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UFIPOLNET LIFE04 ENV/D/000054
UFIPOLNETnews No. 13 23-May-2007
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UFIPOLNET: Interim Report Available (EN)
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The Dangers of Diesel Exhaust (EN)
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Estimated Benefits of Reducing Particulate Matter (EN)
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High Levels of Ultrafine Particles Found in Ice Hockey Arenas (EN)
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Feinstaub Kann Kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen Verursachen (DE)
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UFIPOLNET: Interim Report Available (EN)
The technical interim report of the project, which summaries the process and future goals of the project,
will be available in the end of May on the ufipolnet website.
The programm and the invitation of the conference ”ultrafine particles in urban air” will be available from
11-Jun-07.
Source:
www.ufipolnet.eu
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The Dangers of Diesel Exhaust (EN)
Everyday, Americans are exposed to diesel exhaust, which can lead to health problems such as: lung
cancer, asthma, many respiratory infections, stroke and even death. There have been many medical
studies devoted to the documentation of adverse health impacts from air pollutants in diesel exhaust. Dr.
George Thurston of the New York University of Medicine explains that of the many polluting diesel
emissions, carbonaceous particulate matter or fine particle soot is among the most dangerous. "Diesel
Particles are very tiny in comparison to many other atmospheric particles…they can even penetrate from
the lungs into the bloodstream, carrying with them other toxic substances," says Thurston. Health
researchers estimate that fine particles like the ones found in diesel exhaust cause health problems and
ultimately shorten the lives of at least 70,000 Americans each year. When are people exposed to the
dangerous particles? It is during daily commutes either by driving or taking diesel-powered mass transit
that most people breathe the fine particles. Furthermore, as daily commutes tend to lengthen, so
increases peoples’ exposure to diesel exhaust.
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In four U.S. cities, the Clean Air Task Force (CATF) has investigated and tracked with monitors the levels,
during commutes by car, transit bus, commuter train, ferry and walking, of four main components of diesel
exhaust: fine particles (PM2.5), ultrafine particles (PM<0.1), black carbon, and particulate polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Findings show that pollution levels inside cars, buses and trains were four
to eight times greater than in the outside air. Solutions lie within the implementation of cleaner fuels and
emission control technology such as diesel particulate filters (DFP).
Original source:
C. G. Schneider and L. Bruce Hill, PhD (2007) «No Escape from Diesel
^
Exhaust», Clean Air Task Force
Source:
http://www.catf.us/publications/reports/No_Escape_from_Diesel_Exhaust.pdf
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Estimated Benefits of Reducing Particulate Matter (EN)
Researchers recently investigated the value that Italian citizens place on a human life as an attempt to
quantify the benefits associated with risk-reduction measures in the area of air pollution and global
warming. The projected rise of global temperature will presumably escalate the frequency and intensity of
air pollution peaks, which increase the risk of vascular and respiratory disease in humans. The costs of
risk reduction are based on regulation implementation, which consists of technological, regulatory and
compliance costs, and the benefits are based on avoided deaths and diseases. Respondents to a survey
for 800 city dwellers between the ages of 30 and 75 were asked how much they are willing and able to
pay for reductions in the risk of dying from the aforementioned diseases. Based on the values obtained
from the survey, researchers calculated the value of a statistical life (VSL), which is how much money
society, is willing to pay to avoid the death of an unknown citizen, to be between 420-830 thousand Euros.
According to the World Health Organisation, if the concentration of airborne particulate matter was
reduced from 52.6μg/m
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to 30μg/m
3
, 3,473 deaths would be avoided by people over 30 years old. Based
on the calculated VSL, the benefits of such a particulate matter reduction would between 2,600 and 5,500
million Euros per year.
Original source:
Anna Alberini and Aline Chiabai (2007) « Urban environmental health and sensitive
populations: How much are the Italians willing to pay to reduce their risk? », Regional
Science and Urban Economics 37:239-258.
Contact:
aalberini@arec.umd.edu
Source:
"Science for Environment Policy" 26-April-2007 Issue 62
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/themes_en.html
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4 High Levels of Ultrafine Particles in Canadian Ice Skating Arenas (EN)
Exhaust from the ice resurfacing machines in ice arenas releases dangerous particles into the air. As part
of a CBS News investigation, the ultrafine particle levels of 42 ice arenas in Halifax, Sudbury, Winnipeg,
Edmonton and Vancouver were tested by Kenneth Rundell of the human performance lab at Marywood
University in Scranton, PA. 24 per cent of the arenas tested higher than 60,000 particles of pollution per
cubic centimeter and 14 per cent higher than 100,000particles per cubic centimeter. In addition to
disturbing asthma and cardiovascular illnesses, levels this high can decrease lung capacity according to
Rundell. Ice skating athletes are at highest risk due to frequent exposure and Rundell found that they had
a higher prevalence of exercise induced asthma and chronically low lung function. An ideal, yet expensive
solution is to replace existing ice resurfacing machines with ones powered by electricity, which would not
release particles into the air and eliminate dependence on fossil fuels. Until these machines become more
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affordable, improving ventilation systems and installing vents close to the ice instead of in the roof would
help to regulate lower particle levels in
the air.
Ice resurfacing machines in skating arenas
release high levels of tiny particles into the
air. (CBC)
Original source:
CBS News 12-Mar 2007
http://www.cbc.ca/canada/edmonton/story/2007/03/12/arena-pollution-
070312.html#skip300x250
Source:
CBS News 15-Feb-2007
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/02/15/health/webmd/main2483769.shtml
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5 Feinstaub Kann Kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen Verursachen (DE)
Für eine amerikanische Studie mit mehr als 65.000 Teilnehmerinnen im Alter von 50 bis 79 Jahren, die in
36 verschiedene USA Städten lebten, wurde über zehn Jahre die Krankengeschichten aufgezeichnet. Die
kardiovaskulären Ereignisse der Probandinnen wurden mit dem Grad der Luftverschmutzung in ihren
Wohnorten verglichen. Speziell wurden die kleinsten Luftpartikel von weniger als PM 2,5 untersucht.
Während dieser zehn Jahre waren bei 1816 Frauen ein tödliches oder nicht tödliches kardiovaskuläres
Ereignis aufgetreten. Auf welche Weise der Feinstaub kardiovaskuläre Schäden führt, ist unbekannt. Die
Untersuchung zeigte aber, dass jeder Anstieg von 10 Mikorgramm Feinstaub pro Kubikmeter Luft mit
einem 24% Risikoanstieg für kardiovaskuläre Ereignisses und einem 76% Anstieg für Tod aufgrund solch
eines Ereignisses verbunden ist.
Original source:
Miller, K.; et al.: N. Engl. J. Med. 356, 447-458 (2007).
Dockery, D.; et al.: N. Engl. J. Med. 356, 511-513 (2007).
Source:
Apotheker Zeitung – Germany
<http://www.deutscher-apotheker-
de/daz_neu/public/tagesnews/Mai/tagesnews20070510b.html>
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Acknowledgement:
This issue is to the largest extent edited by Cara Beasley.
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CONTACT
Dr. Holger Gerwig
Chemist / Desk officer
Project manager of UFIPOLNET
Email: Holger.Gerwig@smul.sachsen.de
Internet:
http://www.umwelt.sachsen.de/lfug
UFIPOLNET:
http://www.ufipolnet.eu
UFIPOLNET = Ultrafine particle size distributions in air pollution monitoring networks
UFIPOLNET is realised with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community, Contract No.: LIFE04 ENV/D/000054
UFIPOLNETnews 13; xx-Apr-2007
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