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Managing Preserving Developing

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FOREWORD
O
ver 300 years ago, Freiberg chief mining
administrator Hans Carl von Carlowitz introduced
the term and principle of “sustainability” into our
business life. Today, this principle has significantly
broadened its scope. At Sachsenforst, our daily work
in the forest takes into consideration sustainable
utilisation, as well as the needs of those seeking
recreation and conservation aspects.
The forest is habitat of numerous plants and animals,
while simultaneously serving as a place of recreation
for many people. Timber, a regionally available,
renewable raw material, is also produced in this forest.
But these elementary requirements cannot always be
met equally. Multi-purpose forestry also means having
a mutual understanding and to compromise.
With an ecological forest conversion, we are helping the
sensitive forest ecosystem to adapt to climate change.
We improve its protective function, and preserve and
develop fragile landscapes. In the state forest, we also
use state-of-the-art, soil-friendly forestry technology,
as well as efficient, modern organisational structures,
to increase our profitability. Many small and medium­
sized businesses benefit from forestry work.
Eco-tourism is a priority on the agenda of Saxony’s
large nature reserves. Here as well as across the entire
state forest, we impart environmental knowledge and
awareness to young and old. Interested private and
corporate forest owners receive advice and assistance
from us on how to properly manage their forests.
The basis of information applied to sustainable
management of all forest properties is constantly
being expanded at our Competence Centre for Wood
and Forestry.
Forestry in Saxony has a tradition of having an eye to
the future. “Managing, preserving, developing” is what
our daily work is all about.
Prof. Dr. Hubert Braun,
Landesforstpräsident
(Managing Director)
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SACHSENFORST
Managing, preserving, developing
SACHSENFORST
S
achsenforst’s tasks are as varied as Saxony’s
forests themselves. In addition to managing the
state forest*, Sachsenforst also bears responsibility
for the large nature reserves, and provides extensive
forest-related information gained from forest research
and environmental monitoring. As a Superior Authority
for Forests and Hunting, Sachsenforst helps to ensure
that the legal regulations affecting the forest are
complied with, and consequently that the forest can
fulfil its many functions in future.
The Public Enterprise Sachsenforst founded on
1 January 2006 is the product of the former state forest
administration and the Saxon forestry offices. It is part
of the Saxon public administration as a special superior
state authority.
Its headquarters, located in Pirna/Graupa, includes
the General Management, the Competence Centre
for Wood and Forestry, as well as the Superior
Forests and Hunting Authority. The operational level
is split into twelve forest districts and three nature
reserve administrations with a total of 181 forest
stations. Sachsenforst also encompasses one forestry
apprenticeship and further training centre, three forest
schools, two machinery stations, one seed kiln, three
forest-tree nurseries and the Moritzburg wildlife park.
Sachsenforst currently employs around 1,450 staff,
who, along with the outsourced services, make it one of
the biggest rural employers. Sachsenforst is supervised
by the Saxon State Ministry for the Environment and
Agriculture (SMUL) and its administrative board.
We’re taking responsibility preserving
Saxony’s forest, with its functional and
structural diversity, and constantly adapt
it to changing environmental conditions!
The forest as
a whole
We improve protective functions, and
preserve and develop fragile landscapes
within the state forest and in the nature
reserves we monitor!
Preserving
We help private and corporate forest
owners to manage their forests!
Private and
corporate forests
We increase our profitability in the state
forest while preserving the consistency of
all its functions!
Usage
We maintain and increase the recreation
facilities in our forest and nature reser­
ves in line with public needs, promote
environmental awareness, and support
eco-tourism!
Recreation
We develop the information basis for
sustainable management of all forest
properties!
Competence Centre
for Wood and Forestry
* The term “state forest” as used in this publication exclusively denotes the forest owned by the Free State of Saxony.
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SACHSENFORST IN FIGURES
29 %
of Saxony’s total area
Sachsenforst are:
is forest. This corresponds to
533,000
1,454
employees,
hectares.
including
Private forest
46 %
State forest
39%
(Free State of Saxony)
Corporate forest
8%
State forest (Federal
5%
Republic of Germany)
Church forest
2%
!
?
15,000
75,000
consultations performed every year with
interested learners make use of our
over 8,000 private forest owners.
forest education services every year.
13,000 km
of trails are available to visitors
in the state forest.
