennahme, Analytik und Frachtbestimmung ...........................13
4.
Ergebnisse................................................................................................................17
Frachten aus den Betriebe.........................................................................................17
Frachten aus Haushalten............................................................................................23
Frachten aus den Kläranlagen....................................................................................25
Frachten in den Vorflutern........................................................................................29
Frachten nach Hauptflussgebieten.............................................................................31
5.
Fazit.......................................................................................................................... 49
Anhang
Anhang 1 Immissionsfrachten von EDTA in wichtigen Vorflutern Sachsens
2000/2001
Anhang 2
Zuordnung von FGKZ im Hauptflussgebiet Weiße Elster zu den Bilanzre-
gionen
Anhang 3 Veränderungen in den Nrn. zu den Komplexbildner-relevanten Anhänger
der Abwasserverordnung

Abkürzungsverzeichnis
Abw
Abwasser
AbwV
Abwasserverordnung
DOC
gelöster organischer Kohlenstoff (dilluted organic carbon)
DTPA
Diethylentriaminpentaessigsäure
E
Einwohner
EDTA
Ethylendiamintetraessigsäure
FGKZ
Flussgebietskennziffer
GC
Gaschromatografie
GKZ5
Gebietskennziffer 5-stellig
HFG
Hauptflussgebiete
KA
Kläranlage
Mdg.
Mündung
MQ
Mittlerer Abfluß (zeitpunktbezogen, Tag, Jahr)
MS bzw. MSD
Massenspektrometer / Massenspektrometerdetektor
NTA
Nitrilotriessigsäure
oh.
oberhalb
PAG
projektbegleitende Arbeitsgruppe
PDTA
Propylendiamintetraessigsäure
StUFA
Staatliches Umweltfachamt
UBG
Sächsische Umweltbetriebsgesellschaft
uh.
unterhalb
VwV
Verwaltungsvorschrift
WEG
Wassereinzugsgebiet

a) Herstellung Komplexbildner-haltiger Produkte
b) Komplexbildner-haltig
c) im besonderen zu beachten bei Vorflutern
entlang Landes-/Bundesgrenzen bzw. aus
anderen Bundesländern/Staaten
* überwachungsbedürftige Abfälle
Wasser-
aufbereitung
Verarbeitung
innerhalb BL
a )
Indirekteinleiter
(Kanalisation)
Bundesland
Sachsen
Deutschland
Import
Rohstoff
Import
Produkte
b )
Direkteinleiter
Abwasser
Abwasser
Abwasser
Abwasser
Abfall
Abbau
Abbau Abbau
Abbau
Export
Rohstoff
Import
Rohstoff
Export
Produkte
b )
Import
Abfall
b )
Export
Abfall
b )
Export
Produkte
b )
Fremdbezug
von Wasser
Herstellung
Rohstoff
Verarbeitung
beim Hersteller
a )
Verarbeitung
außerhalb BL
a )
Anwendung
innerhalb BL
Abfall-
behandlung
Abfallexport*
Abbau
Vorfluter
Deponie
Abwasser-
behandlung
(öffentlich)
Abwasser-
behandlung
(industriell)
interne
Abwasser-
behandlung
Grundfracht
c )
Grundfracht
c )
Industrie
Haushalte
Output
Input
Lagerung
Grosshandel
Import
Produkte
b )
Anwendung
außerhalb BL
Niederschläge
Grundwasser
Abfall
Qualitativer Stofffluss für
Komplexbildner in Sachsen
ECOTEC

