Excursion 9. - 10. 5. 2017
ResiBil – Bilance vodních zdrojů ve východní části česko-saského pohraničí a
hodnocení možnosti jejich dlouhodobého užívání
ResiBil - Wasserresourcenbilanzierung und –resilenzbewertung im deutsch-
Česká geologická služba
Bohemian Cretaceous Basin
Stop 1. Belveder
Belveder locality is located north of Děčín, in the upper part of a canyon-like Elbe River
valley, on its right bank near the village of Labská stráň (Elbleiten). The valley is lined in its
upper part by continuous, up to 75 m high rock walls, made up mainly of sandstones
belonging to the Bílá Hora Formation or Schmilka Formation, respectively, the uppermost
level of the valley being represented by sandstones of the Jizera Formation/Postelwitz
Formation. The Belveder locality lies in the vicinity of a scenic terrace viewpoint situated on
a flat top of a high rock block, at 160 m above the Elbe River level. The construction of the
terrace was ordered by the prince Francis Charles Clary-Aldringen in the 18
terrace could be accessed by a straight lane-lined road leading from a nearby castle in the
Bynovec/Binsdorf village. Adjacent to the terrace is a small sala terrena (garden pavilion)
hewn in a several-meters high rock wall, overtopping the viewpoint terrace. The latter served
not only as a viewpoint but also as a gathering place for prince´s guests listening to the
performing orchestra, sitting in the sala terrena.
The visitors of the locality can study the boundary between the Bílá Hora and Jizera
Formations. The boundary is sharp and morphologically marked in the field by a rock step.
The surface of the Belveder viewpoint plateau coincides with an uneven sedimentary surface
representing the top of the Bílá Hora Formation, marked by a ferricrete and burrows of
Thalassinoides type (fig. 1). The middle and upper parts of the Formation are made up by
hard, silicified medium to coarse quartz sandstones with an admixture of fine-conglomerate
fraction locally concentrated into sharp, up to several decimeters thick interlayers. The Bílá
Hora sandstones typically exhibit mainly tabular cross bedding. The sets of these sandstones
are about 1 m thick and commonly form co-sets. The dip of the laminae in the cross bedded
units trends mostly WNW, occasionally SE or even E. This development can be well-
observed along a steep path leading from the viewpoint terrace down to the Elbe River. The
coarse sandstones of the Bílá Hora Formation are sharply overlain by yellowish grey, well-
sorted, fine- to medium-grained sandstones of the basal section of the Jizera Formation. They
crop out along with sala terrena near the east margin of the viewpoint plateau. They are
intensely bioturbated and thoroughly lack any current structures. The network of cylindrical,
branching bioturbation structures classified as ichnogenus Thalassinoides is so conspicuous in
forming a dominant fabric so that it can be described as “Thalassinoides event” (Fig. 2). The
boundary between the Bílá Hora and Jizera Formations indicates a short depositional break, a
termination of a dynamic sedimentation influenced by activity of strong bottom currents and
by onset of relatively calm, fine sandy material sedimentation accompanied by intense
bioturbation activity of decapods. The development of lithological boundary at Belveder is
typical and easy to correlate both in outcrops and in borehole logs in the Bohemian-Saxon
Switzerland west, as well as east of the Elbe canyon.
Fig. 1. A surface in the top wall of coarse-grained Bílá Hora sandstone with numerous Thalassinoides-
type bioturbation structures. The Belveder scenic terrace viewpoint.
Fig. 2. Fine- to medium-grained, well sorted sandstones of lowermost part of the Jizera Formation.
They exhibit a dense burrow system of the Thalassinoides-type ichnogenus. The wall of sala terrena
near the Belveder scenic terrace viewpoint.
Stop 2. and 3. Sloup rock city:
Introduction and geological framework
Fig. 3. Overview map showing location of stops 2 and 3 within Sloup rock city, located to the SE from
Nový Bor. Blue line indicate correlation cross-section presented in fig. 5.
Sloup rock city, located in the NE-part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, in the N-part of the
hydrogeological region 4650. Most of the area is covered by deposits of Březno and Teplice
Fms., Coniacian by age, except for the SE- part of the Fig. 3, where Upper Turonian deposits
of the Jizera Fm. crop out. Stratigraphic position of the area of interest is illustrated by Fig. 4.