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Who owns Saxony’s forests?
trainees
12
forest districts
3
nature reserve
administrations
181
forest stations
2
million
invested every year in forest
15 million
spent on average per
conversion and remedy of
year on conservation.
forest damage.
Over
800
identified biotope tree groups
which have been preserved create a habitat for many
different species in the state forest, and help to increase
biodiversity.
64 million m
3
of timber in the state forest.
12.2 m
3
of timber
grow in one hectare of forest every year.
Around
1.3 million m
3
used every year as part of forest maintenance
and timber harvesting.
SACHSENFORST IN FIGURES
On approx.
1,200 hectares
we plant and sow a new generation of trees every
year as part of the forest conversion scheme. In
terms of plants, that means:
3 million
European beeches
1 million
oaks
1 million
silver firs
Which types of trees
grow in the state forest?
51.0 % spruces
17.3 %
pines
0.6 %
other conifers
5.9 % oaks
13.0 % other deciduous trees
6.4 % beeches
4.7 % larches
Sources: German Federal Forest Inventory 2012, Management Report 2015
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WE ARE SACHSENFORST
Romi Seibel
works in the
management’s HR division.
Together with her colleagues, she
looks after Sachsenforst’s 1,450
staff, and ensures all the talent
and diligent hands remain in the
company.
District forest official
Janina
Albrecht
runs the Glauchau
forest station in the Chemnitz
forest district, where she is the
first contact person for local
private and municipal forest
owners seeking information and
advice on forest management.
Florian Strauß
works as a
forester in the Neustadt forest
district and, like many of our
specialists, learned his profession
at Sachsenforst. His tasks include
planting, forest maintenance,
timber harvesting and building
recreation facilities.
Lorenz Richter
watches over
the animals and plants in the
biosphere reserve Oberlausitzer
Heide- und Teichlandschaft
as a ranger. He knows all the
region’s unique habitats and
rare species, explaining their
importance to many visitors on
tours through the nature reserve.
As head of the Oberlausitz
forest district,
Holm Karraß
is
responsible for almost 130,000
hectares of forest and some
60 staff. Together, they ensure
that the forests can fulfil its
utilisation, protective and
recreational functions, both
today and in the future.
WE ARE SACHSENFORST
Ulrike Gemballa
is a member
of the research team to
help Saxony’s forests at the
Competence Centre for Wood
and Forestry. She works in
the laboratory, examining
environmental impacts on forest
soils, and therefore on tree
growth.
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The landscapes in many regions of
Saxony are dominated by forests.
It is part of our culture, represents
a yearning for nature, but is also
an important economic factor.
Humans have long held significantly
influenced the forest’s appearance by
using its resources, particularly timber.
According to our legally stated
exemplary function, we manage
Saxony’s state forest properly,
harmoniously and sustainably.
MANAGING

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MANAGING
We’re planting the future
T
he forest is changing. There are historic reasons
for the pure spruces and pine plantations, which
continue to characterise Saxony’s forests until today:
In line with the social requirements of the time, these
tree species supplied the necessary construction and
industrial timber quickly and with relatively little
production expenses. Coupled with this, seeds for
deciduous tree species were only available to a very
limited extent.
In future we will face new challenges. Forests need
to be more adaptable, particularly due to the ongoing
climate change. A semi-natural mixed forest of coni­
ferous and deciduous species, for example, is more
resistant to storms, wild fires and harmful insects,
such as various bark beetles and butterflies. It also
provides a habitat for a lot more types of plants and
animals.
The conversion needed to change the composition
of the forests requires time and patience – it’s a task
for generations. Sachsenforst is helping with this
conversion, which will see appropriate mixed forests
established over some 1,200 hectares in the Saxon
state forest alone every year. Million young trees,
particularly European beeches, oaks, sycamores and
silver firs, will also be planted or sown, resulting in
some 15 million Euros being invested in the future of
Saxony’s forests every year.
MANAGING
We’re securing a balance
H
unting also plays a key role in securing the
investments in forest conversion. It guarantees
the maintenance of an ecological and economic balance
in terms of game numbers. Sachsenforst is striving
for woods, able to rejuvenate themselves naturally by
spreading their own seeds and largely without any
additional protective measures against damage from
bud browsing and bark peeling (e.g. fences).
