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Energy E ciency
Excellence
from
EnercitEE
regions
Good Practice Guide

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2
EnercitEE is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
through the INTERREG IVC Programme. Neither the Managing Authority nor the
Saxon State Ministry for the Environment and Agriculture are liable for any infor-
mation published in this brochure which present the good practices identified
by the EnercitEE partner regions.
www.enercitee.eu

 
3
Energy efficiency excellence
from EnercitEE regions
The Energy 2020 Strategy for Competitive Sustainable and Secure Energy from the Euro-
pean Commission stresses that energy efficiency is the most cost effective way to reduce
emissions and improve competitiveness, as well as energy security, and to make energy
more affordable for consumers. While we are on track for the 20 % target for renewables by
2020, we are far from reaching the 20 % energy efficiency target in Europe by 2020.
The European Commission’s draft for a new Energy Efficiency Directive proposes a series
of new measures that mainly concern the building and energy sector. However, this draft
Directive is currently discussed controversially between the EU member states.
EnercitEE strives to identify the energy efficiency potential of electricity, from heat and
cooling generation and distribution to consumption and storage. In this energy chain, there
is huge potential that can be tapped.
The share of combined heat and power generation, for example, still needs to increase.
Nowadays, technology to transform heat into cooling (trigeneration) is available and needs
further market penetration, especially in those European regions where a growing number
of houses install air conditioning, which results in a higher electricity demand.
Energy losses from district heating grids can be prevented when pipes are properly insulat-
ed and heat is distributed efficiently to a large number of consumers within short distances.
At the end of the chain, consumers can save energy and use it more efficiently. As an ex-
ample, many household heating systems keep temperatures constant even at times when
nobody is at home – which leads to energy consumption and costs that could be avoided.
Even renewables can perform more efficiently if used under appropriate climatic conditions,
such as in Smaland, where energy is generated from biomass that is readily available in
regional forests.
We have developed this Good Practice Guide to demonstrate the energy efficiency potential
in the specific areas of competence of the EnercitEE partner regions. It highlights prominent
areas of energy efficiency potential, such as buildings, heat/power generation and distribution,
transport, innovation and technology, and communication and motivation. In many cases,
the areas interlink with each other. This highlights the need for an integrated planning ap-
proach in energy efficiency; such an approach would make a significant contribution to a
sustainable European energy strategy.
The Good Practice Guide is one of the results of the interregional exchange of experience
of the EnercitEE partner regions and will, together with the activities within the sub-projects,
help to improve regional and local energy efficiency policies.
We are positive that the good practices presented in this guide will spur animated discussion
and exchange, within the partner consortium and beyond. We hope that some of the ideas
will be transferred between regions and that many new good practices will evolve out of
this exchange.
The EnercitEE partner consortium

 
4
EnercitEE: E
uropean
n
etworks,
e
xperience and
r
ecommendations
helping
cit
ies and
cit
izens to
become
E
nergy
E
fficient
The EU Climate and Energy Package is considered key to an energy efficient and low-carbon Europe.
The three overall objectives have become generally known as the 20 – 20 – 20 targets: a 20 % cut in
emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020, compared with 1990 levels; a 20 % share of renewables; and
a 20 % cut in energy consumption.
EnercitEE seeks to implement the EU targets on energy efficiency practically. The project, which is
carried out under the EU programme INTERREG IVC, builds upon experiences
and existing networks from the forerunner project enercy’regio.
EnercitEE is carried out as a mini-programme with 6 partners from 5 European regions. The results of
the project will be long-lasting through directly involving public policy makers and private consumers in
the programme’s activities.
The exchange of experience is an essential part of this mini-programme: the partners compile policy
instruments, good practices, case studies and organise training sessions and interregional symposia.
Moreover, EnercitEE contributes to the improvement of local and regional policies and provides as-
sistance in the transfer of knowledge on energy efficiency and sustainable transport.
Practical guidelines and policy recommendations produced within EnercitEE will provide valuable as-
sistance for European regions aiming to improve their energy performance and policies.
More information on the project’s website
www.enercitee.eu
and the webblog
www.enercitee.eu/blog

 
5
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1
Saxony
Saxon State Ministry for the
Environment and Agriculture
Werner Sommer
Email: werner.sommer@smul.sachsen.de
enercitee.lfulg@smul.sachsen.de
www.smul.sachsen.de
2
Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg) /Blekinge
Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden
Hans Gulliksson
Email: hans.gulliksson@energikontorsydost.se
Sarah Nilsson
Email: sarah.nilsson@energikontorsydost.se
www.energikontorsydost.se
3
Emilia-Romagna
ASTER
Stefano Valentini
Email: stefano.valentini@aster.it
enercitee@aster.it
www.aster.it
Regional Council for Productive Activities,
Commerce, Tourism
Attilio Raimondi
Email: araimondi@regione.emilia-romagna.it
www.regione.emilia-romagna.it
4
Haute-Savoie
General Council of Haute-Savoie
François Wurtz
Email: francois.wurtz@cg74.fr
www.cg74.fr
5
Lower Silesia
Marshal’s Office of
Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Arkadiusz Suliga
Email: arkadiusz.suliga@dolnyslask.pl
www.umwd.dolnyslask.pl/ewt

 
Energy-e cient
buildings
Energy-e cient
heat/power generation
and distribution
Energy-e cient and
sustainable transport
Emerging energy-
e cient innovations and
technologies
Increasing energy e ciency
through good communica-
tion and motivation
page 8
page 24
page 42
page 56
page 72

 
24 Starting point and challenges
25 Regional and local policy background
28 Good practice in Saxony
32 Good practice in Smaland (Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge
36 Good practice in Emilia-Romagna
38 Good practice in Haute-Savoie
40 Good practice in Lower Silesia
42 Starting point and challenges
43 Regional and local policy background
46 Good practice in Saxony
48 Good practice in Smaland (Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge
50 Good practice in Emilia-Romagna
52 Good practice in Haute-Savoie
54 Good practice in Lower Silesia
56 Starting point and challenges
57 Regional and local policy background
60 Good practice in Saxony
64 Good practice in Smaland (Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge
66 Good practice in Emilia-Romagna
70 Good practice in Haute-Savoie
72 Starting point and challenges
73 Regional and local policy background
76 Good practice in Saxony
82 Good practice in Smaland (Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge
86 Good practice in Emilia-Romagna
88 Good practice in Haute-Savoie
90 Good practice in Lower Silesia
8
Starting point and challenges
9
Regional and local policy background
12 Good practice in Saxony
16 Good practice in Smaland (Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge
18 Good practice in Emilia-Romagna
20 Good practice in Haute-Savoie
22 Good practice in Lower Silesia

 
Starting point and challenges
The building sector, which includes the entire life cycle of buildings, accounts for
around 40% of total EU energy consumption, and is therefore the main contribu-
tor to greenhouse gas emissions. The EU building stock consists of around 160
million buildings. The rate of construction of new buildings is currently very low,
at 2% in most European countries. Therefore, action is needed primarily in the
energy-efficient refurbishment of existing buildings.
It is estimated that implementation of the existing Energy Performance of Build-
ings Directive (EPBD) in European member states will save around 40 mega-
tons of oil by 2020, which is equivalent to an 11% reduction in EU final energy
consumption. In the Energy Efficiency Action Plan, the EPBD is considered a key
policy in the building sector, in order to realise the 28% savings potential in build-
ings. With the recast of the EPBD in 2010 the European Commission intends to
tap additional potentials, e.g. by including smaller buildings and by demanding
minimum performance requirements.
According to the EPBD recast, new buildings must comply with a nearly zero
energy standard as of 31 December 2020; new public buildings must meet the
standard two years earlier. Nearly zero energy is defined as having a very high
energy performance. In addition, the nearly zero or very low amount of energy
required should be obtained, to a significant degree, by energy from renewable
sources, including renewable energy produced on-site or nearby. Since no spe-
cific target is set for the renovation of existing buildings, government bodies are
being asked to develop policies and adopt measures, such as energy targets,
that will lead to very low-energy buildings through refurbishment. Implementation
of this European directive in the member states will be a challenge at the na-
tional, regional and local level, but crucial for cutting greenhouse gas emissions
and for reducing the EU’s energy dependency.
The good practice examples presented by the EnercitEE regions highlight the
fact that new buildings and refurbishments can already perform well under cur-
rent energy demand standards. In addition, information about refurbishment
issues and solutions has been compiled and made available to the public at the
regional and local level. In Saxony, “passive house” networks support the sharing
of competence and knowledge.
Energy-
e cient
buildings
8

 
9
Saxony
In Saxony, energy-saving and RES requirements
for buildings are set by two national laws: The
German Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) and the
Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWärmeG). As
federal laws, they are executed by Saxony as a
German state.
The EnEV stipulates energy requirements for the
building envelope and for heating systems. The
requirements of the revised 2009 EnEV are about
30% stricter than the previous EnEV. If more than
10% of the building envelope of an existing build-
ing is refurbished, the relevant part of the building
will have to comply with the current EnEV, or,
alternatively, the entire refurbished building may
only exceed the EnEV 2009 standard for new
buildings by 40%. In addition, the EEWärmeG
was introduced in Germany to raise the share of
RES in heat generation to as much as 14% in
2020. Heat in newly erected buildings must be
mainly generated through renewables. Various
RES can be combined, and cogeneration is con-
sidered to be a compensating measure.
In addition to federal laws, the German states
(Länder) set up specific laws, regulations and ac-
tion plans of their own. The EEWärmeG explicitly
empowers the Länder to extend required use of
RES to existing buildings and to stipulate this in
regional (Länder) legislation.
Saxony’s Climate and Energy Action Plan has set
the building sector as a major focus. Serving as a
role model, the Saxon Free State has raised certain
standards beyond the existing legal requirements
for their public buildings, e.g. by demanding pas-
sive house standards.
In 2007, Saxony launched a regional funding
guideline on energy and climate protection (RL
EuK/2007) that has financially supported energy
efficiency measures and investments, such as
pilot and demonstration projects. In the building
sector, the guideline supports local authorities,
citizens and companies investing in passive
houses, energy-efficient refurbishment, co- and
trigeneration plants, or replacement of old heat-
ing systems. In addition, local authorities are
supported in the preparation and procurement of
energy contracting.
Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg)/Blekinge
Several projects for energy efficiency in buildings
and housing have been implemented in Smaland,
including individual energy measurement and bet-
ter efficiency of ventilation. For buildings, the con-
version subsidy has led to an increased use of
biofuels, either in the individual heating systems
of households or via district heating. However,
there is still a question concerning whether or
not energy efficiency issue with respect to new
construction has been a priority in recent years
and there is still a lot of work to do.
The development of passive and plus energy
houses is on the rise. Especially in the older
housing stock, a lot can be done. Many munici-
palities have launched programmes to further
Regional and local policy background

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350
300
250
200
100
0
50
150
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2009
Existing buildings
New buildings
Low-energy houses
Delivered energy per heated area (kWh/m²/year)
2007
Building
Code in
Sweden
2009
Good
Practice
Portvakten
streamline their operations. There are still subsidies available
for energy conversion in public buildings.
Measures for energy and climate strategy on buildings
include:
Increasing incentives for energy-saving
New construction focus on passive and plus
energy houses
Survey / billing of electricity and heat
Conversion of heating systems to RES
Making existing buildings more energy-efficient
In the figure, the graph of existing buildings represents the
total heated area during the current year, and the graph of
new buildings shows projected energy use when work is
finished. Examples of measured values from recently built
low-energy houses illustrate the remaining distance to Best
Available Technology.
Emilia-Romagna
In Italy, energy performance in the building industry is mainly
governed by Directive 2002/91/EC, recently updated by Di-
rective 2010/31/EU, which sets the minimum requirements
for energy efficiency of buildings and governs the general
criteria for energy certification in buildings. Since 2008, the
region of Emilia-Romagna has formulated its own rules and
regulations on the subject (Legislative Assembly Decision
4 March 2008, no. 156), which constitutes an operational
provision on the regional level.
In accordance with the Regional Energy Plan, these rules
and regulations reinforce the performance requirements for
buildings that have been laid down by the national legislation,
especially for the energy performance of buildings during
the summer period and the role of renewable energy
sources in covering the consumption of primary energy.
The Legislative Assembly’s Regional Energy Plan sets the
minimum requirements for energy efficiency, in buildings
especially, compliance being required in every newly con-
structed building or in refurbished buildings with a surface
area of more than 1,000 m
2
. For partial renovations, extra
-
ordinary maintenance on the building envelope, attic remod-
elling, and installation or renovation of heating systems,
compliance is limited to specific parameters and perform-
ance levels. Meeting the minimum requirements for energy
efficiency was made obligatory for obtaining building per-
mits issued after 1 July 2008.
The new regional energy standards can lead to savings of
around 350 – 450,000 MWh/year; promoting installations
from renewable energy sources can save approximately
40 – 50 MWh/year. To date, the certification authorities of
the region accredited about 5,000 people, who went on to
issue more than 130,000 energy certificates.
Furthermore, the region has also launched various support
and incentive programmes. The aim of Regional Council
Decision no. 417 of 30 March 2009 has been to orient, pro-
mote, and financially support local authorities in formulating
and implementing energy rating programmes. The municipal
and provincial energy rating programmes are required to
achieve the minimum primary energy-savings objective of
5,800 MWh/year, and can focus on the improvement of
energy efficiency of buildings, the construction of installa-
tions using renewable energy sources, cogeneration and
trigeneration, the creation of district heating and district
cooling networks, and/or the improvement of energy ef-
ficiency in public lighting.
With available regional resources of around 26 EUR mil-
lion, the following have been awarded: 30 plans for a total
investment of approximately 236 EUR million, and results
- as far as energy savings - amounting to a total of about
372,000 MWh, for approximately 90,000 tons CO
2
avoided.
Considering the reduced growth prospects for the building
industry (new buildings represent a share below 1% of the
entire building stock), it is important to recognise that the
challenge primarily concerns existing building stock. In
Emilia-Romagna, this stock is composed of approximately
one million buildings, with a total assessable surface area of
over 300 million m
2
in buildings with high energy usage, i.e.
consumption of around 170 – 180 kWh/m²/year (resulting
in a final consumption of approximately 50,000 MWh/year).
Energy use (delivered energy) for heating and hot water per heated
area in multi-dwelling blocks between 1970 and 2002