The present-day structure of the BCB has been significantly affected by post-depositional
tectonism, especially in the area of interest. As evidenced by well log-based genetic-
stratigraphic correlation (Fig. 3), an array of normal fault is expected to be present on the
NW-margin of the Sloup rock city, dividing two structural units, Lasvice Horst in the SE, and
Nový Bor Graben in the NW, respectively. The latest significant deformation of the basin
infill was caused by several phases of Oligo-Miocene extensional faulting due to formation of
the Eger Graben (cf. Rajchl et al. 2009, Uličný et al. 2011).
Fig. 4. Stratigraphy and lithofacies development of the NW-part of the BCB with indication of
stratigraphic interval recorded by boreholes commented in the text. Explanations to stratigraphy: 1)
regional lithostratigraphy after Čech et al. (1980); 2) informal litostratigraphy after Soukup (1955); 3)
genetic stratigraphy (Uličný et al. 2009, 2015); 4) chronostratigraphy
Nový Bor Graben represents a marginal part of more extensive subsided structure,
traditionally termed Benešov “syncline”. The Upper Cretaceous deposits in this structural low
reach up to 1000 metres, forming the thickest sequence within the entire BCB.
Most of the Březno Fm. is formed by coarse clastic deposits of the Březno Fm. (Coniacian),
attributed to lithofacies group traditionally labelled as „quader“ sandstone (
1850). Coarse-grained deposits of the Březno Fm. overlie several tens of meters (180 m as
evidenced by borehole 4650_A Skalice, to the W from the area of interest) thick fine-grained
sequence composed of calcareous claystones and siltstones or marlstones. This sequence
comprise, in places, few tens of meters thick alteration of fine-grained quartzose and
argillaceous sandstones with mudstones/siltstones, termed „flyschoid“, or heterolithic facies,
Valečka (1979a) claimed that (“quader-“) sandstones and coeval fine-grained facies were
deposited in a shallow-water environment of an epicontinental sea with minimum seabed
topography. Valečka (1979b) discussed a possible barrier island formation as a result of high
clastic supply, presence of favourable current regime and a higher subsidence. On the basis of
analysis of sedimentary structures, outcrop- and basin-scale depositional architecture,
Fig. 5. Cross-section illustrating tectonic deformation of area in the vicinity of Nový Bor. Nový Bor
and Tlustec Graben comprising young, Coniacian fill, are divided by NE‒SW-oriented Lasvice Horst.
Presence of an array of normal faults crossing the area of Sloup (NW margin of Sloup rock city) has
been verified by borehole 4650_F. Modified after Nádaskay ‒ Uličný (2014) and Uličný et al. (2015).
Uličný (2001) and Uličný et al. (2009) interpreted most of the Turonian and early Coniacian
sandstone bodies in the northern and NW-part of the BCB as the deposits of coarse-grained
deltas. However, origin of (“quader-“) sandstones bodies in the area of interest was not
discussed in this work.
As for the so-called „flyschoid“ facies, Valečka & Rejchrt (1973) and Čech et al. (1987)
assumed that its deposition resulted from periodical changes of current velocity during the
basinward transport of the clastic material, although they conceded a marginal possibility of
turbidity current action as well. Valečka (1984) supposed that transport of sand into areas of
dominantly fine-grained deposition required the activity of occasional extreme storm events,
although he considered amalgamated sets of sandstone as possible turbidites. In the
depositional models of Uličný (2001) and Uličný et al. (2003a, 2009a), the heterolithic facies
occupies the bottomset area of coarse-grained deltas and is interpreted as prodelta deposits
with a significant influence of gravity flows caused by floods in the fluvio-deltaic system.
According to Nádaskay & Uličný (2014) relatively coarse-grained quartzose (“quader”)
sandstones, are interpreted as foreset packages deposited by progradation of deltaic
depositional systems, seaward from the faulted edge of the basin. The thickness of the foreset
package was used by Uličný (2001) to estimate minimum water depth available for
progradation, with steep, high-angle foresets (H-type) typically associated with deep-water,
Gilbert-type deltas, and the low-angle foresets (L-type) with shallow-water deltas. Correlation
of outcrops to subsurface data in the Sloup v Čechách and Svojkov areas indicate a maximum
thickness of a contiguous foreset package as much as 90 m, suggesting a depth of at least 90
m at the topset edge, most probably increasing downdip. The deposition on the prograding
delta fronts was dominated by an interplay of two processes: (1) the primary deposition by
gravity flows and (2) their subsequent reworking by ambient currents. Whereas the gravity-
current deposits (represented by chute-channel fills) within foresets contain the coarsest part
of the load carried by the sandy gravity flows, finer-grained parts stayed suspended longer and
were deposited beyond the delta toes, forming the heterolithic bottomset facies.