The large, herbivorous wild animals (in Saxony
primarily red and roe deer) often cause significant
damage to the trees as a result of bark peeling,
rubbing off velvet or browsing. Heavily affected
forests are then particularly susceptible to other
harmful factors, such as bark beetles or storms.
Bark peeling
= gnawing and removing the trunk
bark
rotting caused by fungi, tree weakening, in
some cases extreme decrease in timber quality
Rubbing off velvet
= the male animals rubbing
off the protective skin (velvet) on their newly
grown antlers on the trunks of young trees
bark damage, growth limitations and even
dieback
Browsing
= biting off buds and leaves
delayed growth or dieback of plants, lack of
mixed tree species in the next generation
Sachsenforst has put in place a comprehensive monito­
ring system to protect Saxony’s forest. Numerous kinds
of environmental data (climate data, soil condition,
plant nutrients) are collected and used to draw con­
clusions about the forest management. Sachsenforst’s
staff constantly monitor major forest pests to deter­
mine potential hazards, and take appropriate measures
to prevent and combat these.
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BEWIRTSCHAFTEN
MANAGING
We manage sustainably
H
umans have been using timber for millennia.
A simple principle must be observed to ensure
that this popular, long-lasting, native, renewable
natural resource continues to be available: Only fell
as much timber as can be regrown. This principle of
sustainability was first formulated in 1713 by Saxon
chief mining administrator Hans Carl von Carlowitz as
a way of making sure the mines could be permanently
supplied with timber from the Ore Mountains.
In keeping with this principle, Sachsenforst fulfils its
role of managing the Saxon state forest in an exemplary
manner. The aim of developing and preserving stable,
profitable forests and producing high-quality timber
requires continuous maintenance and harvesting.
As part of the forest management scheme, Sachsen­
forst provides over one million cubic metres of timber
for the woodworking industry, craftsmen and even
firewood customers every year. But the forests are
far from being overused: Recent records show that
only about 60 percent of the annual timber increment
in the state forest is harvested. These findings are
incorporated into the forest management plan to
ensure that sustainability can be maintained over the
medium and long term.
The Saxon state forest has been certified in accordance
with the PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of
Forest Certification Schemes) criteria since 2001. This
involves regularly assessing the sustainable forest
management system in terms of ecological, social and
economic aspects.
MANAGING
We’re trailblazers
S
achsenforst maintains an extensive trail network.
The Saxon state forest is home to some 13,000
kilometres of forest roads and trails, which serve as an
elementary basis for sustainable forest management,
but also as a means of pure natural and recreational
enjoyment. Approx. 3,600 kilometres of these are
officially designated as hiking trails, while a further
1,300 kilometres are bridle paths.
For Sachsenforst, it goes without saying that, follo­
wing forest management measures like timber har­
vesting, these trails must be restored to a condition
enabling use by visitors and pleasure-seekers.
Even special recreational facilities, including moun­
tain-bike tracks and cross-country ski runs, can also
be arranged on suitable trails in consultation with
Sachsenforst. This always involves weighing up con­
servation aspects, forestry aspects, and the needs of
forest visitors.
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The forest has many different ways
of preserving the bases of human
existence. As a habitat of rare and
protected species, it is of particular
importance to conservation efforts
in today’s intensively used landscape.
”Close-to-nature” forestry preserves
and improves biodiversity, providing
an opportunity for conservation.
At Sachsenforst, we’re committed to
taking responsibility for the nature
reserves in our care, preserving and
promoting the forest’s protective
functions, and protecting particularly
fragile areas.
PRESERVING

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PRESERVING
Forests protect the basis of our existence
Forests supply the environmentally
Forests serve as windbreakers and
friendly, renewable resource timber.
stormbreakers, and reduce soil erosion,
particularly on hillsides.
Forests supply us with drinking water
and, as reservoirs, reduce the risk of flooding.
Forests provide habitats for many
species of plants and animals.
Forests produce oxygen
Forests ensure a balanced climate,
and fix the greenhouse gas
Forests provide space for
reduce extreme heat or cold, and
carbon dioxide.
recreation and leisure activities.
filter dust out of the air.
PRESERVING
We safeguard the forest’s protective functions
T
he forest is an important basis of existence with
a number of positive effects, both for humans
and for flora and fauna. By preserving the forest and
managing it in a multi-purpose manner, Sachsenforst
makes a significant contribution towards ensuring the
forest can keep rendering these services in future.
