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Randon
measurements conducted in Poland
03/12/2013
Radon Protection Conference, Dresden
Małgorzata Wysocka
Krzysztof Ciupek

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National Atomic Energy Agency
(PAA) is a central organ
of governmental administration competent for the issue of
nuclear safety and radiological protection. PAA President
executes his/her tasks through the Agency, which internal
organization is established by the statute conferred by the
Environment Minister.
ACT OF PARLIAMENT
Atomic Law
Executive acts of:
Council of Ministers, Minister of Finance, Minister for Environment
Executive acts of the Minister
of Interior and Administration
natural hazards in mining
Executive acts of the Minister
-
of Economy
occupational safety and health, operation, and specialized
fire protection in underground mines.

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Mining industry
Executive acts of the Minister:
- of Interior and Administration
- of Economy
Class A excavation
- controlled areas
Class B excavation
- supervised areas
Radiation Protection Officer type 1
Methods and frequency of environmental monitoring:
- potential alpha energy concentration in the air
- kerma rate in the air
- total concentration of radium isotopes Ra-226 and Ra-228 in water
- specific activity of radium isotopes Ra-226 and Ra-228 in sediments

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the requirements concerning
the content of natural radioactive isotopes
of potassium K-40, radium Ra-226 and thorium Th-228 in raw materials
and materials used in buildings
designed to accommodate people and
livestock, as well as
in industrial waste
used in construction industry, and
the procedures for controlling the content of these isotopes
Executive acts of
Council of Ministers
Regulation on:

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ACT OF PARLIAMENT
Atomic Law
Article 1 .
3. This Act shall apply also to the activities
conducted in conditions of exposure to natural ionizing
radiation enhanced by human activity.
Article 13.1. Dose limits shall include the sum total of the doses from
external and internal exposures.
2. Dose limits shall not include the exposure to natural radiation, provided
that such
exposure has not been enhanced by human activity
; in
particular they shall
not include the exposure resulting from radon in
homes
, natural radioisotopes incorporated in human bodies, cosmic
radiation on ground level and above-ground exposures to radioisotopes
present in the undisturbed Earth crust.

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For radon progeny and thoron progeny the following conventional
conversion factors apply,
effective dose
per unit potential alpha-energy
exposure (Sv per J.h.m
-3
):
Radon at home: 1.1
Radon at work: 1.4 Thoron at work: 0.5
Potential alpha energy (of radon progeny and thoron progeny): The total
alpha energy ultimately emitted during the decay of radon progeny and
thoron progeny through the decay chain, up to but not including
210
Pb for
progeny of 222Rn and up to stable
208
Pb for progeny of
220
Rn. The unit is J
(Joule). For the exposure to a given concentration for a given time the unit is
J.h.m
-3
.
Executive acts of
Council of Ministers
Regulation on ionizing radiation dose limits:

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ACT OF PARLIAMENT
Atomic Law
Article 23.1. Occupational activities involving the presence of natural
radiation leading to an increase of the exposure of workers or the general
public, which is significant from radiological protection viewpoint, shall
require an assessment of this exposure.
3. (…) include in particular the work performed in:
1) Mines, caves and other underground sites, and also in health resorts and
spas; (…)
Article 23.4. Council of Ministers, taking into account the European Union’s
recommendations, regulations issued under Art. 25(1), the characteristic features
of the occupational activity and those of the exposed worker tasks,
may establish
by regulation
:
1)
Types of occupational activities involving the presence of natural
radiation leading to the increase of the exposure of workers or general
public, which is significant from radiological protection viewpoint,
other than those referred to in paragraph 3,
2) Methods of assessment of the exposure resulting from activities referred to
in paragraph 1, procedures for reducing this exposure and other measures
designed for radiological protection of exposed workers and of population.

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Fig. 1 Radon concentration in air outdoors
Since 1991 up to now a
nationwide survey of
Polish dwellings has been
conducted to determine the
radon exposure of the
Polish population and
prepare radon map for
dwellings and outdoors.
The mean value of Rn
concentration outdoors
in Poland is 4 Bq/m
3
,
max 8 Bq/m
3
.

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Results were achieved by means of
the passive solid state nuclear track
detector (SSNTD) technique based on
CR-39 foils in diffusion cups (Fig.2)
exposed from 6 to 12 months.
Fig. 2 Karlsruhe-type passive
time integrating radon detector

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Region of
All buildings
Buildings with cellars
Buildings without
cellars
Ratio:
non-cellar
cellar
Number
of flat
Arithmetic
mean
Bq/m
3
Number
of flats
Arithmetic
mean
Bq/m
3
Number
of flats
Arithmetic
mean
Bq/m
3
Katowice
324
45,7
272
41,3
35
75,2
1,8
Wrocław
429
47,1
344
42,8
62
67,1
1,6
Białystok
320
47,0
279
45,3
28
63,7
1,4
Warszawa
727
39,8
531
40,1
162
38,6
1,0
Gdynia
281
28,0
164
25,3
15
52,6
2,1
5 regions
together
2081
41,8
1590
40,2
302
52,7
1,3
Table 1 Radon concentration indoors. All flats. (First campaign)

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Fig. 2 Radon concentration indoors. Summary.
> 2000
[7]
1000-2000 [19]
400-1000
[30]
200-400
[171]
<200
[3023]
Rn-222 concentration
[Bq/m
3
]
Katowice
Wrocław
Gdańsk
Warszawa
Białystok
Rzeszów