11
The new Triennial Plan of the region of Emilia-Romagna
sets a goal of reducing energy consumption, through ac-
tions targeted at existing buildings, by 12,800 MWh by the
year 2020 (8,600 MWh savings expected for residential
buildings and 4,200 MWh for buildings of the service indus-
try), which equals approximately 26% of current final
energy consumption.
Clearly, this objective is quite ambitious. Measures toward
achieving this objective must be appropriate and sufficient
for proper implementation, mobilisation of all relevant au-
thorities, and for ensuring that substantial investments are
made.
Haute-Savoie
At the national level, the 2005 thermal regulation, which fol-
lows the 2000 thermal regulation, was published on 24 May
2006 and transposes the European directive on the energy
performance of buildings. The thermal regulation applies to
every new building constructed and also to major renova-
tions of buildings with a large surface area.
The regulation introduced a maximum energy consump-
tion figure for dwellings. Heating, cooling and hot water
consumption in renovated buildings must be below certain
consumption figures, which take into account the heating
system and the climate zone. Depending on the climate
zone where the building is located, the maximum primary
consumption (CepMax) varies between 80 and 250 kWh/
m
2
/year, compared to the average energy consumption of
the existing building stock of around 240 kWh/m
2
/year.
For non-residential buildings, renovation should lead to 30%
lower energy consumption compared to previously. Upgrad-
ing the thermal regulation of buildings is slated to occur
every five years.
At the national level in France, the RT 2012 of the environ-
mental bill Grenelle sets very ambitious energy goals as of
2012 (for public buildings, 2010) – newly constructed build-
ings classified as low-energy buildings (BBC) should have a
maximum primary energy consumption of 50 kWh/m
2
/year
at the national level and between 70 to 75 kWh/m
2
/year in
Haute-Savoie, due to the climate zone of this mountainous
region.
One of the targets set by the environmental bill Grenelle is
to reduce energy consumption in existing public housing
buildings by at least 38% by 2020 and, to this end, to
completely refurbish at least 400,000 public housing units
every year, starting in 2013. Public housing accounts for
the highest energy consumption levels of the entire building
stock, and local authorities can influence improvement of
the energy performance of these buildings much more
easily than for private buildings.
Adopted as part of the Finance Act in 2009, the Eco Interest
loan completes the range of financial instruments that already
exist as incentives for renovation of buildings (e.g. tax credit
development or Sustainable Development Booklet).
In Haute-Savoie, as in all French départments, national
building regulations apply. However, Haute-Savoie has
more buildings that also comply with the Swiss low-energy
building standard, MINERGIE, than other regions, as a con-
sequence of financial supports and incentives to manufac-
turers, which have been made available by local authorities.
For the future, the General Council of Haute-Savoie is com-
mitted to MINERGIE standards. One part of the départment’s
action plan is to meet MINERGIE standards systematically
for every new and refurbished public building of the General
Council of Haute-Savoie, in order to stay ahead of likely
future regulations.
Lower Silesia
Regional and local policy relating to energy-efficient buildings
in Lower Silesia implements EU and national regulations.
The Voivodeship of Lower Silesia has prepared a document
entitled Energy Strategies of Lower Silesia. One of the ob-
jectives of regional policy is the implementation of practices
that lead to energy-savings. The construction of energy-
efficient buildings perfectly coincides with this objective.
European Union policy regarding sustainable development
and environmental protection has introduced several regula-
tions aimed at promoting energy-efficient construction.
Directive 2002/91/EC is a key document pertaining to the
energy performance of buildings. This directive has been
transposed into Polish law.
Since 1 January 2009, there has been a requirement to have
Energy Performance Certificates for new buildings that are
being sold or rented. This regulation is especially important,
as the region of Lower Silesia is an area with high CO
2
, SO
2
and NOx emissions, which affects Lower Silesian industry,
the housing sector and the tertiary sector.
It is believed that “the housing sector and the tertiary sector,
the major part of which is buildings, covers more than 40%
of the final energy consumption in the community and this
consumption is growing”. It follows from this that the energy
consumption of buildings has, and will continue to have,
a huge impact on the environment. The reduction of CO
2
emissions by using energy-saving measures in buildings will
have a positive impact on protection of the environment of
Lower Silesia.

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The sports club SG Weixdorf commissioned the design and construction of
a new multi-purpose sports hall for their 750 members as well as for school
classes. The financial restrictions of the SG Weixdorf as client forced the planners
to stay within a tight investment frame in order to realize the planned savings
in operating costs. It wasn’t the club’s original goal to build a passive house,
especially since additional costs were expected as a consequence of the local
building code, which required the building to be lowered by 2.6 m below ground
level. However, with public financial support, the planners further developed their
design concept based on the following assumptions:
They could make use of commonly available inexpensive insulation.
Heat losses through ventilation account for the highest energy losses in a
low-energy building. A ventilation system was developed that uses highly
efficient heat recovery, surrounding walls as heat storage, and basic
heating with renewable generation of heat.
Avoidance of passive solar input would be necessary due to requirements
that indoor temperatures for ball games must not exceed 26 °C. Some
north-facing glazing, which would eliminate the need for blinds, could meet
this requirement.
It would be possible to provide passive cooling to avoid high temperatures
in summer.
These ideas and local building code requirements resulted in the design of a
one-storey multi-purpose sports hall that is recessed in the ground. Since there
are no additional floors slabs in sports halls, special emphasis is on the thermal
activation of cubic capacity (Concrete Core Activation), which amounts to 470 m³
of heavy concrete.
Good practice in Saxony –
Sports hall Dresden-Weixdorf
Ventilation:
The ventilation system has a maximum
throughput of 4,000 m
3
/h and is
equipped with a high efficiency heat
exchanger, providing heat recovery of
93%. In order to compensate for the
remaining energy loss, a subsoil heat
exchanger with eight 200 mm pipes
ranging up to 3.5 m below ground was
installed.
Heating system:
Four 100 m boreholes were installed
as sources of heat to meet remaining
heating demands. Absorption with a
thermal capacity of 37 kW provides heat,
which is transferred through a special
distributor to five different temperatures
and heating circuits that supply tem-
peratures ranging from 20 – 30 °C.
Hot water supply:
Hot water is provided by a solar thermal
plant with a collector surface of 20 m
2
.
If the solar plant produces more heat
than is needed for supplying hot water,
it can be transferred to building com-
ponents that are thermally activated.
For times of peak demand, a conden-
sation boiler has been installed.
Summer cooling demand:
Heat loads in summer are passed
through the solid walls into the boreholes,
which can be used again in winter. The
cubic capacity that is thermally activated
allows passive cooling in summer.
12
Aerial perspective of the sports hall
Further information
Karsten Vietor
„Am Königswald“
Planungsgesellschaft mbH
Email: pgkmbh@arcor.de

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Inside of the sports hall
Calculation basis:
Building volume
11,500 m³
Usable floor area (PHPP reference area)
approx. 1,500 m²
Air tightness (n50-value) measured
0.1 1/h
Results:
Heating energy demand
14 kWh/m²/a
Final energy demand for electricity (household appliances)
14.61 kWh/m²/a (2010)
Primary energy consumption (incl. electricity)
90 kWh/m²/a (without solar power)
57 kWh/m²/a (with solar power)
Total emissions
CO
2
equivalent
11.65 t CO
2
/year
Costs:
Total refurbishment costs
2.55 million EUR
Funding granted
1 million EUR (Free State of Saxony)
750,000 EUR (City of Dresden)
235,000 EUR (community of Weixdorf)

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The Saxon State Ministry of the Interior (SMI) published the
Saxon Guide for Energy-efficient Refurbishment of Build-
ings of Historic Importance for public authorities, owners of
historic buildings, architects and engineers. This guide was
developed by a group of experts led by the SMI that included
ministries, the Saxon energy agency, universities, local au-
thorities, associations, chambers and institutes. The develop-
ment of this guide represents one of the measures that are
described in the Saxon Action Plan for Energy and Climate.
Old buildings account for the majority of Saxony’s building
stock. More than two thirds of the region’s buildings were
built before 1948 and include more than 50% of all Saxon
flats. A significant population decrease is predicted for the
coming decades, which will leave 3.0 million inhabitants in
2050, compared to 4.2 million in 2006. This will worsen the
already-existing problem of vacant flats in the city centres.
In light of this fact, experts in the relevant fields searched for
appropriate concrete solutions for the guide. Solutions should
ensure that energy and climate policy goals are met and
that economic necessities are taken into full consideration, in
order to assure the future of Saxony’s architectural heritage.
The guide does not impose new or additional requirements
for the energy-efficient refurbishment of historic buildings,
but simply offers advice based on existing legislation and
technology.
The average heat energy consumption of a historic Wil-
helminian building accounts for more than 200 kWh/m²/year,
in contrast to a passive house that needs about 15 kWh/
m²/year. In general, energy upgrading of historic buildings
requires a set of architectural interventions. Preservationists
consider the resulting changes to the building to be critical.
To avoid conflicts, solutions have to be found that are con-
sistent with the character of the historic building and, at the
same time, meet the energy and economic requirements of
the time.
On the first pages, the guide explains the legal framework in
Germany and in Saxony. This is followed by a chapter that
gives an overview on measures for increasing energy efficiency
in historic buildings in the areas of building structure, HVAC
and renewable energy sources and lists various risks with
respect to possible building damage and prevention thereof.
In addition, the guide summarises the results of the pilot
study, “Energy-efficient Refurbishment of Buildings of Historic
Importance” that was commissioned on behalf of the SMI for
the Saxon Action Plan for Energy and Climate.
An evaluation matrix was developed for five building types,
each with different energy characteristics. Both the energy-
saving potential of different measures and the impact of the
measures on the historic building are included in the evalua-
tion matrix. The table provides a good orientation as to which
energy-saving measures can be carried out without markedly
interfering with the character of the building.
Good practice in Saxony –
Saxon Guide for Energy-efficient Refurbishment
of Buildings of Historic Importance
14
Saxon Guide for Energy-effi cient Refurbish-
ment of Buildings of Historic Importance
Saxon Guide for Energy-effi cient Refurbish-
ment of Buildings of Historic Importance

Evaluation matrix: energy-saving potential versus
impact on historic buildings
Energy-saving
potential
Impact on monument
20%
10%
0%
+
~
© Professur für Bauphysik / Professur Denkmalpflege und Entwerfen (TU Dresden)
*COP Coefficient of Performance /Jahresnutzungsgrad
Insulation of base plate
Insulation of top storey ceiling
Insulation between rafters
Insulation over rafters
Exterior wall insulation (EIFS)
Exterior wall insulation with formwork
Exterior wall insulation, heat insulation plaster
Interior insulation
Sealing (Infiltr.: 0.5/h – 0.3/h)
Removal of windows/doors
Additional windows
Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery
Increase of plant efficiency COP*
Use of solar thermal energy
Use of PV
Local/district heating from large CHP
Geothermal heat
Primary Energy (CO
2
-emissions)
Consumption costs and energy
Substance
Appearance
Further information
Werner Sommer
Saxon State Ministry for the
Environment and Agriculture
Email: werner.sommer@smul.sachsen.de
www.smi.sachsen.de/download/Bauen_und_
Wohnen/Handlunganleitung_Energetische_
Sanierung.pdf
15
Energy-saving
potential
Impact on monument
20%
10%
0%
+
Insulation of base plate
Insulation of top storey ceiling
Insulation between rafters
Insulation over rafters

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Background
The energy used in buildings (excluding
private households) for heating, electri-
city, and hot water accounts for rough-
ly one third of all the energy consump-
tion in Växjö. There is huge potential
for re ducing the amount of energy
consumed. In Växjö, the energy focus
has primarily been directed to new con-
struction, but the biggest potential for
reducing energy consumption is within
the existing building stock, since new
buildings represent only 1 – 2% of the
building stock each year. In Växjö, there
is a long tradition of using renewable
energy sources, mainly wood. However,
it is also necessary to have diversity
of renewable energy sources; energy
sources such as solar and wind must
be introduced to a greater extent.
Objectives
Several demonstration projects, involving
the erection of dwellings and a preschool,
have as their objective being in accord-
ance with the new energy specifications.
This means that energy consumption
is projected to be around 35% lower
than in applicable national indices. In
absolute terms, this means the energy
consumption standard for the dwellings
will have to reach 85 kWh/m²/year for
heating and 20 kWh/m²/year for elec-
tricity.
Good practice in Smaland
(Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge –
examples from Kronoberg County
Further information
Anders Persson
Midroc Property
Development
Email: Anders.persson@
midroc.se
Limnologen
Synopsis
The private company Midroc Property Development built 134 dwellings in four
wooden buildings at the building site referred to as Limnologen in Växjö. The
dwellings are Sweden’s largest newly constructed wooden residential buildings.
Project description
The project includes 134 newly built flats in four eight-storey-high wood frame
buildings. The construction of the houses has been studied by many researchers
and universities. In order to avoid moisture in the building process, large tents
covered the houses during the construction process. This procedure turned out
to be very efficient and has been used in other projects. The low consumption of
energy in the buildings was achieved through high insulation standards with good
air tightness and heat recovery. Systems that provide individual feedback to the
tenants have also contributed to low energy use.
Results
The houses were completed in 2008 and 2009. The energy statistics available
in autumn 2010 showed that the energy consumption (via district heating) in the
buildings was around 69 kWh/m²/year and the use of electricity was 9 kWh/m²/
year. This proved that the energy consumption targets have been achieved so far.
Next steps
The experience gained in this building project and its initial positive results are
very interesting as a reference for other construction, and the houses are now the
subject of extensive research.
Wooden buildings in Limnologen, Växjö
16