Sachsenforst takes this into account in freshwater
dams, for example, where the use of machinery and
choice of tree species are focused on sustainably
protecting water quality. In a bid to prevent flooding,
streams, rivers, wetlands and moors are being
renatured, enabling them to store and retain more
water. At the same time, these fragile and largely
protected biotopes become more considerably
valuable.
But biotope maintenance is not just limited to bodies
of water and wetlands: By preserving deadwood and
retention trees, maintaining open-ground biotopes,
landscaping the forest outskirts and performing
large-scale forest conversion, Sachsenforst plays a
major role in creating a biotope network in Saxony.
Special species protection measures, e.g. for the silver
fir, stag beetle and various bat species, ensure their
populations are safe and can develop positively.
Sachsenforst places particular emphasis on protecting
forest soils, since these are the foundations for
long-term, sustainable forest management. Based
on a virtually full-scale recording of soil properties,
known as forest location mapping, relevant measures,
such as the use of soil-friendly timber harvesting
technologies or the liming of heavily acidified forest
soils (particularly in the Ore Mountains), are identified
and implemented.
The stable forests aspired to through the forest
conversion, along with the moorland recultivation
measures, guarantee optimum, long-term storage of
carbon in Saxony’s forests. This process is accompanied
by nationwide research projects, which Sachsenforst
is part of.
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PRESERVING
We preserve national natural landscapes
farming industry, to ensure otters, sea eagles, cranes
and water lilies can continue to live here.
Two of Saxony’s largest nature reserves, the Königs­
brücker Heide and Gohrischheide/ Elbniederterrasse
Zeithain district, were established in completely
different circumstances. They were used as military
training areas for over 100 years. This use and their
relative isolation from public access facilitated the
formation of unique habitats, particularly open
ground, and retreats for rare and heavily endangered
species of plants and animals.
Protecting, maintaining and developing these impres­
sive landscapes and biotopes, with their diverse flora
and fauna, is one of Sachsenforst’s main tasks.
PRESERVING
A
s an authority for large nature reserves, Sachsen­
forst is particularly responsible for the large
Saxon reserves, namely the Saxon Switzerland National
Park, the biosphere reserve Oberlausitzer Heide- und
Teichlandschaft and the nature reserves Königsbrücker
Heide and Gohrischheide/ Elbniederterrasse Zeithain.
With its fascinating rocky landscape, the Saxon
Switzerland National Park, founded in 1990 during
German reunification, is highly regarded well beyond
the state’s borders. Its 700+ climbing peaks and some
400 kilometres of hiking trails attract three million
visitors to the region every year. Another aim pursued
by national parks is to ensure the natural environment
spanning three quarters of the area can develop
without human management. Sachsenforst wants
to achieve this by 2030. It is a huge challenge to
harmonise the conservation objectives with the Elbe
Sandstone Mountains’ long-standing importance for
the region’s tourism industry.
The UNESCO biosphere reserve Oberlausitzer Heide-
und Teichlandschaft is characterised by all kinds of ha­
bitats, such as forests, water, heaths and inland dunes.
Unlike the Saxon Switzerland National Park, human
management plays a key role across most of the area.
The traditional cultivated landscape is to be preserved
through sustainable usage, e.g. the centuries-old fish
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Society is placing increasingly varied
and often conflicting demands
on forests, which is why our work
focuses on establishing a balance
between the public’s interests
and the needs of forest owners.
This requires large sections of the
population to understand the
complex forest ecosystem.
By passing our knowledge
onto others, we are actively shaping
and creating the future of
Saxony’s forests.
DEVELOPING

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DEVELOPING
DEVELOPING
We keep an eye on the forest
We take care of aspiring foresters
S
achsenforst’s Competence Centre for Wood and
Forestry conducts environmental monitoring and
practical research at eight permanent observation
sites, ten forest climate stations and over 200 random­
sampling points. Aspects such as tree vitality, soil
condition, meteorological data and the growth trends
of harmful organisms in the forest are recorded on a
rotational basis.
Building on from these findings, long-term strategies
for a stable, productive forest are then devised. The
data is also made available to other authorities to
assist with their work.