1
1.
Hintergrund und Zielsetzung
Im Ergebnis der durch das Sächsische Ministerium für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft vergebe-
nen Vorstudie "Qualitativer Stofffluss schwer abbaubarer Komplexbildner in Sachsen" wurde
festgestellt, dass im Freistaat Sachsen immissionsseitig in den Oberflächengewässern an aus-
gewählten Messstellen langjährige Messprogramme zu einigen schwer abbaubaren Komplex-
bildnern durchgeführt werden. Demgegenüber liegen zur Herkunft und den Quellen der Kom-
plexbildner und damit emissionsseitig derzeit jedoch keine Untersuchungsergebnisse vor. Vor
dem Hintergrund der Verlängerung der Selbstverpflichtung der Industrie zur Reduzierung des
EDTA-Einsatzes und der gemessenen Gewässerbelastungen kommt somit einer Feststellung
und Betrachtung von Belastungsschwerpunkten aus Industrie und Gewerbe besondere Be-
deutung zu.
Weiterhin wurde auf EU-Ebene ein Risk Assessment für die als prioritär eingestuften EDTA
(Säure und Na
4
-Salz - erste Prioritätenliste) und NTA (dritte Prioritätenliste) initiiert. Dieses
Risk Assessment ist auf die Verordnung (EWG) Nr. 793/93
1
gestützt, die ein System zur Be-
wertung und Kontrolle der Umweltrisiken chemischer Altstoffe vorsieht. Das Risk Assess-
ment für EDTA (federführend Deutschland) ist abgeschlossen und weist als übergreifendes
Ergebnis aus, dass einerseits noch weitere Informationen notwendig sind und andererseits
Risiken für Wasserorganismen bestehen und diese Risiken begrenzt werden sollen.
Zur Quantifizierung dieser Stoffströme ist es daher erforderlich, von den als potentiell bedeut-
sam ermittelten Betrieben Emissionsangaben zu gewinnen, um somit die Voraussetzung zur
quantitativen Beschreibung des Stoffflusses für den Bereich des Oberflächenwassers zu schaf-
fen. Mit dem Stofffluss ist dann eine fundierte Entscheidungsbasis verfügbar, die eine Beur-
teilung der Quellen und Emissionen sowie von geeigneten Ansatzpunkten für Minderungs-
maßnahmen liefert.
Demzufolge ist die Zielsetzung des "Arbeitsprogramms Vollzugsunterstützung", eine quanti-
tative und landesweite Kennzeichnung der wichtigsten Quellen der vier relevanten Komplex-
bildner EDTA, NTA, DTPA und PDTA zu erstellen. Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen der
Vorstudie und Parallelergebnissen aus anderen Regionen sind dazu jeweils rund 100 Konzen-
trationsmessungen bei Kläranlagen und Betrieben schwerpunktorientiert durchzuführen. Die-
se Messergebnissse sind anschließend frachtbezogen zu bewerten und anhand von Stofffluss-
betrachtungen zu überprüfen. Dazu sind Konsistenzanalysen der Stoffflüsse zwischen Einlei-
tern, Kläranlagen und Vorflutern durchzuführen. Sie sind eine weiterreichende Vorgehens-
weise, die eine zusätzliche Fundierung der Ergebnisse und zugleich die Ergebnisdarstellung
nach Hauptflussgebieten ermöglicht. Diese Darstellungsweise zeigt flächendeckend für das
Landesgebiet erstmals Größenordnungen für die Komplexbildnerströme von den Einleitern
über die Kläranlagen bis zu den jeweiligen Vorflutern und orientiert sich damit zugleich an
den Zuständigkeiten der betroffenen Fachbehörden.
Diese herausfordernde Aufgabenstellung hätten wir ohne die engagierte und tatkräftige Mit-
arbeit der Zuständigen in den Fachbehörden nicht bearbeiten können. Für diese maßgebliche
Unterstützung bedanken wir uns hiermit bei allen Beteiligten.
1
vom 23. März 1993, ABl. Nr. L 84 vom 5.4.1993

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2
Identifizierung potenziell relevanter Anwender
der ausgewählten Komplexbildner
ECOTEC
Top-Down-Analyse
Stoffstromstation
Anwendungsbereich
Prozessstufe/Branche
potenziell relevante Betriebe
Bottom-Up-Analyse
potenziell relevante Betriebe
Einleitestelle (Direkteinleiter)
Messstelle
"auffälliger" Vorfluter
=
Hauptflussgebiete im Freistaat Sachsen
ECOTEC
HFG
Spree
HFG
Schwarze
Elster
HFG
Mulden
HFG
Eger
HFG
Saale
HFG
Eger
HFG
Elbe
HFG
Weiße
Elster
HFG
Weiße
Elster
HFG
Lausitzer
Neisse
Bayern
Tschechien
Polen
Thüringen
Sachsen-Anhalt
Brandenburg

3
2.
Methodik
Top-Down-/Bottom-Up-Analyse
Wenn keine Messungen von Komplexbildnern im Abwasser von Betrieben vorhanden sind,
können dennoch über zwei Wege potenziell relevante Anwender identifiziert werden:
1. Die Top-Down-Analyse liefert über den kausalen Analyseweg Stoffstromstation A n-
wendungsbereich Prozessstufe/Branche potenziell relevante Betriebe, die voraussich t-
lich Komplexbildner einsetzen. Die zugehörigen Betriebe resultieren aus den zur Verfü-
gung stehenden Datenquellen, wie Mitgliederlisten, Branchenlisten, etc.
2. Die Bottom-Up-Analyse liefert über den Analyseweg "auffälliger" Vorfluter (mit hohen
Messwerten) Messstelle Einleitestelle potenziell relevante Direkteinleiter. Diese
können einerseits einzelne Betriebe und andererseits kommunale Kläranlagen mit den an-
geschlossenen indirekteinleitenden Betrieben sein.
Dabei ist zu beachten, dass hohe Konzentrationswerte im Vorfluter auch durch die Einmün-
dung von Nebenflüssen mit hohen Konzentrationswerten zustande kommen können (z.B. die
Chemnitz in die Zwickauer Mulde).
Differenzierung nach Hauptflussgebieten (HFG)
Der Freistaat Sachsen kann von Westen nach Osten in acht Hauptflussgebiete eingeteilt wer-
den (HFG-Nr.):
Saale (567)
Weiße Elster (566)
Mulden (541, 542, 549)
Eger (532)
Elbe (537)
Schwarze Elster (538)
Spree (582)
Lausitzer Neisse (674).
Wobei sieben Hauptflussgebiete - bis auf das der Lausitzer Neisse - zum Wassereinzugsgebiet
der Elbe gehören.
Die Hauptflussgebiete der Eger und Saale sind für Sachsen von keiner bzw. sehr geringer Be-
deutung. In das Hauptflussgebiet der Eger leiten keine Kläranlagen ein und in das HFG der
Saale leitet nur eine Kläranlage (2.700 angeschlossene Einwohner) ein.