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17
Portvakten
Synopsis
On the building sites referred to as Portvakten North and
South in Växjö, the municipal housing company Hyres-
bostäder i Växjö AB has built 133 apartments, of which 64
are located in passive dwellings.
Project description
The project includes the construction of 133 apartments in
five buildings. The three buildings referred to as Portvakten
North were built in 2005 and 2006. The low consumption
of energy in the buildings has been achieved through high
insulation standards with good air tightness and heat
recovery. In order to help the tenants sustain low energy
use, displays showing energy use were installed in each
apartment. In 2009, the two apartment houses referred to
as Portvakten South, were inaugurated. They are unique in
their technology, being eight-storey-high passive buildings
with solid timber frames. They are air-sealed and connected
to district heating for peak load times and hot water, but
otherwise the necessary energy is supplied from waste heat
generated by the tenants, lamps and equipment. The apart-
ment houses are also equipped with heat recovery from
sewage water.
Results
The energy statistics available in autumn 2010 showed that
the annual use of district heating in Portvakten North (average
for the three buildings) was 65 kWh/m² and the use of
electricity was 11 kWh/m². Even though Portvakten North
and Portvakten South had the same target specifications in
the contract, it was clear that the actual outcome would be
much better in Portvakten South. There are no final results
yet, but it is expected that energy consumption will be
around 40 kWh/m² for heating and hot water, and 10 kWh/m²
for electricity.
Next steps
Portvakten North was the first site to be built within the
Concerto project SESAC, meaning that many of the tech-
nologies used in these houses were improved when erect-
ing other buildings in Växjö. The passive houses in Portvak-
ten South have shown that it is possible to think differently
in the building process, a fact that probably will have an
impact on Växjö’s city planning.
Further information
Kenneth Faaborg
Hyresbostäder i Växjö
Email: Kenneth.faaborg@
hyresbostaderivaxjo.se
High-rise building in Portvakten, Växjö

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18
Goals
The goal of the awards is to promote good local initiatives in the field of energy
efficiency in buildings by creating the incentive of an award-winning competition.
Selected projects will be included on an interactive map on the website
http://maps.ldpgis.it/bioecolab/.
Approach
The awards jury selects work and projects that follow the construction principles of
bio-architecture, intelligent buildings, sustainable urban planning and inclusion of
renewable energy sources. Awards are given for those buildings that best exemplify
these fundamental principles within each category. In addition to the awards, the
jury can also give “special mention” for certain projects.
The Sustainability Award can be given for both new construction and for the up-
grading/conversion of existing structures in the public or private sector. It is divided
into three categories:
1.
New buildings
2.
Building renovation and/or restoration
3.
Urban planning.
The Domotics Award can be granted to public or private residential, commercial
or industrial buildings that are newly constructed, renovated or adapted. Plaques
are presented to the winners to certify that a building has received the award. The
awarding and presentation of the winning projects takes place during the annual
Bio-architecture and Domotics Week in Modena.
Results
Since 2006, 174 projects/works have participated, including 109 Sustainable
Building and Urban Planning projects and 65 Domotics projects.
Good practice in Emilia-Romagna –
The Sustainability, Domotics and
Renewable Energies Awards
Background
The Sustainability and Domotics
Awards, organised by Bioecolab and
the Modena Domotics Laboratory,
started in 2006. The term DOMOTICS
is a contraction of the words DOMUS
(Latin for home or house) and INFOR-
MATICS (= the science concerned with
the collection, transmission, storage,
processing and display of information).
Both awards select, disseminate and
award good building practices that
also follow the construction principles
of bio-architecture, intelligent build-
ings, sustainable urban planning and
inclusion of renewable energy sources.
The awards address the sphere of
individual or associated independent
contractors, technical offices, architec-
ture studios and engineering offices,
engineering firms, temporary consor-
tiums of contractors, and public ad-
ministration.
Domotics
The Domotic technology for controlling the electric and solar
thermal systems is based on a KNX bus system. Each apart-
ment is equipped with two programmable thermostats (day
area and night area) for controlling the underfloor/wall/ceiling
radiant heating and cooling and includes a humidity and a
CO
2
sensor for the monitoring of the dehumidification and air
exchange machines.
The KNX network allows the actual energy needs of each in-
dividual apartment to be communicated to the central heating
system run by a PLC.
The central heating system’s PLC controls all the logical func-
tions needed to best manage heat produced by the solar
collectors, which first heat the domestic water storage tank
and then the buffer storage tank, in order to provide hot water
for the underfloor/wall/ceiling radiant heating system.
The two heat pumps are used to withdraw the necessary
energy from the ground that is used to heat the buffer storage
during winter and to cool the cold water storage tank during
the summer.
During summer, the system can also be set to feed the
underfloor radiant cooling directly, through the energy taken
from underground, bypassing and turning off the heat pumps
(free-cooling), while domestic hot water is produced by the
solar collectors.
Background
The Sustainability and Domotics
Awards, organised by Bioecolab and
the Modena Domotics Laboratory,
started in 2006. The term DOMOTICS
is a contraction of the words DOMUS
(Latin for home or house) and INFOR-
MATICS (= the science concerned with
the collection, transmission, storage,
processing and display of information).
Both awards select, disseminate and
award good building practices that
also follow the construction principles
of bio-architecture, intelligent build-
ings, sustainable urban planning and

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19
The project shows how one may obtain excellent energy
efficiency performance as well as adequate economic
sustainability by following environmental sustainability
criteria.
The installation system of the building presents interest-
ing characteristics, especially since the efficiency of the
envelope (materials, U-values, minimisation of thermal
bridges, etc.) is addressed alongside logical planning
of the installations (geothermal system, radiant heat-
ing). The architecture, in combination with the Domotic
systems, is very user-friendly and allows cost modula-
tion without compromising the condominium project’s
quality of energy management.
Structural interventions
From a structural standpoint, the basement and the
floor of the ground floor are in reinforced concrete slab,
and the support structure consists of a framework of
precast load-bearing panels with glulam beams; the
floors are made from wood panels, and the roof is made
from prefabricated wood panels.
The building is classified as Class A based on the Cli-
mateHouse (casaclima/KlimaHaus) system. In fact, the
heating requirements amount to 24.48 KWh/m²/year,
which is equal to 2.4 litres of petrol/m²/year. In total, the
24 apartments consume the same energy as five apart-
ments constructed in the traditional way.
Award-winning condominium
refurbishment in Bologna
Further information
Energy and Sustainable
Development Agency of
Modena –
AESS BIOECOLAB
Email: segreteria@bioecolab.it
www.bioecolab.it/premio_
sostenibilita.asp
www.aess-modena.it
Prize winner 2010: Condominium
refurbishment – via podgora, Bologna
U values of the building envelope:
Outer walls
U = 0.18 W/m²; phase displacement
= 13.22 high; damping ratio = 0.17
Roof
U = 0.21 W/m²; phase displacement
= 13.51 high; damping ratio = 0.21
Casings
U = 0.9 W/m², with double-paned low-
emission windows
Floor over the basement
U = 0.2 W/m²
Installations
1,500 m of geothermal probes; (Fifteen
100 m probes set below the mat founda-
tion),
A heating/cooling 55 kW electric heat
pump (COP 4.5 – ERR 5),
Solar thermal collectors that cover 66% of
the domestic hot water requirement,
35 kW buffer boiler that begins functioning
only in the event of peaks in the thermal
energy demand,
Underfloor and ceiling radiant heating,
Individually controlled ventilation systems with
heat recovery of up to 70%.
The combination of the installation the sys-
tems result in ZERO CO
2
emissions when
fully operating and an energy efficiency
of 14.37 kWh/m²/year (system efficiency
contributes to lowering the primary energy
requirement to 1.4 litres of petrol/m²/year).

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Prioriterre, the Energy Advice Centre (EAC) of Haute-Savoie, developed the idea
of having a demonstration building that shows how one can change consump-
tion behaviour through simple and practical principles in everyday life. Together
with Meythet city and other partners, Prioriterre has worked on creating a high
performance building that will become the association’s new office, the Maison
pour la Planète.
The Maison pour la Planète (house for the planet) was designed with support
from the INTERREG IIIA programme of France/Switzerland and involved Priori-
terre, HEPIA (Geneva engineering school), the city of Meythet, General Council
of Haute-Savoie, and several architects who worked on the idea of a very low
energy building.
Special attention was given to the environmental impact of materials, which were
chosen for the lower energy consumption entailed in producing them, fewer
emissions of greenhouse gases and less use of heavy metals in the production
process.
Prioriterre is one of the first public service buildings in Haute-Savoie that will
receive the MINERGIE-P-ECO® seal (Swiss high performance building label).
The concept for the project also included showing that such a building can be
built for other local authorities or for enterprises. The 700 m² building is based on
very simple construction principles with local materials and equipment. It is not a
Good practice in Haute-Savoie –
Energy Advice Centre, Meythet
Energy Advice Centre in Meythet
Wooden roof structure of the Energy Advice Centre
Further information
Pierre Lormeau
Prioriterre
Email: pierre.lormeau@
prioriterre.org
www.maisonpourlaplanete.fr
20

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Building
Ventilated roof
(U = 0.14 W/m²) Local woodwork resting on a roof insulation structure made of cellulose
(50 kg/m³) and wood fiber.
Floor
(U = 0.18 W/m²) Local wood for the floor (37x4 cm), blown cellulose insulation (35 to 45 kg/m³)
Façade
(U= 0.098 W/m²) Local wood frame, wood fibre insulation (3 crushed layers) and
fibrocement plate cladding
Windows
(U= 0.9 W/m²) Wood frame and triple glazed windows (gas: kripton)
Sun protection
Slatted motorised canopy that is sun oriented: enables solar gain management and
creates dynamic insulation. This automated feature raises the natural energy gain and
allows balanced light distribution.
Equipment
Heating and cooling
Geothermal heat pump (400 m of horizontal geothermal sensors) low temperature
underfloor heating on two floors
Ventilation
High efficiency heat exchanger (double flow system) that ensures air renewal, operates
by exchanging heat between exhaust air and incoming air and allows recovery of heat in
winter and cooling in summer
Electricity
80 m² of photovoltaic solar panels on the roof produce the electricity needed for the
annual needs of the building (9,000 kWh)
Lighting
Low light intensity lighting; (400 lux on desktops and 80 lux in the general installation)
Water supply
3 m² of solar thermal panel on the roof for hot water production.
Rainwater recollection
Rainwater recollection from the roof into a 20 m³ buried water tank and filtration.
This water is used for plant watering and toilet flushes.
Results
Heating energy demand
3 kWh/m² (final energy demand) or 2,000 kWh per year
Final energy demand for elec-
tricity (household appliances)
8,830 kWh/year or 10 kWh/m² SHON/an (final energy demand)
Primary energy consumption
(incl. electricity)
33.15 kWh/m² SHON/an (for lighting, heating, auxiliaries)
Primary energy consumption
for heating alone
1.73 kWh/m² SHON/an
Costs
Total construction costs
1.5 million EUR
Funding
900,000 EUR (public funds – ADEME, Meythet City, General Council of Haute-Savoie
and Conseil Régional Rhône Alpes )
200,000 EUR (Patronage – see
www.maisonpourlaplanete.fr)
400,000 EUR (Meythet City)
PV panels on the
roof of the Energy
Advice Centre

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Good practice in Lower Silesia –
Energy-efficient house in Smolec
Energy-effi cient house in Smolec
In Lower Silesia, the number of energy-efficient houses is growing, which include
not only residential but also commercial buildings. Every year there are numerous
events, fairs and seminars on energy efficiency in construction in the region of
the Lower Silesian Voivodeship.
A good example of an energy-efficient building with lower consumption is a de-
tached house in Smolec near Wrocław, designed by the Lipinscy Domy architec-
tural studio.
tached house in Smolec near Wrocław, designed by the Lipinscy Domy architec-
22

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23
The project was developed in cooperation with experts from the Passive Build-
ings Institute (Instytut Budynków Pasywnych) at the National Energy Efficiency
Agency (Narodowa Agencja Poszanowania Energii).
It is a passive house, which received the official certificate from the Passive
House Institute in Darmstadt confirming its very low energy demand. The energy
demand for passive buildings amounts to around 15 kWh/m²/year. The house in
Smolec is the only building in Poland that takes part during the annual International
Passive House Days. Its architecture is similar to the traditional architecture of the
region. The house is rectangular in shape, with a pitched roof.
The specific layout and position of windows allowed the attainment of maximum
benefits from insulation. Almost the entire south facade of the building is glazed,
which allows for energy gains from solar radiation. Solar collectors are located
on the southern part of the roof. Due to the insulation and sun radiation intensity
in Lower Silesia, this solution will provide around 60% of the annual domestic
hot water demand. The energy efficiency of the building has been confirmed by
an energy certificate granted by the Passive Buildings Institute at the National
Energy Efficiency Agency. According to this certificate, the energy demand of the
building in Smolec amounts to 13.7 kWh/m²/year.
The investment in the passive building is an attempt to promote energy-saving
construction in the Lower Silesian region. The Lipinscy passive house serves as a
demonstration facility with an educational function.
construction in the Lower Silesian region. The Lipinscy passive house serves as a
Further information
M&L Lipinscy Biuro Projektowe
Wroclaw
Email: biuro@lipinscy.pl