The Competence Centre works with various state and
national partners to carry out research projects, e.g.
on the gene content of endangered tree species and
S
achsenforst passes on its forest knowledge to
In order to keep its employees, the staff at subordinate
on tree species’ adaptability to climate change. The
future generations of foresters. Vocational trai-
forest authorities and third parties, such as the forest
publication of these results enables knowledge to be
ning in the field of forestry and forestry career courses
owners, constantly in the loop, Sachsenforst offers
transfered both into everyday forest work and society
ensure highly qualified staff are always available to
needs-based advanced training.
in general.
perform the wide, varied tasks associated with forest
management.
Regular forest inventories and resulting operational
plans are key instruments in achieving proper, sus-
Tertiary studies themselves involve professional
tainable forest management. Sachsenforst generally
exchange between the forestry faculty at Dresden
formulates this plan for the municipal, church and
University of Technology and Sachsenforst, based on a
state forest enterprises every ten years.
research and teaching agreement.
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DEVELOPING
We ensure people understand the forest
T
he forest as a lush, natural classroom offers
countless ways of experiencing its diversity
with all the senses – something which is becoming
increasingly important in an age where people are
becoming more and more alienated from nature.
Only those who understand and respect the complex
forest ecosystem can help preserve it. As part of
environmental and forest education services for all
ages, Sachsenforst uses the forest as a teaching aid
to convey humans’ responsibility for sustainable
development across society as a whole.
At three forest schools and other forest education
facilities, the Moritzburg wildlife park and the visitors’
centres at the major nature reserves, Sachsenforst
offers interested persons many different ways of
exploring the forest’s secrets. The forest districts and
reserves also run numerous events, such as “Forest
youth games” and forester hikes.
DEVELOPING
We partner forest owners
O
ver half of Saxony’s forest belongs to some
85,000 private, church and municipal forest
owners. The vast majority of these only own very small
areas spanning less than five hectares. Sachsenforst’s
advisory services and advanced training courses help
the forest owners manage their forest competently
and sustainably – in the interests of the owners and
the forest itself.
The growing demands placed on forest management
have prompted Sachsenforst to offer private owners
advisory services on various topics, such as nature
conservation in the forest, tree species selection
and work processes, as a self-help aid. In addition
Sachsenforst performs certain support services
on a contract basis for forest owners lacking
forest specialists. Churches and municipalities not
employing their own forest station managers can use
Sachsenforst’s forest district service.
The European Union, the German federal government
and the Free State of Saxony have set up funding
programmes for a series of forest management
measures. Sachsenforst is responsible for assessing
and approving forest owners’ funding applications.
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Sachsenforst contacts
Staatsbetrieb Sachsenforst
(Public Enterprise) Management
Bonnewitzer Straße 34
01796 Pirna OT Graupa
Telephone: +49 3501 5420
Facsimile: +49 3501 542 213
poststelle.sbs@smul.sachsen.de
Adorf Forest District
Kärrnerstraße 1
08261 Schöneck
Telephone: +49 37464 33090
Facsimile: +49 37464 3309226
poststelle.sbs-adorf@smul.sachsen.de
Bärenfels Forest District
Alte Böhmische Straße 2
01773 Altenberg OT Bärenfels
Telephone: +49 35052 6130
Facsimile: +49 35052 61328
poststelle.sbs-baerenfels@smul.sachsen.de
Chemnitz Forest District
Am Landratsamt 3, Haus 5
09648 Mittweida
Telephone: +49 3727 956601
Facsimile: +49 3727 956609
poststelle.sbs-chemnitz@smul.sachsen.de
Dresden Forest District
Nesselgrundweg 4
01109 Dresden
Telephone: +49 351 253080
Facsimile: +49 351 2530825
poststelle.sbs-dresden@smul.sachsen.de
Eibenstock Forest District
Schneeberger Straße 3
08309 Eibenstock
