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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Strategien zur Minderung des Stoffeintrages
in Oberflächengewässer
Michael Zimmermann

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Gliederung
1. Bodenerosion - Handlungsbedarf in Sachsen
2. Umsetzungsstrategien gegen Erosion durch Wasser
3. Ergebnisse von Bodenabtragsuntersuchungen
4. Schlussfolgerungen

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
1. Bodenerosion - Handlungsbedarf in Sachsen

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Handlungsfeld
Minderung bzw. Verhinderung der Wassererosion

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Quelle: LfUG, 2005
Bodenerosion in Sachsen
Rund 60 % der Ackerflächen (~ 450 Tsd. ha) sind
potenziell durch Wassererosion gefährdet.
Rund 20 % der Ackerflächen (~ 150 Tsd. ha) sind
potenziell durch Winderosion gefährdet.
Erfordernis
Durchführung umfassender
Vorsorgemaßnahmen gegen Erosion
zum Schutz von Boden und Gewässern

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
2. Umsetzungsstrategien gegen Erosion durch Wasser

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Hauptursache der Wassererosion auf Ackerflächen:
Oberflächenverschlämmung durch
Bodenaggregatzerfall

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Minderung der Wassererosion auf Ackerflächen
durch:
1.
Vermeiden von infiltrationshemmender
Bodenverschlämmung
2. Vermeiden von infiltrationshemmenden Boden-
verdichtungen
Wirksamste Maßnahme
Dauerhaft konservierende
Bodenbearbeitung im Fruchtfolgeverlauf

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Folgen der konventionellen bodenwendenden
Bodenbearbeitung mit dem Pflug
Oberflächlicher Wasserabfluss und Bodenabtrag infolge
einer infiltrationshemmenden Bodenverschlämmung

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Konservierende Bodenbearbeitung mit Mulchsaat:
•Erosionsminderung/-verhinderung durch Schutz der
Oberfläche vor Verschlämmung

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Vergleich verschiedener Parameter nach konventioneller und
achtjährig konservierender Bodenbearbeitung bzw. Direktsaat
Pflug
Konser-
vierend I
Konser-
vierend II
Direkt-
saat
Mulchbedeckung
[%]
1
13
16
77
Wasserstabile Aggregate [%]
20
22
23
25
Humus*
[%]
2,0
2,2
2,6
2,5
Mikrobielle Biomasse
[µg C
mic
/ g TS Boden]*
415
626
624
575
Regenwürmer
[Anzahl . m
-2
]
davon Tiefgräber (
L. terrestris
]
125
4
312
37
172
29
358
29
Makroporen [Zahl .m
-2
] 264 493 1022 775
* Bodenschicht 0 – 5 cm

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Folgewirkungen hoher biologischer Aktivität
in der Ackerkrume
hohe Aggregatstabilität
geringe Verschlämmung
verminderte Wassererosion
Voraussetzung:
Belassen von Mulchmaterial an der Bodenoberfläche

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Vorsorge gegen Bodenerosion durch Wasser
als Beitrag zum Gewässerschutz
•E
konservierende Bodenbearbeitung mit Mulchsaat
verhindern.
rosion lässt sich am besten durch die so genannte
•D
gewendet), so dass er in seinem Aufbau „konserviert“
wird. Auf der Bodenoberfläche verbleibt eine
schützende Mulchbedeckung.
er Boden wird gelockert aber nicht gepflügt (d. h.
•D
Mulchschicht hindurch der neue Pflanzenbestand gesät
werden.
urch modernste Mulch-Sätechnik kann durch diese

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Bodenerosion nach einem Gewitter
nach konventioneller bzw. konservierender Bearbeitung
(Niederschlag: 55 mm/45 min, Sächsisches Lößhügelland)
Dauerhaft
konservierend
Pflug
(nach 8 Jahren ohne Pflug)

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
3. Ergebnisse von Bodenabtragsuntersuchungen

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Beregnungsanlage

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Ergebnisse von Bodenabtragsmessungen im Erzgebirge
Untersuchungsstandort
Erzgebirge
Bodenart: Sl3, Bodentyp: Braunerde
Bodenbearbeitungsvarianten: Pflug, Konservierend, 2 Jahre
Beregnungsversuche
Transportable Kleinberegnungsanlage mit Flachstrahldüse
Beregnungsintensität: 1,9 mm * min
-1
, Beregnungsdauer: 20 Minuten
38 mm Niederschlag
Hangneigung: 10 %
Abtragserfassung
Kontinuierliche Erfassung von abgeflossenem Wasser und abge-
tragenem Boden
Ermittelte Parameter: Oberflächenabfluss
Bodenabtrag
P-Austrag