 
24
Energy-e cient
heat / power
generation and
distribution
EnercitEE’s broad geographic coverage of regions includes
several European climate zones with differing energy de-
mands – a large heat energy demand in Smaland, Saxony,
Haute-Savoie and Lower Silesia in winter and an increasing
cooling energy demand through air conditioners in Emilia-
Romagna in summer.
Moreover, electricity demand remains high in all regions,
since energy-saving from energy-efficient products is often
neutralised, because of additional electrical appliances and
increased floor space per capita as a consequence of increased
comfort and better living standards. Heat is often not gener-
ated efficiently, for example in outdated heating plants that
burn fossil fuels, such as lignite, accounting for high CO
2
emissions. The overall efficiency of heat generation can be
significantly improved by combined heat and power (CHP/
cogeneration).
Cogeneration is generally known of, however, its overall share
in most European member states remains low. Reasons for
this could be that existing heating plants run profitably and
heat suppliers fear investment costs. A set of binding direc-
tives should be introduced to support national, regional and
local energy strategies in their endeavours to increase the
share of electricity generated by CHP. Furthermore, incentives
such as national feed-in tariffs for electricity from CHP or
co-funding of CHP investments should be made available to
attract investors and to support further market penetration.
Cooling in summer, especially in Southern Europe, requires
a lot of electricity that is often produced in power stations
burning fossil fuels and having a low overall efficiency. Cool-
ing through combined heat, cooling, and power production
(CHCP, also referred to as trigeneration) is only available in
a small number of district cooling grids throughout Europe.
However, the increasing cooling demand in Europe, and in
particular in southern regions during summer, requires new
innovative and efficient solutions. CHCP/trigeneration
can help to avoid underutilisation of heat being generated
through CHP in summer. A district cooling network which
runs parallel to the district heating network and supplies
buildings with the highest cooling demand can be built for
this. CHCP technology needs up to 30% less primary en-
ergy than electrically driven vapour-compression refrigeration
systems in conventional air conditioners.
Apart from co-/trigeneration, there are alternatives to the
burning of fossil fuels for heat and power generation, such
as utilising the waste heat of industrial sites and waste incin-
eration plants, as well as several RES, such as solar thermal
applications, sustainable biogas and biomass.
Making use of these alternatives will help to cut down Eu-
rope’s dependence on energy imports of fossil fuels for heat
and power generation.
At the same time, refurbishment and replacement of existing
heating and cooling supply pipelines can lead to significant
energy-savings. In regions affected by demographic change,
and in particular by population decline, dismantling of grids
or provision of new decentralised local heating grids (mini-
CHP) could be a solution.
The multitude of factors reveals that in order to obtain
energy-efficient and sustainable heat and power an integrat-
ed approach is required, taking into account fuels, overall
effi-ciency of generation, size, and distribution.
Starting point and challenges

 
25
Saxony
With more than 40% of the entire final energy
consumption caused by Germany’s building sector,
and with an extraordinarily high share of historic
buildings in Saxony having often outdated heat-
ing technology and lack of insulation, resulting in
higher energy consumption, there is an urgent
need for energy-efficient heat / power generation
and distribution in Saxony.
District heating in Saxony, which is usually
produced in CHP processes, accounts for 7.7%
of Saxony’s final energy consumption among all
energy carriers. The share of CHP is significantly
higher than in Germany as a whole (3.3%). At the
same time, energy in Saxony is often generated
inefficiently and in carbon-intensive processes; the
major part of electricity, for example, is produced
in two large lignite power plants, using no or very
little of the heat produced for district heating.
Combined heat and power (CHP) has become
an important key in national and regional energy
policy plans. Since 2002, the first German CHP
act (KWKG) has supported electricity that is
generated by CHP and fed into the public grid.
In 2009 an amended CHP act (KWKG 2009) was
introduced, which extended funding to electricity
that is consumed by the producer him/herself and
to the construction of new district heating pipes.
Feed-in tariffs are guaranteed for ten years for
smaller plants and six years for larger plants. In
contrast to the German RES act (EEG), feed-in
tariffs for electricity from CHP are not reduced
over the years.
The share of CHP in electricity generation in Saxony
was around 20% in 2006 – the Free State of
Saxony aims to increase this share to 30% by
2020. For this reason, promotion of CHP became
part of Saxony’s funding guideline on energy
and climate protection (RL EuK/2007): Energy-
efficient plants that generate heat and power are
funded if the annual use efficiency is above 75%
and the rated thermal input is less than 5 MW.
Saxony offers funding in parallel to other national
CHP funding programmes.
In addition, a number of Saxon cities have includ-
ed energy-efficient heat generation and supply in
their local energy and climate protection plans.
A common strategy is the extension of existing
district heating grids in recent years to make
better use of CHP or the enactment of by-laws
to force the connection to district heat in urban
planning areas. Cold generation and supply is not
yet widely used in Saxony. However, there are
some promising ideas for how heat from CHP,
which cannot be used in summer, can be trans-
formed into cold through absorption plants and
provide district cooling for public and commercial
buildings in separate district cooling networks.
Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg)/Blekinge
Heat and power is already generated and pro-
duced very efficiently in the counties of Kalmar,
Kronoberg and Blekinge. In each of these three
counties, energy and climate strategies and ac-
tion plans exist that point out CHP as an energy-
efficient option when heat is produced mainly
from biofuels, such as solid biomass, waste or
biogas.
Since investments in CHP must be profitable,
the plant should have a certain size, which currently
starts from 5 – 7 MW for heat from solid biomass
and waste, and an operating time of over 3,000
hours a year. Biogas needs only smaller capacity
plants, from 0.3 MW, since the investment is not
as costly. However, in smaller businesses in the
industrial sector, CHP is still not commonly used.
The challenge for the future will be to address
these smaller industries. CHP raises efficiency
from roughly 35 – 45% in a condensing plant for
electricity production to around 80 – 90% if heat
is captured at the same time. With a flue gas
condenser, even 100% can be reached.
Regional and local policy background

26
Apart from the regular feed-in tariff for electricity provided
into the grid, with a price between 0.04 – 0.08 EUR/kWh,
there are also green certificates that pay an extra 0.02 – 0.04
EUR/kWh, depending on the market. Costs for the produc-
tion of RES range between 0.05 – 0.08 EUR/kWh for the
sizes mentioned above, so investment can be considered
profitable under normal circumstances. If the electricity
generated is also used for the company’s onsite electrical
needs, its production can be even more profitable.
In three pulp and paper corporations, there are plants that
together produce 1 TWh/year in total. These investments
were made in the last five years, linked to green certificates
that will be in effect for around twenty years, which makes
them very competitive on the market. In the forest industry,
this has led to a revision in thinking: it is possible to profit-
ably serve as forestry and energy company combined.
The other big sector for CHP involves the bigger district
heating plants where there are six running and two new
coming up, with a total of around 120 – 140 MW installed
capacity producing around 0.7 TWh/year. They are also get-
ting green certificates.
The third sector for RES is in other industries, which is not
yet very big. For the size below 5 – 7 MW heat power, there
is still a need for investment grants apart from the green
certificate system.
Most profitable are plants using waste as a fuel when the
user is also paid to take care of the waste. Apart from this,
it is a good energy source for the plant.
Another sector to be mentioned here is cooling produced
from heat based on biomass with absorption cooling ma-
chines. However, at the present stage, only the city of Växjö
uses this technology. Currently, cooling capacities reach
3 MW, but it is planned to reach 25 MW in the future. It is
presumed that in five years there will be 3 – 5 cooling plants
running in the region.
Emilia-Romagna
Energy efficiency in generation and distribution of heat and
power is a highly relevant issue for the region of Emilia-
Romagna’s energy policies. One of the most important ac-
tions performed in Emilia-Romagna was the re-adaptation
of thermal power stations. The replacement of all fossil fuel
run power stations with technologically more advanced and
highly efficient ones (e.g. methane-powered combined cycle
power stations), and the adoption of this technology for new
plants – also excluding the use of coal – has led to a 30%
reduction in CO
2
emissions (17 million fewer tons of CO
2
in
the last ten years). Coal power stations have been abandoned.
For the construction of high efficiency cogeneration plants,
especially in combination with district heating and district
cooling systems, the new plan of the region of Emilia-
Romagna has emphasised its commitment to further spread
such systems (refer Legislative Assembly Decision 156/08
and Directive 2004/8/EC “Promotion of cogeneration based
on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market”,
assimilated in Italy with Legislative Decree 20/2007). The
region particularly focuses on small- and medium-sized
plants, with the objective of improving the capacity of the
regional power grid and its overall efficiency.
The development of cogeneration and trigeneration is closely
correlated with the creation of district heating networks or of
neighbourhood heating, capable of optimizing the use of the
heat produced by the cogeneration system.
Today, district heating systems are fairly widespread in the
region, now third in Italy after Lombardy and Piedmont
due to the extension of district heating to over 26 plants,
approximately 1,200,000 MWh of thermal energy distri-
buted (equal to about 103 ktoe), and over 35 million m³ of
district-heated buildings. The greater part of the networks
is managed by local public services companies operating in
the region, among them the three major companies HERA
Group, IREN and AIMAG.
In the three-year period between 2011 and 2013, plans in-
clude network extensions for a total of approximately 35 km
and an increase in the volume serviced to about 5,200,000 m³,
which corresponds to an amount of thermal energy distri-
buted of 166,000 MWh/year.
Lastly, it will also be necessary to follow the spread of dis-
tributed generation of electric energy with the subsequent
adaption of the transmission and distribution grids, which
must then necessarily evolve towards a Smart Grid Con-
cept, capable of guaranteeing proper access to the grids
and reliable and efficient management of the energy flows,
while simultaneously guaranteeing the necessary energy
supply.
Haute-Savoie
The loi d’orientation or framework law of July 2005 concern-
ing energy and the subsequent Grenelle Environment laws
are based on the international objectives set up by the
Kyoto Protocol and the European energy policy. Following
the Grenelle, a heat fund (le fonds chaleur) has been cre-
ated. This allows funding of experiments on district heating.
For more than 90 years, a part of energy production in
Haute-Savoie has been hydro electricity. Nowadays hydro

27
power accounts for 1/3 of all RES in the region. In addition
to the existing 28 installations with a capacity of
>
4.5 MW,
there are a lot of pico hydro installations. A study of the pico
hydro electricity potential will be launched in the Haute-Savoie
region in 2011 or 2012.
Wood is also a traditional renewable energy source and
represents 2/3, i.e. 1,395,600 MWh of the local energy pro-
duction. Solar power and biogas have been developed for
15 years in the region and represent 1% of the production.
Biogas use in Haute-Savoie is developing much more, be-
cause, during the last couple of years, the General Council
of Haute-Savoie has been co-financing the installations.
At the local level, management of medium and low voltage
networks is assigned to SYANE (Syndicate of Haute-Savoie
municipalities). As part of its competences/skills, SYANE
is running an action to develop good practices in energy
management. SYANE participates in financing a part of
renewable energy facilities for its local authority’s partners or
helps to fund the electrification of remote sites with photo-
voltaic plants. SYANE also made available an energy audit
for public buildings and a public lighting audit. ADEME is
funding 70% of these two kinds of audits.
Lower Silesia
The objective of Poland set out in the Energy Policy of Po-
land until 2030 is to achieve zero-energy economic growth
and to increase the efficiency of energy use. One of the de-
tailed objectives in this respect is to obtain a 100% increase
in electricity produced in high-efficiency cogeneration pro-
cesses by 2020, in comparison to production in 2006.
One action to support this objective is to stimulate the simul-
taneous generation of heat and electricity through support
mechanisms, including cogeneration in production plants
with capacities smaller than 1 MW, and by appropriate
municipal policies.
The energy policy of Poland stresses the importance of
energy at the local level. The most important element of the
national energy policy implemented at the regional and local
level is the use of local capacity to develop renewable ener-
gies, including cogeneration. It is also planned to increase
the use of cogeneration technology as a preferred alterna-
tive to power heating systems and large facilities.
In accordance with the provisions of Directive 2004/8/EC,
Poland has introduced a support system for cogenerated
heat and electricity. One of the major elements of the sys-
tem is, as defined in the Energy Law, the obligation of the
operators of power grids to give priority to provision of a
network for energy from renewable sources and cogenera-
tion. Financial support for investments in cogeneration is
important. For example, from 2005 – 2009, investments in
solar energy, wind energy, biomass and biogas energy, and
in high-efficiency cogeneration, were funded, inter alia, by
the EcoFund. Currently, assumption of the support for in-
vestment in cogeneration is being presented in the National
Action Plan for Renewable Energy. Financial support has
been planned for:
The cogeneration of electricity and heat with biomass
(with a capacity of less than 3 MW).
The generation of electricity and/or heat with the use
of biogas generated in the processes of sewage dis-
posal or treatment or plant and animal remains decay.
High-efficiency cogeneration without the use of
biomass.
Support for the development of renewable energy use in
heating (including cogeneration) has been facilitated by the
Regional Operational Programmes and is carried out at the
level of the Polish Voivodeships. The supported tasks that
were identified include the construction and reconstruction
of heat sources for cogeneration installations, including
the use of RES. The beneficiaries of this support include
Local-Government units, their unions and associations, the
organisational units of Local-Government units with legal
status, and entities providing public services on behalf of
Local-Government units, in which the majority of shares is
held by the Local Government.
In the Lower Silesian Voivodeship, cogeneration has been
supported under Action 5.1 Renewable Energy Sources.
The programme supports investments related to the cogen-
eration of heat and electricity and the expansion of district
heating stations and heat distribution networks. Preference
will be given to those investments using renewable energy
sources (e.g. biomass or geothermal energy), in particular
those that are switching from fuel in the form of oil, gas or
coal to renewable energy sources. The implementation of
this action will promote the elimination of individual heat
sources that are issuers of so-called low emissions, in
favour of cogeneration system solutions. In particular, it will
include the following tasks:
The construction and modernisation of energy
generation units from renewable sources based on
water energy (including geothermal energy), and
biomass;
The construction and modernisation of district
heating stations, along with their necessary equipment;
Investments in the generation of heat and electricity
in high-efficiency cogeneration, in accordance with
Directive 2004/8/EC;
Construction and modernisation of heat distribution
networks.