Fig. 6. Summary chart of the facies assemblages of individual geometric types of deltas and their
depositional environments with respect to the proposed depositional model (Fig. 7). Inset sketches
illustrate the principal features of the type-H and type-L foreset packages, with numbers of individual
lithofacies shown in cross-sections. The box at the bottom shows simplified examples of mutual
relationships of H- and L-type foreset packages in dip-parallel cross-sections, and a schematic well-log
response (GR – gamma-ray log).
Stop 2. Exposures of Coniacian sandstones in Sloup v Čechách village
The solitary rock under the Sloup Castle represents a typical exposure of H-type delta slope
foresets. As evident from the photomosaic (Fig. 7), the section consists of southwest (220°)
dipping foresets in a relatively steep inclination (15-20°), with large erosive chute channels
incised in them at several places. In some cases, only backsets were deposited, without the
underlying foresets being eroded. The middle part of the section exhibits a largest one among
the slope troughs running across the whole section and besides the foresets, it cuts in its upper
part the underlying, smaller erosional trough as well. The original backset lamination is
absent, in some cases the slope trough being filled then with massive coarse sandstone having
a sizeable admixture of a material coarser than 2 mm, including labile clasts. Unlike the
foresets made up of fine- to medium sandstones, they are considerably coarser.
As shown by the correlation cross-section (Fig. 5) the exposure below the Sloup castle
belongs to a huge, ca. 90 m thick complex of deltaic bodies, reached in the nearby Chotovice
borehole 480751. Presence of both the foresets marked by sub-parallel lamination (and by
subordinate occurrence of trough cross-bedding), plus the backsets and genetically akin
erosional troughs indicates this deltaic body having been deposited in an upper-flow regime.
The exposures spread all over the nearby Sloup rock city show a very similar character as
those occurring below the rock castle. The Dědovy kameny locality serves as a good example
Fig. 7. Photomosaic of H-type foreset package (locality Rock Castle, Sloup v Čechách) interpreted as
a part of the Sloup Rock City delta, sequence CON 2/3. The inclination of foresets (~15°) in the
oblique cross-section is lower than the real dip angle. Black arrow: dip direction (220°), gray arrow:
orientation of the outcrop wall (275°). Parallel-bedded foreset strata are cut by an irregularly eroded
floor of the chute channel that was modified during filling by a succession of cyclic steps (backset
strata). Note the transition from sharply onlapping backsets into aggrading, sub-parallel bedding
conformable with the slope. Scale varies laterally due to perspective.
Stop 3. Exposures of Coniacian sandstones around the Slavíček hill (near Svojkov
Section Dědovy kameny (“Old man's rocks”) in the vicinity of Svojkov village represents a
typical development of the quartzose sandstones of the Březno Fm. in the Sloup rock city.
These are interpreted by Nádaskay & Uličný (2014) as a thick H-type foreset package,
representing younger part of the stratigraphy, namely unit CON 2/3, presumably Middle
Coniacian. Within Lužické hory Mts., H-type foresets of the Coniacian deltas typically crop
out in large exposures in the Sloup area, near Radvanec, or in the Cvikov region, further to the
The section can be divided in two parts, with lower part strongly dominated by deposits of
gravity currents. Several “homogenite” bed can be recognized within the section (Fig. 8).
They are formed by massive medium- to coarse-grained sandstone and are interpreted as
chute channel fills. This facies contains a variety of soft-sediment structures related to
thorough liquefaction and fluidization of the sediment. Convoluted relicts of stratification are
indicated by white lines. The fluidization may be attributed to collapse of sediment fabric
after rapid deposition, or to passage of seismic waves. In places, block of sandstones of
contrasting lithology (often burrowed) are intrepreted in the channel fill massive sandstone as
a kind of “rip-up” clasts. Although upper part of the section is dominated by reworking of
foreset strata by tidal currents, as evidenced by abundant trough-cross beds, backset
lamination is preserved in places. This indicate that foresets in the upper part of the section
were deposited in the upper flow regine from downslope transported sand-laden suspension.
1) Subparallel bedding deformed
by soft-sediment liquefaction
2) View to the outcrop from
Svojkov village. Note relatively
steeply inclined delta-slope
3) „Olistoliths“ of burrowed
sandstones in the chute-channel fill
Azure-colored beds are described
as „homogenite“ bed in the field, and
are interpreted as chute-channel fills
4) Soft-sediment deformed
layer within chute-channel fill
Section Svojkov ‒ Dědovy kameny
Stop 4. Jurassic limestones
The Jurassic limestones crop out at several small localities near Doubice (Daubitz), Kyjov
(Khaa) and Brtníky (Zeidler). They occur nowhere else in Bohemia.