4
Ablauf der Betriebsauswahl
ECOTEC
Stoffstromstationen
Verarbeitung
in Sachsen
Anwendung
Industrie
Lagerung/
Großhandel
Abfall-
behandlung
Deponie
Σ
Vorschlag
ECOTEC
10
55
2
0
0
67
-4
+5
-26
+20
-1
+9
+1
Vorschlag
PAG
1)
11
49
1
9
1
71
Ergänzung/
Verminderung
nach Kläranlagen-
analysen
±0
+3/-1
±0
±0
±0
+2
Verminderung
(Betriebe ohne
Abwasser)
±0
-1
±0
-1
±0
-2
Betriebsbasis
11
50
1
8
1
71
l Betriebe mit
Probennahme
4
39
1
7
1
52
1)
PAG = Projektbegleitende Arbeitsgruppe

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5
Auswahl der Betriebe
Über die Kette Vorfluter Messstelle Einleitestelle Direkteinleiter (Bottom-Up-
Analyse) konnten sowohl emissionsrelevante kommunale Kläranlagen als auch direkteinlei-
tende Betriebe gefunden werden. Nach dem Abgleich mit Prozessstufe/Branche (Top-Down-
Analyse) konnten namentlich beispielhaft ausgewählte Betriebe und kommunale Kläranlagen
ermittelt werden.
Auf der Basis der Vorstudie wurden aus 125 potenziell relevanten Betrieben von ECOTEC 67
Betriebe getrennt nach StUFA-Zuständigkeit für das Arbeitsprogramm Vollzugsunterstützung
vorgeschlagen. Durch die projektbegleitende Arbeitsgruppe wurde die Vorschlagsliste über-
arbeitet und ergänzt.
Damit ergab sich eine neue Betriebsbasis, aus der für das Arbeitsprogramm 71 relevante Be-
triebe ausgewählt wurden, bei denen für eine Teilmenge (ca. 30 Betriebe) Einleitermessungen
durchgeführt werden sollten.
Auf der Basis dieser Auswahl grundsätzlich relevanter Betriebe wurde mit einem dreistufigen
Vorgehen die Betriebsauswahl weiter verfeinert: Anhand der in den Kläranlagen bestimmten
Frachten wurde dabei die Betriebsauswahl zielgerichtet angepaßt. Damit konnte bei der gege-
benen Anzahl von Messungen eine frachtbezogene Optimierung der Erfassung erreicht wer-
den, die letztendlich zu einer höheren Repräsentativität der erfassten Einleiterfracht - gemes-
sen an der landesweiten Fracht - führte.
Es wurde zudem abhängig von den Ergebnissen der Kläranlagenanalysen Betriebe aus der
Liste der 71 Betriebe gestrichen oder ergänzt. Beispielsweise zeigte sich während der Durch-
führung der Probennahmen bei der Kläranlage Rodewisch eine unerwartet hohe Fracht, ohne
dass dafür betriebliche Einleiter bekannt waren. Deshalb wurde die Probennahme gezielt um
drei, neu hinzugenommene Betriebe erweitert.
Insgesamt wurden bei 52 Betrieben (15 Direkteinleiter, 37 Indirekteinleiter) 100 Probennah-
men im Zeitraum 16.10.01 bis 14.11.01 durch die Staatlichen Umweltfachämter durchgeführt.
Betriebe mit Probennahmen /
Anzahl Probennahmen
nach StUFA und HFG
Hauptflussgebiet
(HFG)
Bautzen
Chemnitz
Leipzig
Plauen
Radebeul
Summe
Weiße Elster
8 /
13
4 /
8
12 /
21
Mulden
13 /
29
1 /
3
1 /
3
15 /
35
Elbe
17 /
24
17 /
24
Schwarze Elster
4 /
10
1 /
3
5 /
13
Spree
2 /
4
2 /
4
Lausitzer Neisse
1 /
3
1 /
3
Summe
7 /
17
13 /
29
9 /
16
5 /
11
18 / 27
52 /
100
Die Proben wurden beim Labor görtler analytical services gmbh, Flöha bzgl. EDTA, NTA,
DTPA und PDTA analysiert.

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