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28
District heating and cooling
in the city centre of Dresden
In Dresden, the local energy provider DREWAG runs a district cooling grid that is
based on the well established district heating grid. The heat is generated by three
energy-efficient cogeneration plants (based on natural gas), that feed into the
district heating grid and transport heat to the consumer. When needed, absorption
refrigerators transform the heat into cold (currently 27 facilities with a connected
heat load of 20 MW).
The cooling systems of prominent buildings, such as the Semper Opera, the
Dresden Palace, the Taschenbergpalais or the university library, operate this way.
Since running absorption refrigerators is more expensive than compression
refrigeration machines of similar cooling capacity, the energy provider offers the
consumers heat for a lower price in the summer as an incentive. To cover peak
demand of cooling in the summer, compression refrigeration machines can be
switched on.
Good practice in Saxony –
28
District heating grid of Dresden (red lines) with areas currently provided with district heating in dark yellow
Further information
Reinhard Niespor
DREWAG
Email: Reinhard_Niespor@
drewag.de
www.drewag.de

 
29
Chilled water storage in Chemnitz
The growing number of hot summers and increasing consumer connectivity can
result in very high loads in the network. As a consequence of this, cooling capacity of
the central plant often has to be increased. A good solution for this is the provision
of large-scale chilled water storage facilities. In Chemnitz, Saxony’s third largest
city, Germany’s first large-scale chilled water storage plant was built in 2006 within
the existing district cooling system, with absorption chillers having inlet temperatures
from 4 to 8 °C of cold water. The water storage has a capacity of 3,500 m³ – the
largest in Germany at the time it was built.
The chilled water storage plant can use around 2 GWh of surplus heat from heat
power plants every year. Similarly, 150 MWh electric power can be used elsewhere,
avoiding the release of 153 tons of CO
2
every year.
Charging and discharging facility (diffusors, distributors)
System connection, pipes
Roof (lightweight construction, GRP)
Protective gas (nitrogen)
Wall (screwed steel segments)
Thermal insulation
Paneling (sheet metal)
Interior supporting structure (steel)
Thermal insulation
Foundation (concrete)
Foundation (piles)
Section of chilled water storage plant in Chemnitz
Further information
Thomas Göschel
Email: homas.goeschel@
eins-energie.de
www.eins-energie.de
www.tu-chemnitz.de
/~tur/ks2/pilotpr_ks.htm

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The efficient use of existing local energy sources, such as heat from sewage,
is one opportunity to meet energy-saving and CO
2
reduction goals, to foster a
decentralised energy supply and to contribute to local added value.
In the small town of Kamenz, a company called energie consult sachsen-ost
GmbH developed a heat exchanger that is cost-efficient, both in production
and in operation, and can be installed in existing sewage water systems. A heat
exchanger was installed in the sewage water canal of Kamenz in 2005. Together
with a 90 kW heat pump, it provides heat for a neighbouring building complex
that consists of 430 m² office space, 928 m² factory workshops, storage spaces,
and 260 m² dwellings. The heat provided from the heat exchanger can substitute
for the former boiler, which was running on oil.
Good practice in Saxony –
Heat exchange from sewage water
Construction works at Haselbach River
30

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31
Manhole with entry point to the sewage pipe
Heat pump and heat exchanger
Further information
Lutz Gerstenberger
energie consult sachsen-ost GmbH
Email: info@ecs-o.de
www.ecs-o.de
The temperature of the waste water ranges
between 3 and 8 °C. To cover peak demands
in winter time the oil boiler can be switched on,
but even at winter temperatures with -16 °C, the
new system can provide a reliable heat supply.
Heating oil was substituted by 98 %, which led
to a reduction of 25 tons of CO
2
per year. Around
70 % of heating costs can be saved per year. In
addition, the heat exchanger in the sewage water
canal has not needed any maintenance since
2008.
The idea of heat generation from sewage was
further developed and extended in familiar areas
of application. In the village of Haselbachtal,
the heat demand for an apartment/commercial
building is covered by a heat exchanger that was
installed in the adjacent small streaming river,
Haselbach. The heat-abstraction capacity is 20 kW
with a water temperature of the river of 4 °C. Only
during a few peak winter days is the oil boiler
turned on.
Heat pump and heat exchanger

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Synopsis
E.ON Värme Sverige AB is the biggest privately owned actor in the Swedish
district heating market. In the Southeast of Sweden, E.ON is operating about ten
district heating plants/networks that are fired with biofuels such as woodchips,
briquettes and pellets.
E.ON Värme Sverige AB has twenty-five employees in the Southeast of Sweden
that deal with district heating. Osby Parca is a manufacturer of boilers for solid
fuel combustion in the range of a few 100 kW up to about 16 MW, as well as
boilers for oil and gas and electric boilers.
Background
The cooperation between Osby Parca and E.ON Värme Sverige AB started
around 1997–1998 when E.ON was looking for affordable boilers for biomass
with a simple and easy to use construction, to be used with small-scale district
heating systems. They started to further develop one of Osby Parca´s existing
boilers to create an installation with good performance available at an affordable
price.
Good practice in Smaland
(Kalmar and Kronoberg) / Blekinge –
Effective supply chain partnerships:
joint development of boilers for
biomass combustion
Biomass boilers
32

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33
Objectives
The objective of this project was a more efficient boiler with a more attractive
price that would lead to an increase in the number of small-scale district heating
plants in the region. To be able to make good tenders for district heating in
smaller cities and larger villages, the pricing had to come down without sacrific-
ing good performance and high efficiency.
The improved boilers would increase sales for Osby Parca, and also make it pos-
sible for E.ON to make good tenders for smaller villages.
Project description
One boiler was re-designed; the construction and boiler were simplified and
put to a test at one of E.ON’s district heating networks. After some fine-tuning
of the bigger parts in the boiler, performance was becoming better and better,
and eventually cooperation was focused on developing an easy to use control
system. The goal was to develop a system that the technicians who operate the
boilers could understand and use without trouble. With fine-tuning, the innova-
tions were successful, and this control system is used in many boilers today. The
design of the boilers have been even further developed and improved.
Results
The most important factor for the success of this joint development collaboration
was a will to achieve a common goal, which was a better biomass boiler, both in
terms of cheaper pricing and better combustion performance. During the collabo-
ration, both partners had the courage to test new ideas and evaluate them, even
when there were different opinions about a specific problem. It has also been very
important to see possibilities instead of problems and to have an open discussion
at all times.
The development of better boilers with a price that is, and has been, very attrac-
tive for small scale district heating systems/networks has led to opportunities to
install district heating in places where it would have been too costly for conven-
tional boilers, thus making big improvements for the local environment in smaller
villages.
Further information
Erik Blomgren
Energy Agency for
Southeast Sweden
Email: erik.blomgren@
energikontorsydost.se

 
34
VEAB – 95 % biofuel
Växjö Energi AB is the main supplier of heat, electricity and cooling in the county
of Kronoberg. Their plant in Växjö, the Sandvik plant, is a facility that supplies
district heating, cogenerated electricity and district cooling to the consumer grid.
Over the last 25 years, the use of oil in this production has been reduced from
100 % down to 5 % and the majority of the raw material used in the production of
energy is made up of logging residues from felling areas, bark, wood chips and peat.
As a result of being almost non-oil-dependant, VEAB has replaced 85,500 m³/year
of oil, reducing their CO
2
emissions by 249,000 tons.
District heating, combined heat and power (CHP) and district cooling
District heating is an intelligent and environmentally friendly alternative to indi-
vidual heating of homes, schools and other venues. Just over half of all heating
in Sweden comes from district heating. District heating is at the heart of local
energy, as it can use resources that would otherwise be lost – such as residues
from logging.
When electricity is produced simultaneously with district heating, it is called CHP.
CHP is more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly than other forms of
generation since it provides both electricity and heat. A third of the energy pro-
duced in Växjö is electricity and two thirds are heat. Since the electrical grids in
Northern Europe are interconnected, this means that the more CHP is produced
in Växjö, the smaller the need for imported electricity that is mainly produced by
fossil fuels such as coal and oil.
District cooling is based on the same principle as heating, but delivers cooling
instead of heating. A central green plant does the job, instead of a multitude of
small cooling or air conditioning units. Cold might be free of costs when it can be
extracted from lake water in separate networks for cold water. But it can also, as
in the case of VEAB’s Sandvik plant, be produced from absorption cooling from
the returning hot water of the district heating grid.
How does it work?
Warm water is led from the Sandvik plant to households via district heating
pipes. The household´s district heating sub-station has two heat exchangers that
then transfer the hot water into the heating system and warm tap water system
of the house. The water is pumped through the closed system and heats the
house. The cooled water is then returned to the plant, partly straight back into
the boiler for re-heating, and partly into a cooling unit that produces cold water
through absorption processes, which is then supplied via district cooling pipes to
cooling and air conditioning units.
Good practice in Smaland
(Kalmar and Kronoberg) / Blekinge –
VEAB: The Sandvik plant
Further information
Hans Gulliksson
Energy Agency for
Southeast Sweden
Email: hans.gulliksson@
energikontorsydost.se
Lars Ehrlén
VEAB
Email: lars.ehrlen@veab.se

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35
District heating flow
Water is heated, almost exclusively with biofuels, in the boiler. The steam from
the boiler is then transferred into a steam turbine where it is converted into me-
chanical work. The turbine comprises two modules, which together drive a single
generator via their own axles. The steam initially has a pressure of 140 bar and a
temperature of 540 °C. In the generator, energy from the mechanical work (at a
pace of 1,500 revolutions a minute) is converted to electricity. When the steam
from the turbine enters the turbine condenser, it cools down into water that is
capable of providing district heating.
The flue gases from the boiler are separated from the steam and led into the flue
gas purification chamber, reducing and filtering harmful particles from the gas
before it is released into the atmosphere.
The warm water used for the district heating system is transferred into the district
heat accumulator where it is stored for peak loads. The accumulator also func-
tions as an expansion tank, evening volume fluctuations across the network and
pressurising the network with a liquid column of approximately 58 m (5.8 bar).
Through the vast pipe network for district heating, the water is then pumped
through the network in constant circulation between the Sandvik plant and the
customers. The warm water delivers heat to the customers, and the cooled wa-
ter is returned back to the CHP plant.
District heating/cooling system

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36
Background
The project deals with the construction of an anaerobic
digestion plant for the production of electrical energy from
renewable sources, with an electrical power of 1,000 kW,
and for the production of stabilised and inodorous biologi-
cal residue with effective fertilising capacity, to be used on
agricultural land. The plant is located on land owned by
Conserve Italia Soc. Coop. Agricola whose registered office
is in San Lazzaro di Savena (BO) and works premises are
located in Codigoro (FE).
Description
The plant has been designed to produce electrical and heat
energy continuously on a regular basis, transforming vegetal
by-products of little or no value.
The plant is part of a farming co-operative operation and
uses vegetal residue from fruit and vegetable canning
production. In addition, the organic fraction remaining after
digestion, without smell and entirely stabilised, will be used
as a soil additive for the fertilisation of the productive land.
The stabilised product comes from anaerobic digestion
(from the action of anaerobic bacteria) in a closed tank
without environmental impact. It contains percentages of
fertilising ingredients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium, enriched by a high content of humic acids and
carbon without contaminants. The materials used to supply
the plant are the following:
By-products and residues of the canning process:
solid or semi-solid vegetal by-products coming from
the processing of peas (June) and the processing of
fruit, tomatoes and beans (other months);
Primary and secondary sludges from the water treat-
ment plant: coming from pre-processing (primary
sludges) and from the treatment process (secondary
sludges) of the discharge water from the treatment
plant;
Maize silage: solid vegetable product derived from
the chopped up maize plant when it has reached
waxy maturity; coming from the cultivation of land
available to the cooperative.
Good practice in Emilia-Romagna –
Biomass cogeneration plant
Production cycle description
Mixing
(2 days)
Hydrolysis
(5 days)
Digestion
(25 days)
Dehydration
/Drying
Engine
Electrical energy
Thermal energy
Digested dried
material (Fertilizer)
Liquid portion of the
digested material
Progressing waste
products
Water treatment sludge
Crops cultivated for
energy
Biogas
Digested