Doubice – Vápenka (Vápenný vrch)
There are a number of abandoned shelf quarries and pit quarries in this locality. Abandoned
and partly backfilled galleries occur in some of them. All the quarries are situated in a forest
near the Doubice and Krásná Lípa (Schönlinde) road (Fig. 9).
The area lies near the Lusatian Fault, an important Saxonian discontinuous tectonic structure.
In this area, the Fault separates the Late Cretaceous sediments from granitic rocks of Lusatian
Massif. The geological setting is complicated, as there are Jurassic sediments and Permian
rocks represented by volcanic rocks and sediments sandwiched between the Cretaceous and
the granitic rocks (Fig. 10). The Jurassic and Permian occur in several minor tectonic blocks
dragged upwards along the Lusatian Fault (Fediuk et al. 1958, Dvořák in Svoboda et al. 1964,
Klein et al. 1971, Valečka et al. 1997). The blocks are confined by a system of strike-slip- and
cross faults. The exposures in the abandoned shelf and pit quarries are the most extensive and
significant outcrops of Jurassic platform sediments on Czech Massif´s territory. In the past,
these Jurassic rocks were quarried as construction materials. Their exposures are
discontinuous and are up to 130 m thick. Eliáš (in Klein et al. 1971) subdivided them into
three lithological units, the oldest unit being the Brtnice Formation. It consists of basal,
siliciclastic, mottled, greenish light grey, medium-grained sandstones. The younger unit, the
ca. 100 m thick Doubice dolomite is a sequence of bluish grey to brown-grey dolomitic
limestones and dolomites. The series of Jurassic deposits ends up with dark grey bituminous
limestones, about 20 m thick. The dolomites and limestones are massive or thick-bedded,
fragmented and contain marly interlayers at places (Fig. 11).
The sequence of the carbonate rocks often exhibits crushed zones. Only a stratigraphically
unimportant fauna was found in the Doubice dolomites (Chrt 1957, Fediuk et al. 1958). Eliáš
(in Klein et al. 1971) describes finds of ammonite
described by Bruder (1886, 1887) near the Lusatian Fault.
The Pb-Zn and Cu mineralization found in the Jurassic sediments has no practical value (Chrt
1957). Chalcopyrite, chalcocite, pyrite, psilomelane and silver-bearing galena were found
among the minerals, malachite and azurite being also abundant. In the northwestern and
southeastern vicinity of the quarries, fragments and small outcrops of granitic rocks of the
Lusatian massif and Permian quartz porphyries or even arkoses and sandstones with mudstone
interlayers were found. They belong to the Vrchlabí and Prosečná Formations. The
northwestern, western and southeastern surroundings of the quarries are known for the
occurrence of fine-grained, slightly silty sandstones of the Březno Formation (the Upper
Cretaceous, Coniacian). Two thin dykes of neo-volcanic rocks were found to occur in
fragments and blocky outcrops in the close vicinity of the quarries. They are represented by
nepheline basanite, and/or nepheline tephrite with olivine admixture (Shrbený in Klein et al.
Fig. 9. The detail map with a number of abandoned shelf quarries and pit quarries on Vápenný vrch.
Fig. 10. The Geological map near Doubice – Vápenný vrch.
Fig. 11. The bluish grey to brown-grey dolomitic limestones and dolomites
Stop 5. Milířka - Lusatian Fault
The Milířka stream bed forms a deeply incised valley, about 2 km south of Dolní Podluží
village (Fig. 12.). Its name reminds us of the charcoal piles (die Meiler), where charcoal was
burned for foundries, ore dressing plants and glassworks. The middle portion of the valley is
associated with an important geological linear structure, the Lusatian Fault that separates the
Lusatian granitic massif lying in the north from the sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous
Basin in the south (Fig. 13). The granodiorites of the Lusatian Massif in the mid part of the
valley protrude towards the valley´s southern part substantiating the existence of granodiorites
being thrust over the Cretaceous sandstones (Fig. 14). Old mines are associated with the fault
and they have been made accessible by ´a miner´s educational trail´ that runs through the
whole valley from Dolní Podluží to the mountain saddle below the Ptačinec hill.
Fig. 12. The tourist map of the valley Milířka.
Fig. 13. The geological map around the Milířka stream.
Fig. 14. The a
bandoned quarry of Čertova
stráň, the subhorizontal striations on the Lusatian Fault.
