The IFAW has therefore established a
transboundary project. They closely col-
laborate with LUPUS German Institute
for Wolf Monitoring & Research and
Federal State Authorities on the German
side, in Poland with “WOLF” Nature
Conversation Association. On both sides
of the border information on the wolves
is being collected. Please support the
monitoring by reporting evidence of
wolves to the institutions below. The
results help to develop and implement
measures to ensure a long-term survival
of the wolves and a peaceful coexisten-
ce with human beings.
For all questions and requests concern-
ing the wolf, feel free to contact the
Kontaktbüro Wolfsregion Lausitz.
(For address see right)
Please report wolf sightings or signs to:
for Saxony and Brandenburg:
Kontaktbüro Wolfsregion Lausitz
Address please see right
LUPUS Institut für Wolfsmonitoring
und -forschung in Deutschland
LUPUS German Institute for Wolf Monitoring
Dorfstraße 20, 02979 Spreewitz, Germany
Landesamt für Umwelt, Gesundheit und
Verbraucherschutz, Naturschutzstation Zippelsförde
Rägelsdorf 9, 16827 Zippelsförde, Germany
Phone (+49)33933/70816 oder 90173
Landesamt für Umwelt, Gesundheit und
Verbraucherschutz, Referat Ö2, Byhleguhrer Str.17
03096 Burg Spreewald, Germany
Diagonal trot: The wolf puts its hind
paw in front of the front paw
WOLF (Canis lupus)
grey-yellow to grey-brown fur, a
dark area on shoulders and back
long legs with large paws
straight and bushy tail with a
broad head with light coloured
area around the muzzle
Wolves often leave their scat
on paths. It often contains hair
and pieces of bones and is
approximately 2.5 - 4 cm thick.
regular shaped, longish paws
with blunt claws
front paws large
8 - 10 cm long, 7 - 9 cm wide
hind paws smaller
7 - 9 cm long, 6 - 8 cm wide
typical way of walking is an
the track is very straight with
Wolves on Both Sides of The Border
The survival of the Central European Lowlands wolf population
is anything but certain. They need our protection!
Wolf or Dog?
The wolf is the progenitor of all dog breeds, some of which resem-
ble the wolf. Dogs have inherited their intelligence and social beha-
viour from wolves. In Saxony wolf evidences should be reported to
the Kontaktbüro Wolfsregion Lausitz and
in Brandenburg please report to the
Environment Agency (Landesumweltamt).
(For addresses please see the back)
Perfect-step trot: The wolf puts its hind
paw in the imprint of the front paw.
on our doorstep
In the border region
of Germany and Poland
Wolves in Germany
The drive to exterminate wolves, that started at the end of the Middle
Ages, almost lead to the complete extinction of the wolf population in
Germany by 1850. In 1904, Germany’s “last wolf” was shot near the
town of Hoyerswerda.
Wolves usually prey on those animals
which are most easily captured e.g.
young, inexperienced, old and weak
game, so that animals quick in reaction
and with good health are captured less
frequently. Through natural selection,
wolves have a positive effect on their
prey species and have through ages
played an important role in the eco-
Why Are Wolves Important?
In our woods and forests, the principal food of the wolf – wild
ungulates – is so common so that damages to agriculture and
forestry can be considerable.
Due to their territoriality and their food
requirements only a few wolves can live
in the same area. Every pack defends its
territory against other wolves. Depen-
dent on the food supply, the size of a
territory usually ranges between 200 to
in Middle Europe. The size of
a pack is commonly between five and
Wolves primarily feed on wild ungulates.
In eastern Germany these are red deer,
roe deer, boars, mouflon and fallow
deer. They also prey on European hare,
rabbits, birds, mice and other small
mammals. In autumn they sometimes
feed on fruits.
How Do Wolves Live?
A wolf pack usually consists of the parents and pups from the
previous and the current year. The wolves hunt, eat, rest and play
together. But they also often travel on their own. At an age of
approximately two years, a young wolf reaches sexual maturity and
leaves his/her pack. In search of a non-related mating partner and
their own territory wolves have been known to travel long
Forty years later single wolves started
emigrating from Poland and were sighted
in Germany again. However all were
shot. Since 1990 wolves have been stric-
t ly protected by law in
Unified Germany and
since 1998 across the
whole of Poland. They
are no longer subject
to legal hunting. Since
1992 wolves have en -
joyed the highest pro -
tection in the European
Union – apart from
some regional excepti-
ons. In many countries
the populations are now
recovering and the ani-
mals are gradually returning to their
former territory. In the middle of the
1980s some wolves were able to settle
and raise pups in western Poland – far
away from their traditional territory in
the east of the country. Some years
later, in spring 2000, wolf pups were
born in the northeast of Saxony,
Germany, close to the polish border.