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Anaerobic digestion and biogas
The anaerobic digestion takes place in two twin digesters
functioning in mesophilia (about 40 °C). The two digesters
are entirely above ground and perfectly hermetic. They have
been insulated externally. The hydrolysed material, together
with the re-cycled anaerobic sludges, are put into the reac-
tor and kept at the correct temperature thanks to the heat
provided by the cooling water from the cogenerators. The
biomass remains inside the digesters for sufficient time to
allow complete methanogenesis. The solid sediment part
is taken up and re-cycled in the hydrolyser to improve per-
formance. The biogas produced is treated to reduce traces
of sulphur and impurities.
Fertilisers
The materials taken from the digester are transferred for
dehydration (for solid/liquid separation) and the subsequent
drying stage (fluid bed heat drying). Once it has been dried
to 50 % humidity it will be used for spreading and other
agricultural uses. The plant makes it possible to obtain
stabilised organic fertilizer, which can be used on organic as
well as conventional crops.
Cogeneration
Cogeneration, with the production of electrical and heat
energy, is achieved by combustion in an eight-cycle motor
with yield of more than 40 % of the biogas produced from
the anaerobic digestion stage. Before combustion, the
biogas is subject to purification and de-humidification.
The electricity produced in VT (400 V) is elevated to MT
(15,000 V) and transmitted to the Enel (Italian energy provider)
distribution grid. Heat is recovered from the discharge gas,
the cooling process and cooling fluids. An automation and
management system has been set up in the boards and
control room, designed to make it possible to monitor the
process over time and control all parameters of the transfor-
mation process.
Energy balance sheet
Biogas is produced from the anaerobic digestion of biomass
and then used to produce electrical and heat energy. The
plant uses a part of the heat and electrical energy for the
process. The surplus of electrical energy produced is trans-
mitted to the electricity grid and surplus heat energy is used
for other production purposes.
The quantity of biogas that can be obtained depends on
the quality of the biomass supplied. The volume of gas has
been estimated at 12,000 Nm³ per day with caloric power of
5.8 kWh/Nm³.The biogas obtained is used in cogeneration,
supplying energy of 69,600 kWh/day, which amounts to
power of 2,900 kW.
Average production has been estimated as follows:
Electrical energy 25 MWh/day
Heat energy 30.6 MWh/day
Dispersed energy 14 MWh/day
Biomass cogeneration plant
Further information
Stefano Valentini
ASTER
Email: stefano.valentini@aster.it
37

 
38
The cattle breeding farm with the status of collective group farming (Groupement
agricole d’exploitation en commun – GAEC) called Les Châtelets is located in the
Municipality of Gruffy (Haute-Savoie). This farm has been a “classified installation
for protection of the environment” (ICPE French designation) since 1992.
GAEC Les Châtelets wanted to develop a methanation organisation in order to
create a source of additional income without increasing its agricultural area or the
size of the livestock herd. It will allow a 25-year-old farm family member to join
with the GAEC and become the third associate.
The usable agriculture area is 165 ha and its herd consists of 80 dairy cows and
90 veal calves and heifers. The manure produced by the dairy cows is scrapped
and stored in two slurry/manure pits for an overall volume of 900 m³ (annual
production is 2,000 m³). The heifers and veal calves produce 300 tons of manure
per year. This nitrogen rich organic matter allows recycling of most of the agricul-
tural input coming from the farm, through methanation unity. The treatment of the
effluents is accomplished by spreading them on the GAEC’s lands. The spread-
ing surface is 120 ha.
As for the heat consumption on-site, 200 litres of hot water are consumed every
day for the milking room. In addition, the residential building needs 3,000 litres
of oil fuel per year for domestic hot water (DHW). A few houses that are located
nearby the animal housing consume about 300 MWh per year. All told, these
buildings and houses represent, overall, the equivalent of eight houses that will
get heating supply from renewable energy.
Objectives
The farmers’ will to control the management of the by-products coming from the
farm has been a dynamic force for the implementation of this project. The metha-
nation unity will also allow:
Diversification of activity for the GAEC,
Increase of revenue for the farm from the sale of the electricity produced
to EDF (the main French energy producer); heat production on a heat
network that will serve Les Châtelets,
Treatment of by-products from the farm and nearby industries, while
providing an opportunity for recycling waste from the intercommunality,
Heating autonomy while the costs of fossil fuels are constantly rising,
Cuts in the purchase of mineral fertilizers, thanks to better fertilized humus
(the nitrogen converted into ammonia makes nitrogen fixation easier).
Good practice in Haute-Savoie –
Methanation in Gruffy
Further information
Rafaël Bouachrine
General Council of
Haute-Savoie
Email: rafael.bouachrine@
cg74.fr

39
Key figures
A 675 m³ digester
Biogas cogeneration: 104 kWh
Expected production:
860 MWh/year (thermal)
830 MWh/year (electric)
Global energy efficiency: 70 %
3,200 tons/year of organic matter recycled
Global Investment: 830,000 EUR
Co-financing rate: about 50 % (Region Rhône-Alpes, ADEME,
General Council of Haute-Savoie, Ministry of Agriculture)
CO
2
reduction: about 420 tons/year
Special feature
1 heat network for eight users, exclusively from renewable
energy sources
Energy / material flow
Principle of methanation in Gruffy
Substrates coming from
outside the farm
!
400 tons/year of grass-clippings
!
540 tons/year of waste from the
food-processing industry
!
24 tons/year of waste oil
!
82 tons/year of stale bread
Heat production
The heat produced (860 MWh/year) will be used for:
!
Maintaining the digester at a temperature of 37 °C
!
Contribution to the warm water network of the
neighbourhood
!
Heating up the 200 litres DHW of the milking room
and the hay drying
Use of the digestate
!
790 tons/year of digestate are
stored in a closed place before
being spread as a fertilizer
!
1820 m
3
/year of effl
uent ex-
tracted are stored in order to be
spread later on
Electricity
production
!
The electricity
produced,
830 MWh/year,
will be sold on
the network
Substrates
coming from
the farm
!
2000 tons/year
of bovine
manure
!
300 tons/year of
bovine dung
Biogas
Digestate

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40
Biomass for the purposes of energy production should mainly be used locally,
within the framework of so-called distributed generation in highly-efficient cogen-
eration units. A good example of the use of local potential for the benefit of the
whole of society is the 1.7 MW biogas plant in Zerniki Wielkie in the Zórawina
community near Wroclaw. The investment cost is estimated at around 23 million
PLN (5.7 million EUR).
The plant is located next to a pig farm, which produces 8,000 tons of manure
and 6,000 m³ of liquid manure, allowing it to supply heat to the National Re-
search Institute of Animal Production in Zerniki Wielkie, which manages the farm.
This will also allow the institute to avoid costs for waste disposal related to such
farming. The biogas plant is a big investment, which includes three fermentation
chambers, each with a capacity of around 4,800 m³ and two digestate contain-
ers of a similar capacity.
The farm will supply the biogas plant with fuel, which, in turn, will produce cheaper
heat power for the farm. The local farmers will be able to sell their products, to
meet the needs of the biogas plant and to purchase cheap fertiliser at the same
time. The energy produced in the biogas plant will not only be used on the farm
itself, but a part of it will be fed into the local power grid.
The entire municipality will profit from the investment. The municipality will receive
taxes, and locals will not suffer from the odour nuisances previously experienced
because of living close to the farm.
Further information
Arkadiusz Suliga
Marshal‘s Office of Lower
Silesian Voivodeship
Email: arkadiusz.suliga@
dolnyslask.pl
Good practice in Lower Silesia –
Biogas plant Zerniki Wielkie

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Biogas plant construction is nearing completion
Aerial view of biogas plant in Zerniki Wielkie

 
42
Energy-
e cient and
sustainable
transport
Starting point and challenges
During EnercitEE’s kick-off meeting, all participating regions stressed that the
transport sector is the only sector where it has not been possible to achieve a
reduction of CO
2
emissions in the past few years. The opposite has occurred: the
emissions are rising.
This increase is part of a general trend in Europe, where road transport already
accounts for around one fifth of the total CO
2
emissions. In 2007, the EU set up a
strategy to reduce CO
2
emissions from new cars and vans sold in the European
Union. This strategy is aimed at reaching the EU objective of an equivalent of 120 g
CO
2
/km by 2012 through legislative frameworks.
However, during the process of its implementation, the timeframe and the overall
ambition of the strategy have been amended. Nevertheless, the package of mea-
sures includes demand/behaviour orientated elements, such as taxation, consumer
information and ecodriving. These measures should be prepared and implemented
by local authorities and citizens at the regional and local level.
The challenge will be to tackle emissions from the transport sector in various ways
which will lead not only to reduced fuel consumption, but to increased flexibility of
car users to share vehicles or to use public transport. New motor vehicles show
that manufacturers have made some initial progress in reducing the fuel consump-
tion of vehicles through innovation and technology. However, a strategy to lower
the number of cars, in favour of public transport, bikes or car sharing, is necessary
in order to reduce CO
2
emissions in the transport sector over the long term.
Moreover, energy-efficient and sustainable transport requires an integrated ap-
proach comprising several measures. Biofuels, for example, cannot be produced
sustainably in every region. Therefore, soft measures, such as ecodriving, can better
be introduced in such regions.
In the EnercitEE regions, there are a number of good practice examples ranging
from free parking incentives for biofuel powered motor vehicles, car sharing,
commuter networks, free public transport to the improvement of public transport
timetables.

 
43
Saxony
In 2008, the traffic sector accounted for the
second highest level of CO
2
emissions in Saxony,
an equivalent of 7.3 million tons of CO
2
. This
figure has increased in the last four years and has
almost reached its peak from 1999 again. The
background paper on the goals of climate pro-
tection and energy policy of the Saxon Free State
notes an expected reduction of fuel consumption
for motorised private transport of 22 % by 2020.
In addition to the activities of the German Energy
Concept, the Saxon Free State has drafted a
number of measures in its Energy and Climate
Action Plan which should help to improve the en-
ergy efficiency of engines, in order to strengthen
ecomobility and to lead by example.
The Saxon Energy and Climate Action Plan
focuses on the support of various model projects
concerning traffic reduced lifestyles, improve-
ment of energy efficiency in public fleets, and
cooperative projects promoting investment and
non-investment measures to reduce traffic related
emissions. Moreover, measures to improve the
traffic infrastructure e.g. by better interconnecting
different transport carriers, better use of traffic
telematics, or further development of freight traffic
centres and inland ports as interfaces between
road, rail and water are included. In particu-
lar, the extension of national and international
railroad corridors, including railway electrification,
are Saxon policy interests, which however, are
under the national responsibility of the Bund. In
general, climate friendly mobility has not been a
priority theme in transport planning in the past,
even though some good approaches have been
developed. For rural areas, the Saxon Free State
wants to offer good public transport, for example,
by the financial support of transport to schools
and educational institutes.
Saxony is a region with a lot of commuters: 50 %
of employees in Saxony commute, in some rural
areas, even more than 80 %.
Saxony has become one out of eight German
model regions for e-mobility (electric mobility) in
the effort to reach 1,000,000 electrical vehicles in
Germany by 2020. The SAENA’s bid to become
a model region was one of the selected ones in
2009, for a two year-period. The Saxon model
region plan has three strands: Public Transport,
Energy Storage, and Charging Infrastructure, with
Testing of Electric Vehicles. The public transport
project is called “SaxHybrid”, which is a serial hy-
brid bus with a partial electric engine that is part
of the innovation concept of introducing hybrid
buses in public transport. Tendering and testing
will be carried out with twenty hybrid buses in the
cities of Dresden and Leipzig.
In 2009 the Saxon coalition agreement between
the two governing parties underlined the impor-
tance of the electric mobility initiative in order to
make Saxony a pioneer in modern transport and
vehicle technology.
Use of electric vehicles and alternative fuels also
has an economic dimension. It is estimated that
1.3 billion litres of diesel and 1.1 billion litres of
Regional and local policy background

44
petrol are sold in Saxony every year, an enormous purchas-
ing power that could be used, instead, to stimulate alterna-
tive fuels and the creation of jobs in the region.
Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg)/Blekinge
Regional Council of Southern Smaland’s transport policy
objectives: “The transport system in Southern Sweden will
ensure economically efficient and sustainable transport for
citizens and businesses throughout the county.”
The interim targets for the regional transportation system
can be formulated as follows:
The regional transport system in Southern Sweden
should be accessible to all.
The transport system in Southern Sweden should
contribute to regional growth.
The transport system in Southern Sweden should be
safe and sustainable.
The infrastructure in Southern Sweden is a top priority be-
cause of its potential to contribute to growth in the county.
This means that companies must feel that the infrastructure
meets their transportation needs in a safe, but also sustain-
able way. The infrastructure will facilitate regional expansion
and growth and development in the 11 regions, which
means that people’s daily radius of activity should be in-
creased, as well as the availability of work and study places
within a day’s trip.
The infrastructure will contribute to accessibility in the county,
both for residents and visitors; for example, improvements
in the transportation infrastructure are expected to contribute
to the strong focus on tourism.
Emilia-Romagna
In Emilia-Romagna the transport industry is responsible for
90 % of CO emissions, 42 % of NMVOC, 46 % of NOx, 41 %
of primary PM
10
and 30 % of CO
2
emissions – amounting
to 12.5 million tons of CO
2
(the region of Emilia-Romagna
is the second largest CO
2
emitter in Italy). The Po Valley is
one of the most critical areas of the European Union for
widespread and intense pollution that calls for large-scale
interventions.
The Regional Energy Plan places great emphasis on the
transport industry, identifying specific objectives that are to
be implemented through the Regional Integrated Plan for
Transport (PRIT) 2010 – 2020.
Among the key topics addressed in the PRIT 2010 – 2020
are the policies and actions concerning urban mobility and
public transport relative to road/rail modal integration and
promoting the appeal of local public transport (the renewal
of the bus fleet, the new regional integrated list of fares,
and “Infomobility”, i.e. information technology in support
of mobility), innovative models of governance of the local
public transport service, new forms of energy with low envi-
ronmental impact, the issue of creating an infrastructure for
electric vehicles, and the promotion of bicycle/pedestrian
mobility.
In recent years, in order to significantly contribute to the
reduction of emissions of fine particles from buses, the
region has promoted initiatives for refurbishing and retrofit-
ting regional buses, which has brought about an increase
in methane powered buses (from 2 % to 23 %), a decrease
in diesel powered buses (from 85 % to 55 %), and a drastic
decrease in pre-Euro vehicles in favour of less polluting
environmental classes.
Other important initiatives that should be mentioned:
All-in-One Card for regional mobility – “On the Move”,
a genuine “mobility card”, or rather, a form of inte-
grated prepaid pass that allows exchange between
rail and road transport service providers, as well as
bike sharing, car sharing, carpooling, taxis, park and
rides, electric vehicle charging, etc.
Initiatives for mobility of people and for intermodal
transport, projects that give priority to Infomobility
in local public transport (Project GiM – Informed
Management of Mobility); organisation of momentary
parking and monitoring of the entry points of historic
centres; and road/rail/bicycle exchange
Initiatives for the expansion of urban bicycle/pedes-
trian mobility, projects that give priority to the insertion
of bicycle/pedestrian paths in the network of the
region’s major urban centres