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Bodenbedeckung, Stabilität der Bodenaggregate,
Infiltrationsrate und Bodenabtrag bei
Beregnungsversuchen
Standort: Lippersdorf, 18.05.2000
Pflug
Kons.
Bedeckungsgrad [%]
74
78
Aggregatstabilität [rel.]
100
117
Infiltrationsrate [%]
48,2
84,8
Bodenabtrag [g/m²]
140,5
17,0

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Wasserinfiltration und Bodenabtrag auf gepflügter und
konservierend bearbeiteter Fläche
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0
Infiltration [mm]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Beregnungsminute
Pflug
Konservierend
Infiltrationsraten
Pflug: 48 %
Konservierend: 85 %
Bodenabtrag
Pflug: 141 g/m²
Konservierend: 17 g/m²

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Gesamt-P-Austragsminderung durch
konservierende Bodenbearbeitung (Pflug = 100 %)
(Erzgebirge, Beregnungsmenge: 38 mm in 20 Minuten)
0
20
40
60
80
100
Gesamt P: Abtrag (relativ)
Pflug
Konservierend
Gesamt-P-Austrags-
Minderung: ~ 90 %

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Gewässerschutz durch Minderung der Wassererosion –
Sachstand 2006 in Sachsen
•D
verfahren im Rahmen des Agrarumweltprogramms
„Umweltgerechte Landwirtschaft“
Eine weitere Förderung ist im ELER-Programm ist
vorgesehen.
er Freistaat Sachsen förderte dieses neue Anbau-
bis zum Jahr 2006.
•A
nachweislich die besonders boden-
schonende Mulchsaat ein. Das entspricht rund 34 %
der Ackerfläche Sachsens.
uf über 246.000 ha setzen Landwirte in Sachsen
und gewässer-

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Anpassungsbedarf beim neuartigen Verfahren
der konservierenden Bodenbearbeitung
Strohmanagement (Häckselqualität, Strohverteilung)
Stoppel- und Grundbodenbearbeitung sowie
Saatbettbearbeitung (Notwendigkeit, Geräteauswahl..)
Entwicklung und Einsatz funktionsfähiger Mulchsaat- bzw.
Direktsaattechnik
Fruchtfolgegestaltung
Durchwuchs- und Unkrautmanagement (z.B. Trespe,
Distel)
Krankheits- (z. B. Fusarium, DTR) und Schädlings-
management (z. B. Schnecken, Mäuse)
Düngungsstrategie….

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Strategien zur weiteren Förderung
bodenschonender Maßnahmen in Sachsen
• Beratung
- Berater der Ämter für Landwirtschaft
- Internetportal „Boden“
(www.landwirtschaft.sachsen.de/lfl)
- Maschinenvorführungen und Feldtage
• Akzeptanzsteigerung durch Demonstration der Wirkungen der
konservierende Bodenbearbeitung (Feldversuche usw.)
• Arbeitskreise (z.B. AK Konservierende Bodenbearbeitung)
• Fachinformationen durch Konsultationsbetriebe

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
4. Schlussfolgerungen

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
• Die dauerhaft konservierende Bodenbearbeitung ist die
zentrale Maßnahme eines nachhaltigen Erosionsschutzes
mit direkten Wirkungen für den Gewässerschutz.
•Die Neuartigkeit der dauerhaft konservierenden
Bodenbearbeitung macht die Erarbeitung acker- und
pflanzenbaulicher Anpassungsstrategien erforderlich.
• Beregnungsexperimente belegen, dass bei konservie-
render Bodenbearbeitung sowohl Oberflächenabfluss als
auch Boden- und P-Abträge deutlich gesenkt werden.
• Zur Optimierung der bodenschützenden Wirkungen der
konservierenden Bodenbearbeitung müssen ihre
Wirkungen auf den Boden exakt beschrieben werden.

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Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft
Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit!
Weitere Informationen:
www.landwirtschaft.sachsen.de/lfl/boden