and spreading tendencies
of wolves in Europe
Wolves and wild ungulates
share the same habitat. Here
they use the same drinking
place – even though at diffe-
rent times and for different
Kontaktbüro “Wolfsregion Lausitz”
(Address please see below)
IFAW – Internationaler Tierschutz-
Tel. 040 / 866 500-0
Fax 040/ 866500-22
Concept, Text, Photos
LUPUS Institut, 02979 Spreewitz
Katrin Groß, 16278 Angermünde
Print (colours on plant basis)
17098 Friedland, Germany
2 000 copies
Free ordering address:
Kontaktbüro Wolfsregion Lausitz
Am Erlichthof 15
02956 Rietschen, Germany
Phone (+49) 35772/46762
IFAW (Address please see above)
Donations Account IFAW
HSBC Trinkaus & Burkhardt
IBAN: DE33 3003 0880 00131370 21
Livestock guarding dog behind electric net fence
Area of distribution of wolves
in Germany and Western Poland
Monitoring year 2013/2014
Germany: LUPUS German Institute for
Wolf Monitoring & Research
Polen:“recorded wolf packs” in Poland in
accordance with data collection by The
Association for Nature WOLF, Dr. Sabina
Nowak and Dr. Robert W. Mysłajek
25 wolf packs / pairs
Are Wolves Dangerous?
Walkers, cyclists, joggers and horse riders will only rarely see the
animals. Wolves notice human beings early and usually flee. Young
wolves sometimes react less shy than more mature animals.
Are Farm Animals Threatened?
Wolves are specialised on feeding on hoofed animals, but they
cannot distinguish between “permitted” wild animals and “not per-
mitted” farm animals such as sheep and goats. Therefore measures
are needed to protect the latter from wolf attacks.
A Competitor to Hunters?
Hunters and foresters in wolf areas should include the proportion
of game eaten by wolves into their hunting plans.
Several factors may threaten their future:
Diseases such as mange and parvovirus
Dissection of habitat due to motorway and railway lines
Hybridisation with dogs – when wolf numbers are low there is
a lack of mating partners
The game-rich Lusatian landscapes offer good conditions for the future
of the packs and their descendants. Military training grounds and
other forested areas may offer areas to retreat during the day and
provide safe areas to raise their pups.
Wolves in Lusatia
In 2000, the first pack in Germany was founded on the military
training ground Oberlausitz by wolves emigrating from Poland. In
the following years the wolves born in Lusatia and those emigrating
from Poland occupied new territories and founded families. Since
then, every year young wolves get born and migrate from their
parents’ territories. Therefore, the establishment of new packs is
expected in Saxony, Brandenburg and other states.
Information on the current situation can be found on the website
People searching for mushrooms or berries are more likely to encoun-
ter a resting wolf. They should try to keep calm and give the wolf
a chance to retreat. Dog owners should keep their dogs on a leash
in wolf territories because wolves may react aggressively towards dogs.
People living close to wolf packs may occasionally hear the howling
of wolves. Wolves howl in order to attune themselves for a joint hunt,
to declare their territory towards other wolves and use it for com-
munication within the pack.
If you see an injured wolf in the wild, leave it alone and report
sightings to the institutions mentioned on the back of this leaflet or
to the nature conservation authority in charge. Wolves are strictly pro-
tected. An injured wolf can only be shot by authorized persons with
an official legitimation issued by the Nature Conservation Authority.
How Do We Live With The Wolf?
The return of the wolf enriches our natural heritage. This is one of
the most sensational events in the field of European nature conser-
vation in recent years. Experiences in Poland and other European
countries have shown that cultivated landscapes can also offer a
suitable habitat for wolves and conflicts rarely arise. Wolves thrive
in many environments and don’t need wilderness.
The coexistence with these carnivores in Germany requires a clear
strategy in dealing with wolves which show problematic behaviour,
such as individuals that continue to predate on livestock despite
defensive measures or individuals that show unusual behaviour towards
humans. On behalf of a peaceful coexistence between humans and
wolves the removal of such individuals is possible, despite their strict
protection, but only as a last resort. There is no reason to fear that
the coexistence of wolf and man is more difficult in Germany than
in other European countries with a similar structure.
Is There a Future
for Wolves in Germany?
The number of wolf packs and pairs that currently live in Germany
and western Poland are still a relatively small and threatened
population. Outside the Lusatia area the distribution range is still
very fragmented. However, the trend is quite positive.
The nutritional needs of a wolf are estimated at about 1400 kg per
year, whilst a pup eats about 700 kg. The dietary composition of the
Lusatian wolves can roughly be derived from the analysis of faeces.
Assuming that half of his prey consists of young animals, an adult
wolf eats about 62 roe deer, 9 red deer and 14 wild boars each
year. With a territory size of about 200 km
, a pack of eight wolves
(half of which are pups) will need about 1.8 roe deer, 0.4 wild boar
and 0.3 red deer per 100 hectare annually.
A well maintained electric fence offers an extensive amount of secu-
rity if it is closed to all sides and leaves no gap under the fence.
The attachment of a barrier tape about 20 - 30 cm above the fence
offers additional protection. To prevent wolves from digging under wire
mesh fences farmers can install an additional electrical wire or embed
the wire mesh fence into the ground. In Saxony and Brandenburg a
supporting structure for livestock prevention measures exists. In case
of an attack on livestock, specially trained persons examine the cause
and extent of the damages. After examining the situation the live-
stock owner is compensated for his loss as long as the animals were
protected. Suckler cow herds and horses are less threatened because
of their size and defensiveness.
Wolf pack or wolf pair