The oldest document bringing information about mining is a chart from 1474 giving permit to
placer mining in the Tolštejn dominion. Adits were driven probably later, in the 16
under the noble family von Schleinitz. Large amounts of quartz rubble occurring on some
dumps indicate the exploitation of quartz for glassworks operating in this area since the
second half of the 13
century. The mining activity here probably came to a close many years
ago, since documents from the year 1800 only mention 200 to 300 years old shafts and
galleries in the area. At present, four galleries are known to occur in the valley, out of which
two are backfilled. Besides galleries, one can find remains of overgrown spoil pits and mine
shafts almost everywhere. In the lower section of the valley an adit mouth occurs at the foot
of the Kozí hřbet ridge (Ziegenrücken) at the site Knížecí studánka (Prince´s fountain),
equipped with new brickwork in 2004. The adit mouth is mentioned in a document dated to
the end of the 18
century and is called Anthony gallery (Antonsstollen). It is thought to have
drained the diggings occurring higher-up in the hanging wall. Most traces of mining activity
may be found in the midst of the valley that follows the Lusatian fault. The gallery, called
is driven approximately northeastwards, following a granite and green-
schist boundary. It is noted as a winter habitat of several bat species. The mouth entrance has
been enclosed with bars since 1993. Big spoil heap cut nowadays by the stream bed belonged
mine, which is believed to be the biggest silver and base-metal mine in the
Milířka valley. To the right of the Uhlířská cesta/Collier´s path, there is a shallow side valley
in the past. The valley is actually a quarry for quartz extraction, and it
follows a quartz vein for a distance of about 240 meters. The quartz might have been quarried
as a raw material for glass production in small glassworks that existed in the area as early as
in the second half of the 13
Stop 6. Dutý kámen near Cvikov (Hohlstein bei Zwickau in Böhmen) - Bohemian
Dutý kámen (379 m a.s.l.) is a c. 600 m long forest-covered ridge, running southwards off the
road from Cvikov to Kunratice, about 0.5 km from Drnovec. The ridge juts out 20-30 m
above the surrounding area and consists of a silicified Cretaceous sandstone of the Březno
Formation, intruded lengthwise by a 3-4 m thick Tertiary volcanic dyke called polzenite. That
dyke occurs nowhere on the surface, its existence being corroborated by a road-cut digging in
the nineteen seventies. The Dutý kámen is particularly notable by the columnar jointing of the
above mentioned sandstone (Fig. 15).
The sandstone joints (“pillars”) on the Dutý kámen hill were brought about by the polzenite
dyke, which, even though not protruding towards the surface, was accompanied by hot gas
and steam. These ascended along the joints towards the surface heating the sandstone to a
high temperature. This was not enough to melt the rock, but had caused its consolidation by
silicification. The cooling that followed afterwards resulted in decrease in the sandstone´s
volume and subsequently, its platy jointing or breaking into thin vertical slabs originated. In
the nearest vicinity of the joints struck by the highest temperatures, transversal cracks formed
breaking the sandstone into small fragments giving rise to tetra- to hexagonal columns. Away
from the highest temperature loci, these columns first take the form of panel-shaped bodies,
transiting into non-deformed blocky sandstone. On the Dutý kámen hill the columnar jointing
of the sandstone is visible at several places, being best-developed on a 2.5 m high monadnock
(protruding hillock) standing out approximately in hill´s central part.
Sandstone quarrying on Dutý kámen (Hohlstein) started since the beginning of the 19
century. Pits left after sandstone columns quarrying are still visible around the road in ridge´s
northern part. Large sandstone blocks used to be extracted particularly in the surroundings of
a viewpoint at the south end of the ridge. Sandstone was also extracted in a large quarry on
the east slope, its main wall highlighting the relation of the sandstone columns to a long
horizontal rock joint. In the southern part of the ridge there are numerous sandstone rock
grounds that served to the Alpine Club Kunnersdorfer “Gebirgsverein für Nordböhmen”
between 1913 and 1914 as a building site for the Körnerova výšina/Körnerhöhe scenic
viewpoint with a rock-cut relief of the German poet Theodor Körner (1791-1813). A narrow
staircase was hewn in the rock behind the relief leading to the flat top of the Široký kámen
hill. There was an astronomic-geographical display board and a sundial here but only small
vestiges of them are left. In the vicinity of the viewpoint there are several rock walls, the
highest one being relatively narrow at its foot broadening higher-up and having a cavity
(Höhle) near the top. This cavity gave its name to the ridge Dutý kámen/Hohlstein/Hollow
Fig. 15. The columnar jointing of sandstone.
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