45
Haute-Savoie
Through legislation at the national and local levels, local ac-
tors in France are asked to reduce the total CO
2
emissions
of passenger cars to reach the EU objective of an equivalent
of 120 g CO
2
/km by 2012.
The Haute-Savoie départment has specific geographical
and demographic constraints (mountains, rivers): the region
is growing by 8,000 new inhabitants per year and the road
and train networks have limited extension prospects.
Some communities are setting up, or already have adopted,
a sustainable urban transport plan, in order to reduce
congestion by providing alternatives to car use, and also to
make city centres more pedestrian friendly.
The General Council of Haute-Savoie is responsible for
organising public transport between cities and school trans-
port. It has also implemented different policies regarding
alternative transport by participating in European projects
on public transport, such as Mobil’alp, that serves seven
different routes.
Haute-Savoie is funding some of the inter-enterprise mobility
plans. The region is also developing its own mobility plan
and is purchasing low emission cars.
Lower Silesia
In the field of transport the documents on which all kinds of
local regulations are based include the National Transport
Development Strategy to 2013, the Road Transport Act of
2010 and the Public Road Transport Act of 6 December 2001.
At the local level, particularly important for the development
of sustainable transport, is the Programme of Sustainable
Development and the Environmental Protection of the Lower
Silesian Voivodeship, established in April 2002. A long-term
goal of the programme is the sustainable development of
the Voivodeship, which takes into account environmental
issues while working toward the socio-economic develop-
ment of the region. The direction for the development of
transport also results from the Zoning Plan of the Lower
Silesian Voivodeship (Plan zagospodarowania przestrzen-
nego województwa dolnoslaskiego-PZPWD) of 2002 and
the Lower Silesian Innovation Strategy.
From the perspective of improving energy efficiency in trans-
port, a key document will be the Energy Strategy of Lower
Silesia. One of the objectives of this strategy is to imple-
ment solutions and practices that lead to increased energy
efficiency and minimised negative effects of energy on the
environment. This strategy also stresses the importance of
balancing the interests of three entities: the energy sector
enterprises, the farms in the region, and households, in
order to ensure sustainable energy development.
At the local level, Resolution no. LIV/325/06 of the Wroclaw
City Council of 6 July 2006 was adopted, which includes a
development strategy for the city of Wroclaw, namely the
Strategy – Wroclaw in the Perspective 2020 plus, which
contains the general direction and specific objectives set
by the Wroclaw region. One of them is to highlight the
importance of public transport and the need to improve its
infrastructure and attractiveness. Only convenient and flexible
public transport will be able to relieve the urban space of
cars. Environmentally friendly rail transport is a dominant
feature of the strategy.
nego województwa dolnoslaskiego-PZPWD) of 2002 and

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46
Within the political discussion on climate protection and the reduction of CO
2
emissions, the German government has prioritised electric mobility and has set
up a national development plan on electric mobility. The aim is to make Germany
the leading market for electric mobility and to have 1,000,000 electric cars on the
road by 2020.
The Saxon Energy Agency’s concept for an innovation platform “electric street
Saxony” was one of eight entries selected in the Federal Ministry’s competition
for designation as a model region in Germany.
The metropolitan areas of Dresden and Leipzig will be the focus of the funding
project from 2009 – 2011.
Saxony’s high performance infrastructure, its strong economic framework and its
successful economic policy provide good conditions for vehicle manufacturing
that is dedicated to electric mobility. Saxony’s goal is to establish Saxony as an
electric mobility site through:
Development of a value chain for energy storages
Development of a value chain for electric vehicles and engines
Promotion of Saxony as a business location
A major focus in Saxony will be public transport, including a joint concept of
Dresden and Leipzig Transport Services for rapid-charging hybrid buses in
scheduled bus services. Moreover, battery storage, utility vehicles and charg-
ing infrastructure will be priority topics in the model region. Overview of Saxon
projects:
Project SaxHybrid
Procurement/Testing of a fleet of serial hybrid buses with all/partial electric
driving mode with ten buses in Dresden and ten buses in Leipzig
Project SaxMobility
Fleet of electric vehicles in operation and fleet management of decentralised
energy storage
Step-by-step set up of a public charging infrastructure
Procurement and operation of smaller electric vehicle fleets
Grid integration and energy management of electric vehicle fleets
Project Energy Storage
Development of process and production technologies for energy storage
systems in industrial appliances
Good practice in Saxony –
Model region electric mobility Saxony

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Further information
Cathleen Klötzing
Saxon Energy Agency –
SAENA GmbH
Email: cathleen.kloetzing@
saena.de
www.e-mobil.saena.de
Electric vehicle and charging station at Dresden main station
47

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48
In August 2010 the three County Councils in Blekinge, Kalmar and Kronoberg
signed, together with the Swedish Transport Administration and the Energy
Agency for Southeast Sweden, a policy document that will guide them toward
sustainable transport both during work hours and when travelling to and from
work.
Good practice in Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg)/Blekinge – CERO: A cleaner
and more economical way to deal with
mobility in organisations
The CERO mobility team

49
Further information
Hannele Johansson
Energy Agency for
Southeast Sweden
Email: Hannele.johansson@
energikontorsydost.se
Purpose
The purpose of the project is to find environmental targets that are economically
feasible and to convert them into targets for travel behaviour, taking into consid-
eration the needs and wishes of the employees.
Objective
The objective is to meet the environmental targets set by the County Councils,
without sacrificing the economic targets of the organisations.
Target group
All 16,000 employees in the three counties.
The scope of the project
Sustainable passenger transport, changing attitudes and behaviour, Mobility
Management measures such as encouraging getting to work by bicycle or by
walking, using public transport instead of using a car, using video conferencing
instead of travelling to meetings, etc.
Concrete steps
The first step is to make a survey of the employees’ travel habits by sending out
a questionnaire. This will give the management group ideas for a mix of different
measures that show potential for CO
2
reduction and suggest a realistic target
goal. This will be completed in 2011. When the choice of the different options
for reducing both CO
2
emissions and costs is made, the implementation of the
measures will take place. The Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden is in charge
of coordination and dissemination for the project. The project is part of the work
that is done in the Regional Mobility Agencies.
Results
Initial results from the CERO-analysis in the county of Kalmar have concluded
that major CO
2
emission reductions and monetary savings can be made. If the
proposed measures from the CERO-analysis in the county of Kalmar are car-
ried out, it would reduce emissions by around 1,500 tons of CO
2
/year (equal to
around 20 %) and it would also mean an annual monetary saving of almost
600,000 EUR.

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Background
CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) fuel has already been intensively developed, in
particular for the applications of buses and domestic waste collecting vehicles.
It has unquestionable advantages in terms of reduction of local pollutants (NOx,
HCNM, CO, and other pollutants).
The addition of hydrogen to natural gas will reinforce the advantage of CNG with
respect to local pollutants (NOx reduction, CO
2
reduction, CO and HC comparable
to CNG) but will also lower its impact on global warming due to better energy
efficiency; CO
2
-free hydrogen combustion; the possibility of producing hydrogen
with low CO
2
content (from renewable energy). Moreover, the modification of
existing CNG engines to the fuel H
2
/CNG is relatively easy. From an economic
point of view, the fuel cost is less than 5 % more expensive than natural gas,
while the cost for the installation of hydrogen production and hydro-methane
supply plants is comparable to a natural gas supply station.
A recent study carried out by ENEA on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Regional
Government in 2007, based on the data related to the public transport sector in
the region, performed a comparison between the environmental impact caused
by the existing public vehicle fleet and that caused by the same fleet after the
(hypothetical) conversion of all natural gas fuelled vehicles to hydro-methane fuel.
The conclusions of the study suggested choosing conversion to hydro-methane
for its positive environmental effects and production of hydrogen gas through the
innovative technology of steam reforming.
Good practice in Emilia-Romagna –
Hydrogen and methane blend for public
transport
The hydrogen and methane bus for Emilia-Romagna
50

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51
Objectives
Build the first prototype of a hydro-methane bus; circulate it on public
roads, after obtaining formal authorisation; will trigger the widespread use
of hydro-methane in the regional public transport fleets
Provide a solid knowledge base for the implementation of air quality and
climate change policy measures regarding public transport at the regional
level.
Increase citizens’ awareness in relation to climate change and air quality
topics by exploiting the demonstrative potential of the prototype vehicle,
fuelled by hydro-methane, circulating on urban roads.
Actions
Bench tests, 2009 – 2010
Optimise the bus engine through a motor bench test, using a15 % H
2
hydro-methane blend, in order to keep optimal energy performance at the
lowest possible pollutant emission level.
Road tests, 2011 – 2012
Conduct road tests, on private circuits and public roads, in order to verify
in real conditions the fuel consumption and gas emissions of the bus
fuelled by hydro-methane, compared to fuel containing natural gas only.
Homologation: approval for circulation on public roads, 2011 – 2013
Establish a panel on homologation, gathering the technical partners of the
project and the relevant local office of the Ministry of Transportation, CPA.
The panel has the objective of determining the correct authorisation
procedure for the particular case of the hydro-methane bus.
Results 2011
The Italian Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure approved the Experimentation
Program (EP) that will allow the hydro-methane prototype bus to circulate on
public roads in 2011 and 2012. Accomplishment of the bench-test and creation
of an ad hoc fuel station for H
2
-CNG blend supply for hydro-methane prototype.
Further information
Stefano Valentini
ASTER
Email: stefano.valentini@
aster.it
www.mhybus.eu

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52
Lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reducing dependency on fossil
energies is both a national and international issue. International commitments
mean that communities and businesses are involved in the effort to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. The major sector that must be involved in order to
achieve the 20-20-20 objectives is travel and transport (responsible for 26 %
of GHG). Moreover, the issue of changes in travel behaviour is one of the most
difficult to solve, because it involves both an individual (choice of type of mobility)
and a public (heavy investment in infrastructure) decision.
A local issue: developing soft mobility
Haute-Savoie territory is affected, as others are, by commuting issues: rail net-
works that could be improved, main roads that are congested at certain times,
rush hour pollution, or public transport with low utilisation. Interesting initiatives
are emerging, such as the Mobil’alp project or the carpooling website established
by the General Council of Haute-Savoie, a bike rental service or the car-sharing
initiative in Annecy and its suburbs and an Inter Enterprise Mobility Plan (IEMP)
for economic activities areas.
The enterprise Salomon wanted to develop an Enterprise Mobility Plan and asked
Prioriterre if any other company in the area could have the same need. Prioriterre
contacted the Annecy Hospital, which has the obligation by law to set up an
Enterprise Mobility Plan, because of its large number of employees.
Annecy Hospital and Salomon were then able to develop an Inter Enterprise Mo-
bility Plan. Additionally, Prioriterre recruited several companies, which organised
themselves into an association called Mouv’Eco, in order to get more political
visibility, but also to get public funding (from ADEME and Regional Council), which
is impossible as one private company.
Once Mouv’Eco was set up, the study for the Inter Enterprise Mobility Plan was
carried out for one year. The results showed about 30 possible corrective actions.
Good practice in Haute-Savoie –
Inter Enterprise Mobility Plans manager

53
To deal with soft mobility issues in economic activities zone
From there, in order to carry out their action plan, both Mouv’Eco and CAE
Rumilly needed support to initiate and facilitate their corrective actions. After a
few debates among the different partners, Prioriterre was suggested to adminis-
ter the actions on their premises. This solution turned out to be the most suitable
for the following reasons:
Impossibility for Mouv’Eco and the CAE to hire one more staff
person internally,
Position and activities more widely oriented than the two originators
of the plan,
Experience of the Prioriterre team on mobility issues (organisation of
events, conferences, European programmes, etc.),
Known to most of the public (private individuals, enterprises and
municipalities),
Experience in the communication field (media, internet…),
Existing partners network to relay the information,
Available space in the premises and adapted location,
Skills in management and supervision,
Collaboration with the mobility agency of Chambéry on a few operations.
This facilitator will coordinate his/her activities closely with the organising
authorities (General Council of Haute-Savoie and local authorities), in order to
implement the recommendations of the Inter Enterprise Mobility Plan and to
encourage implementation and dissemination of all the existing projects.
Further information
Anne-Sophie Masure
Prioriterre
Email: anne-sophie.masure@
prioriterre.org
Operation stakeholders and partners
Mouv’Eco
Association of five organisations with a total of
4,400 employees (the regional hospital of Annecy,
Salomon, CGL Pack, the French public organisa-
tion in charge of collecting and distributing blood
products, MAPED) located in the northern area of
Annecy’s suburbs.
CAE of Rumilly – Alby Development
Association created by the Municipality of Rumilly.
It is made up solely of representatives of econom-
ic activities (industries, cottage industries, shops,
services, agriculture) from the Albanais basin.
100 companies are members and participate in
the committees (Training – Employment; Services
– Opening up; Image – Economic Promotion –
Information; Environment).
Prioriterre
Association created in 1983. Mission: Supporting
any public entity in order to deal with and reduce
one’s ecological footprint as far as energy, water
and raw materials consumption are concerned,
in the fields of dwelling, building and travel. It has
been certified ISO 9001.

