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Breeding of Fast-Growing Tree
Species for Changing
Environments

2 |
15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Agenda
Forestry in Saxony
Forest tree breeding in Saxony
The first decades after establishment
The last decades in the 20
th
century
The first decades in the 21
st
century
Conclusions

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15.09.2016
| Heino Wolf
3
Forests in Saxony
Saxony

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15.09.2016
| Heino Wolf
4
Forests in Saxony
Parameter
Germany
Saxony
Area of forests
11.419 million ha
0.533 million ha
Forest area/person
0.139 ha/person
0.129 ha/person
Percentage on total area
32 %
29 %
Percentage of conifer species
54 %
66 %
Percentage of broadleaved sp.
43 %
32 %
Growing stock
3.663 billion m³
0.157 billion m³
Cuttings/year (2002-2012)
76 million m³
2.3 million m³
Reforestation area/year
n. a.
1,300 ha

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15.09.2016
| Heino Wolf
5
Forest tree breeding in
Saxony
Established 1946, in Tharandt
Since 1951, in Graupa near Pirna
Today, one of 4 major tree breeding institutions in Germany

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding –
the first decades
Improvement of wild fruit species to
cope with vitamin deficiency of
population
Improvement of fast growing species
to cope with increasing wood demand
for post-war reconstruction
Standard
Höhe
BHD
Schaftform
0
50
100
150
200
250
Graupa 68
Rel. Werte
in %
Standard
Höhe
BHD
Schaftform
Geringe
Astigkeit
Geringe
Steilastbildung
Schütte-
resistenz
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Prozent
Vergleich Sorte Tharandt V (2003: 24 x 68) zu
Vergleichsnachkommenschaften über 3 Standorte
Standard
Höhe
BHD
Grundfläche
Rohdichte
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
Vergleich Sorte Graupa I (3105) zum Vergleichsstandard
über 4 Standorte
Prozent

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the last
decades of the 20
th
century
Conservation of forest genetic resources esp. Norway
spruce
Improvement of SO
2
-resistance esp. Norway spruce
Breeding of new varieties
Testing of introduced species as replacement for a
certain length of time
Procurement of FRM descending from approved varieties
by vegetative and generative propagation

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the last
decades of the 20
th
century
SO
2
-resistant Norway spruce
Hybrid larch for highly polluted areas

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the last
decades of the 20
th
century
Picea abies
31%
Larix
species
19%
Picea
pungens
16%
Pinus
contorta
6%
Picea
omorica
6%
Other
conifers
6%
Broadleaved
species
16%
Reforestation of 8.775 ha totally damaged by SO
2
-
pollution from 1962 to 1991

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the last
decades of the 20
th
century
FoB Neudorf, Ore mountains, highly
SO
2
-
polluted
area
from 1962 to
until 1996

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the last
decades of the 20
th
century
Abies procera
age 50a, height 25m, bhd 45cm
Pinus contorta
age 28a, height 13,5m,
bhd 26cm
Pinus peuce
age 27a, height 12m,
bhd 25cm
FoB Neudorf
Ore mountains,
highly polluted area until
1996

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the last
decades of the 20
th
century
Larix x eurolepis/Larix kaempferi
920–990m asl, age 30a
Larix decidua
730-750m asl, age 30a
FoB Neudorf
Ore mountains, highly polluted area until 1996

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
Change of climate (scenario A1B) to 2100
Increase of mean annual temperature
(2 to 2,5 K)
Impact on early frosts, no impact on late
frosts
Impact on evaporation
Drecrease of precipitation during
vegetation period by 20 to 50 %
Increase of drought periods
Interest and role of SBS
Management of state owned forests
(165.000 ha, 80 % artificial regeneration)
Consultant for private forest owners
Research & Development
1971 - 2000
2091 - 2100

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14 |
15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
Increasing impacts of climate change
Increasing wood demand for energy and industrial purposes
Conservation of forest genetic resources
Improvement of stability, productivity and quality

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
Assessment of properties related to drought resistance
Assessment of properties related to frost resistance
Trial plots
Greenhouse
Laboratory
Trial plots
Climate chamber

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
11-153 F
11-165 V
11-161 R
11-126 Z
11-142 T
11-185 U
11-151 D
11-158 M
11-136 L
9-278 E
9-307 P
9-257 E
11-138 N
11-167 X
11-163 Z
11-128 B
11-130 D
11-147 Z
7-729 A
11-207 V
11-129 C
11-194 E
11-277 D
10-44 B
9-58 T
11-62 X
7-728 Z
9-311 U
10-92 H
11-271 W
10-47 E
8-1975 X
9-868 G
9-308 R
Rostmix
12-462 Z
DGZ (tatro/ha/a)

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
12.09.16
29.04.16
31.05.16
14.06.16
01.08.16

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century

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19 |
15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
In vitro-propagation
Controlled
crossings
Raising of
plants

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Tree breeding – the first
decades of the 21
st
century
Use for establishment of shelter wood, admixtures for a
certain length of time, midterm rotation plantations etc.

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15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
Conclusions
Conservation of forest genetic resources
no
problem
Improvement of genetic resources under changing
environments
no problem
Sustainable procurement and use of improved material
significant challenge in Germany to cope with
There is still a lot of work to be done in the field, in the
green house, in the laboratories, but also in the mind
of people

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22 |
15.09.2016 | Heino Wolf
The research work is supported by the European
Union, the Government of Germany and the
Government of Saxony
Thank you very much for your attention