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> 2000
[7]
1000-2000 [19]
400-1000
[30]
200-400
[171]
<200
[3023]
Rn-222 concentration
[Bq/m
3
]
Fig. 3 Radon concentration indoors. Raster map.
Mean Rn-222 concentr.: 85,5 Bq/m
3
Geometr. Mean: 43,1 Bq/m
3
Number of points: 3305
Max value: 3 229 Bq/m
3

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Radon levels in dwellings
in
Upper Silesia
region
is related to:
- local geological structure,
- mining activity.
Correlation of results with local geological structures
Analysis of the influence of mining activity on radon potential
Dose assessment for inhabitants of Upper Silesia region

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However, significant variations in different zones of Coal Basin
Radon concentration indoors (first campaign)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Miocene cover
without miocene
Stęż. Rn, Bq/m3
avg. first floor
avg. basement
max first floor
max basement
The average radon concentration for Upper Silesia:
groundfloor: 47 Bq/m3
cellars: 64 Bq/m3

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Possible explanation - different patterns of radon migration
Carboniferous rocks
Triassic rocks

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The influence of mining activity on radon levels
in dwellings in Piekary Śląskie
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
coal and ore mining
coal mining
no mining
Rn conc., Bq/m3
max.
avg.
In buildings located in the zone without influence of mining average
radon concentration in dwellings is significantly lower

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The cross-section of the investigation site

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The geophisical cross-section of the investigation site

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Support of geophysical methods in radon survey
vertical electroresistivity sounding
Values of electroresistivity in ore-bearing dolomites are changing in wide ranges. It proofs that
rocks are fractured and fissured. This damages are induced by shallow exploitatin of Zn-Pb ores

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Support of geophysics in radon survey
elcetric resistance profiles
Application of that method enables detection of shallow caverns and emptiness,
water table level, density of fissures and crack etc.

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Effects of mining on surface, increasing radon migration
Non-linear deformations
surface subsidence
activation of faulting zones
overlapping of effects of shallow exploitation of
metal ores and deep coal mining
karstic processes, caused by mining
damages of buildings due to mining, creation of
pathways for radon migration
Zones with shallow exploitation are specially prone to enhanced
radon exhalation

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Effective doses for inhabitants of Upper Silesia,
miners and cave-guides
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
śr. GZW Będzin Grodziec Piekary
Śl.
Jaworzno
Rybnik
miners
guides
Effective dose, mSv/rok
dose for inhabitants
dose for workers

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Annual dose assesment
The probability of
exceeding of the level
200 Bq/m
3
(dose 4.5 mSv)
exists only for 2% of
dwellings in Upper Silesia
Doses below 1 mSv per
year have been calculated for
more than 70% of inhabitants

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Central
Mining
Institute
Pl. Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland
Volume: 17 m
3
,
Remote control of temperature (-
30 °C - +50 °C)
Relative humidity: 10-90%

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Central
Mining
Institute
Pl. Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland
Measurements in the underground coal mine

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Walk-in radon calibration chamber
Dimensions are: 2.75m x 2.25m x 2.00m
and a volume of ca.12.375 m
3
Climatic condition:
Temperature: –30 C to +60 C
Relative humidity: 10% to 95%
The activity of dry flow-through Ra-226 source
in the generator is 137.27 kBq ( 4%).
Maximum radon concentration: ca.11 kBq/m
3
The laboratory was accredited
by Polish Accreditation Centre
ul. Konwaliowa 7; 03-194 Warszawa, Poland

‘Radon’ institutions in Poland…
Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection,
Warszawa
Central Mining Institute,
Katowice
Medical University
of Bialystok
Institute of Nuclear Physics
, Kraków
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
, Łódź
Wrocław University of Technology,
Wrocław
Building Research Institute,
Warszawa
University of Silesia
, Katowice

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Conclusions
No regulations concerning radon indoors concentration measurements
Results of radon concentration in Poland only for some areas
Mean radon concentr.: 85.5 Bq/m
3
(Geometr. Mean: 43.1 Bq/m
3
)
Max value: 3 229 Bq/m
3
Significant variations in different zones of Coal Basin (Upper Silesian) due
to local geological structure (most important) and mining industry

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Conclusions
Analysis of influence of mining activity shows:
Enhanced radon levels are related with zones of shallow
exploitation
In zones with significant deformations of the strata we observe
easier migration and exhalation of radon from the ground
activation of old faulting zones also may increase radon risk
damages of constructions due the subsidence create pathways for
radon migration into buildings

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Conclusions
Annual dose assessment shows:
annual dose equivalent is lower as 1 mSv for more than 70% of
inhabitants of Upper Silesia region,
in specific zones radon levels are higher, but only in 2% of
dwellings concentrations could be over 200 Bq/m3 and annual dose
may exceed 4.5 mSv.

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Thank you
for your attention
Krzysztof Ciupek
ciupek@clor.waw.pl
Central Laboratory
for Radiological Protection
www.clor.waw.pl
Konwaliowa Street, 7; 03-194 Warszawa, Poland
tel. +48 22 811 00 11;
fax. +48 22 811 16 16
Małgorzata Wysocka
wysocka@gig.eu
Central Mining Institute
www.radiometria.gig.eu
Pl. Gwarków 1; 40-166 Katowice, Poland
tel. +48 32 259 28 14;
fax. +48 32 259 22 95