Telephone: +49 37752 55290
Facsimile: +49 37752 552930
poststelle.sbs-eibenstock@smul.sachsen.de
Leipzig Forest District
Heilemannstraße 1
04277 Leipzig
Telephone: +49 341 860800
Facsimile: +49 341 8608099
poststelle.sbs-leipzig@smul.sachsen.de
Marienberg Forest District
Markt 3
09496 Marienberg
Telephone: +49 3735 66110
Facsimile: +49 3735 6611180
poststelle.sbs-marienberg@smul.sachsen.de
Neudorf Forest District
Straße der Einheit 5
08340 Schwarzenberg
Telephone: +49 3774 89898-10
Facsimile: +49 3774 89898-99
poststelle.sbs-neudorf@smul.sachsen.de
Neustadt Forest District
Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 7
01844 Neustadt in Sachsen
Telephone: +49 3596 58570
Facsimile: +49 3596 585799
poststelle.sbs-neustadt@smul.sachsen.de
Oberlausitz Forest District
Paul-Neck-Straße 127
02625 Bautzen
Telephone: +49 3591 2160
Facsimile: +49 3591 216123
poststelle.sbs-oberlausitz@smul.sachsen.de
Plauen Forest District
Europaratstraße 11
08523 Plauen
Telephone: +49 3741 104800
Facsimile: +49 3741 104820
poststelle.sbs-plauen@smul.sachsen.de
Taura Forest District
Neußener Straße 28
04889 Belgern-Schildau OT Taura
Telephone: +49 34221 54190
Facsimile: +49 34221 51869
poststelle.sbs-taura@smul.sachsen.de
Nationalparkverwaltung Sächsische Schweiz
(National Park Administration)
An der Elbe 4
01814 Bad Schandau
Telephone: +49 35022 900600
Facsimile: +49 35022 900666
poststelle.sbs-nationalparkverwaltung@
smul.sachsen.de
Biosphärenreservatsverwaltung Oberlausitzer
Heide- und Teichlandschaft
(Biosphere Reserve Administration)
Warthaer Dorfstraße 29
02694 Malschwitz OT Wartha
Telephone: +49 35932 3650
Facsimile: +49 35932 36550
poststelle.sbs-broht@smul.sachsen.de
NSG-Verwaltung Königsbrücker Heide/
Gohrischheide Zeithain
(Nature Reserve Administration)
Weißbacher Straße 30
01936 Königsbrück
Telephone: +49 35795 4990100
Facsimile: +49 35795 4990109
poststelle.sbs-nsg@smul.sachsen.de
National border
Administrative structure
State border
Administrative region border
District border
District name
State forest (Free State of Saxony)
State forest (Federal Republic of Germany)
Corporate forest
Private forest
Trust forest
Church forest
Types of forest properties
Sachsenforst management headquarters
Forest district border
Name of forest district
Forest organisational structure
Publisher:
Staatsbetrieb Sachsenforst (SBS), Management
Bonnewitzer Straße 34, 01796 Pirna OT Graupa
Telephone: +49 3501 542-0, Facsimile: +49 3501 542-213, Email: poststelle.sbs@smul.sachsen.de
www.sachsenforst.de
Editing and design:
SBS, Competence Centre for Wood and Forestry, FGIS/Cartography/Surveying division
Status:
Forest ownership: 07/2016, Forest organisation: 07/2016, Administrative structure 01/2016
Press date:
2016/07/27
28

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Publisher:
Staatsbetrieb Sachsenforst
Bonnewitzer Straße 34, 01796 Pirna OT Graupa
Telephone: +49 3501 542-0
Facsimile: +49 3501 542-213
Email: poststelle.sbs@smul.sachsen.de
Internet:
www.sachsenforst.de
Editor:
Staatsbetrieb Sachsenforst
Management
Department of environmental education, forest education and public relations;
MediaCompany - Agentur für Kommunikation GmbH
Image credits:
Sachsenforst archive - Title, page 25; C. Rieken – page 1, 8, 9, 10/11,
16/17, 22/23; S. Blaß - page 2/3, 13, 20/21; A. Gerstenberger - page 4;
mariyapvl/Fotolia.com – page 6; Color_life/istockphoto.com - page 6;
anya/Fotolia.com - page 6; M. Thomae - page 12; D. Thomann - page 15;
T. Rother - page 14, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27; amplion/Fotolia.com - page 18;
Marina Zlochin/Fotolia.com page 18;
scrapster/Fotolia.com – page 18
Concept and design:
MediaCompany - Agentur für Kommunikation GmbH
Typesetting:
September Werbeagentur
Printing:
Optimalprints
Press date:
2017/04/05
Reference:
www.publikationen.sachsen.de
Distribution information
This brochure is published by the Saxon state government as part of its cons-
titutional obligation to inform the public. It must not be used by parties, their
candidates or their assistants for campaign purposes in the six months prior to
an election. This applies to all elections.
Copyright
This publication is copyrighted. All rights, including those governing the reprin-
ting of excerpts and photographic reproduction, are reserved by the publisher.