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54
Energy-efficient and sustainable transport is playing an increasingly important
role in Lower Silesia. Several projects promoting this means of transport have
been launched in the region. The Wroclaw City Bicycle is a very interesting initiative.
It consists of a self-service network of bicycle rental services. In Wroclaw, 17 sta-
tions with 140 bicycles will be created.
The bicycles have been available since 1 June 2011. A city bicycle can be rented
by anyone who registers for the service beforehand. The first twenty minutes of
riding such a bicycle are free, the first hour costs 2 PLN, and every subsequent
hour 4 PLN. Bicycle stations are located in the city in such a way that travel from
one to another place does not last longer than twenty minutes. The use of the
urban bicycle can be paid for with an UrbanCard (Wroclaw Urban Card) or credit
card. The urban bicycle is to become an alternative form of transport in the city,
not only for its residents, but also for tourists.
The first 17 bicycle stations are only the beginning of the whole project. The plan
is to gradually increase this number and to extend the area that the network is
going to include.
Good practice in Lower Silesia –
The Wroclaw City Bicycle
Further information
Arkadiusz Suliga
Marshal’s Office of Lower
Silesian Voivodeship
Email: arkadiusz.suliga@
dolnyslask.pl
54
Silesian Voivodeship
Email: arkadiusz.suliga@
dolnyslask.pl

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The bicycle station on the Wroclaw market

 
56
Emerging
energy-e cient
innovations and
technologies
Starting point and challenges
Innovation is one of the key elements of the EU’s renewed Lisbon strategy for
growth and jobs. The EU’s broad-based innovation strategy points out that our
future depends on innovation in order to compete in a globalised world.
In the process of making our business environment more innovation-friendly, regional
and local authorities must lead the way by adopting innovative approaches and
by exploiting new technologies and procedures in local districts. New technologies
can help to tap efficiency potential, for example, by making visible real-time energy
consumption (smart metering). Even now, information and communication tech-
nologies (ICT) that help people to grasp the low or high energy consumption of
electrical or other household appliances due to individual settings or lifestyles
and thus improve energy efficiency, are still largely under-exploited in the EU as a
whole, in particular in private households, but also in the public sector.
In addition, innovation policies should be further developed to better support net -
works and social innovation and to require collaborative, cross-sectional responses
that reach out to business, public policy makers, researchers, educators, public
service providers, financiers and NGOs.
The EU places special emphasis on eco-innovation, i.e. all forms of innovation
reducing environmental impacts and/or optimising the use of resources through-
out their lifecycle. The European Technologies Action Plan (ETAP) has a number
of priorities dedicated to eco-innovation.
In addition, the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) sets out
a vision of a Europe with a world leadership role and a diverse portfolio of clean,
efficient and low-carbon energy technologies that can serve as a driving force
for prosperity and a key contributor to growth and jobs. Investing in the develop-
ment of low carbon technologies is considered as an important opportunity.
The region of Emilia-Romagna, for example, has highlighted innovation in a regional
innovation policy creating an energy and environment platform, setting up inno-
vation centres and supporting research and demonstration projects in the region.
At the same time, a number of innovative energy efficiency technologies are
already available on the market and can be seen in the good practice examples
in the other chapters.

 
57
Saxony
Innovation in the energy sector is an important
key for Saxony, which has a long tradition as an
energy and industry region and many jobs related
to these sectors. Innovation and new technologies
to develop new energy-efficient products and
improve the energy efficiency of products and
processes are essential for Saxony to compete in
the global market. On the European innovation
scoreboard (EIS 2009), Saxony currently ranks
among the first 15 regions. Environmental tech-
nology has become an important economic factor
in Saxony; more people work in the production of
solar components than in any other German state.
As a consequence of Saxony’s first Climate
Pro tection Programme, the Saxon Ministry for
Environment and Agriculture set up a funding
programme on immission and climate protection
including the use of RES as early as 2002, which
also supported model and demonstration projects
on new technologies, e.g. a heat exchanger from
municipal waste water. This funding programme
helped to save 140,000 tons of CO
2
annually.
Saxony’s current Action Plan on Climate and
Energy supports investment and non-investment
demonstration projects in the funding guideline
on energy efficiency and climate protection
(RL EuK2007).
The Saxon Innovation Strategy aims at the
removal of innovation barriers by taking into ac-
count the needs of scientific and entrepreneurial
actors as well as the experiences and good
practices of various actors. This will improve the
use of funds in the region and help to develop
new instruments.
The Saxon Free State supports research as a
precondition for innovation. A broad range of
energy efficiency solutions often develop out of
research and will be tested in demonstration
projects, eventually leading to the introduction of
new products into the market.
A number of Saxon clusters, networks and research
institutes already contribute to this strategy, and
thus, to the fulfilment of Saxon climate protection
goals and the creation of new jobs. In addition,
a Saxon innovation committee with members
of science, industry and culture was founded in
2008, in order to give new impetus to Saxon
innovation policy. One of Germany’s Leading-Edge
Clusters, for example, is Cool Silicon from Saxony.
The aim of this cluster is to build bridges between
science and business and also to recognise
innovation potential in order to bring it into the
market.
Moreover, in 2009, TU Dresden and Fraunhofer
have founded DIZEeff, the Dresden energy
efficiency innovation network, which aims to
strengthen innovation competence and research
in the city of Dresden. One aspect of close col-
laboration with research institutions is the future
creation of highly qualified jobs, which is a major
factor for the financial support of the Saxon Free
State.
Regional and local policy background

58
Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg)/Blekinge
Kronoberg’s regional climate and energy strategy has no
specific focus on innovation or technology. However, in the
past decades, regional and local policies have continuously
supported innovative ideas about alternative methods for
energy generation from regional biomass. This has led to
new approaches that allow a more flexible use of biomass
and linkage to regional development. As a consequence of
this, the region was:
First in Sweden to use biomass for district heating,
using an old technology in a new way,
First to use large scale cogeneration (CHP) in
connection with biomass,
First to set up an R & D gasification plant for the
production of synthesized gas from biomass as a
base for biofuels,
First to set up a structure to implement small scale
district heating (DH) plants using biomass, which
resulted in more than 30 DH plants in the region today.
In addition, the region strongly benefits from the triple helix
cooperation among the public sector, private sector and
universities.
The region was also home to one of the first large scale
solar thermal plants. It was built in the early 1980’s with a
surface of over 5,000 m². Under the regional pre-existing
conditions, this technology was not successful, and the first
factory for solar panels has been closed down.
In the building sector, the region has worked on several new
technologies, such as:
Heat recovery from household waste water
Better and more developed heat exchange for exhaust
air, both from heat pumps and from heat exchangers
Better and more insulated windows with U-values
less than 1 W/m²K (overall heat transfer coefficient)
Improved insulation for walls and roofs
Low and controlled air leakage
IT feedback system between tenant and energy
providers (Demand Side Management, DSM)
Emilia-Romagna
The support of industrial research for the green economy
sector is centred on the activities launched by the Regional
Programme for Industrial Research, Innovation, and Tech-
nology Transfer (P.R.R.I.I.T.T.). These activities implement
the Regional Law 7/2002, which is systematised according
to the Regional Operational Programme/ERDF 2007 – 2013.
The core of the region’s triennial energy plan is to support
activities targeted at research to meet the demands in the
sectors of green economy and energy efficiency and to
foster technologies, products, and management and proce-
dural innovations that contribute to increased efficiency and
save energy. These strategic actions combine competitive-
ness, as defined by the parameters of a knowledge-based
economy, with energy sustainability – participating directly
and transversally in the achievement of the objectives of the
EU Climate-and Energy package for 2020.
Within the scope of the programme several activities to offer
and demand research include:
The development of a network of laboratories for
industrial research and technology transfer and of
innovation centres, or places in which the research
activity can be applied, developing and enhancing
industrial innovation and the supply of services and
technological knowledge that respond to the needs
of companies and are based on the technological
and production issues of significant regional relevance;
Stimulating companies to invest in research and
development, and to build a deeper relationship with
the university and research system and the providers
of technological services;
Supporting programmes that transfer technological
knowledge and skills to companies;
Supporting companies’ development or grouping of
new industrial laboratories whose purpose is to
create research and development services;
Promoting new companies or new professional
businesses with a substantial technological content
generated from spin offs of the research activities or
other forms of economic improvement from the
results of research;
The expansion of services that support the development
of research activities and technology transfer and that
support the regional network of those involved in
research and innovation.
Within the region’s High Technology Network, a research
platform relative to Environment and Energy is already ac-
tive; its modern laboratories will be assimilated into the new
Technopoles of Emilia-Romagna.
Haute-Savoie
The General Council of Haute-Savoie leads the way by
adopting innovative approaches and by exploiting proce-
dures in local districts: the internal team of purchasers that
prepare calls for tenders are now including environmental
and social clauses. In order to follow energy consumption
in public buildings, the General Council of Haute-Savoie
accepted the offer from EDF (Électricité de France SA) to

59
install energy consumption metering software in every high
school. This innovative system alerts the energy manage-
ment team of each public building in case of dysfunction or
in case of abnormal consumption.
The General Council of Haute-Savoie is also developing eco
event methodology for some of its events. In this way, they
hope to help local authorities to get trained and become in-
terested in eco event methodology, in order to reduce, from
the starting point of a project, the impact of their organisa-
tion’s event.
Other local actors are also proposing services to enterprises:
the Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie (CCI) has been
proposing energy and waste audits to enterprises and arti-
sans for ten years.
On a larger regional scale, the region of Rhône-Alpes is
implementing several policies regarding development of
support networks for innovation and the environment.
As an example, the Research Cluster ENERGY Rhône-Alpes
aims to unite and improve the structure of research activities
in the field of energy, which is today scattered in diverse
disciplinary areas (electrical engineering, materials, electro-
chemistry, energy, economy etc.).
To support original or pioneer initiatives in the field of eco-
responsibility or adaptation to climate change, the Rhône-
Alpes Council is also launching an ecocitizens Rhône-Alpes
call for proposals, which has three components:
Anticipating adaptation of climate change
Help and support for behaviour changes
Awareness-raising of students about environmental
issues.
This call for proposals is open to associations, public hous-
ing offices, neighbourhood centres, MJC (social and youth
centre), regional parks, municipalities, and inter-municipality
structures holding sustainable development contracts from
Rhône-Alpes.
Lower Silesia
In the Lower Silesian region, the implementation of solutions
that improve energy efficiency and rationalise energy
economy results from national and Voivodeship regulations.
The national regulations include the Energy Law Act and a
document of the Council of Ministers, entitled the Energy
Policy of Poland until 2030, prepared by the Ministry of the
Economy.
The Energy Law Act defines the rules of the State energy
policy, terms of supply and use of fuels and energy, including
heat, and the activities of energy companies and identifies
the authorities responsible for fuel and energy economy.
The act also transposes European regulations and directives
on renewable energies into Polish legislation and provides
further details.
The Energy Policy of Poland until 2030 determines that
the main directions of energy development in Poland will
include:
The improvement of energy efficiency,
The development of renewable energy use, including
biofuels,
The limitation of the impact of energy on the
environment.
It is worth noting that on 11 August 2011, the new Energy
Efficiency Act came into force, including the following
improved measures:
Conclusion of the agreement for the performance of
works aimed at improving energy efficiency,
The exchange of equipment, installations, or vehicles
for the equivalent with low-power consumption and
low operating costs,
The modernisation of the used equipment, installation,
or vehicle, aiming at reducing energy consumption
and operating costs,
The purchase or rent of energy-efficient buildings or
their parts, or reconstruction, the repair of used
buildings, and the thermo-modernisation of buildings,
The preparation of an energy audit for buildings with
an area exceeding 500 m².
The public sector entity should apply at least two of these
measures and issue information about their use to their
community via their website or by other means.
The Voivodeship documents and policies affecting the
development of technologies and innovations in energy
efficiency primarily include the Development Strategy of the
Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the Lower Silesian Innova-
tion Strategy. The objective of the Development Strategy for
the Lower Silesian Voivodeship is to indicate the direction
of economic and infrastructure development in the Lower
Silesian Voivodeship.
The Development Strategy is also a tool to improve the
living conditions of the residents of Lower Silesia. The docu-
ment also includes the development of renewable energy in
the Voivodeship, which provides guidelines for the munici-
palities of Lower Silesia.

 
60
The Leading Edge Cluster “Cool Silicon” is
dedicated to increasing energy efficiency in the
information and communications technology (ICT)
sector. For this reason, energy efficiency and
even zero energy solutions should be developed
in the three focus areas “Micro- and nanotech-
nologies”, “Communication systems”, and “Net-
work sensors”. An important part of this project
is an intense exchange of ideas and know-how
between Saxon partners in different areas, as well
as knowledge transfer from academia to industry.
Subsidized by the Federal Ministry of Education
and Research (BMBF) and the Saxon State Min-
istry for Science and the Arts (SMWK), the “Cool
Silicon Cluster” is a well equipped research and
development project of more than 108 partners,
including large international semiconductor com-
panies like Globalfoundries, Infineon and X-Fab,
small and medium enterprises (SME) and 16
chairs of three Saxon technical universities.
Innovations in micro- and nanotechnology are the
foundation of modern information and communi-
cations technologies (ICT). They are the engine of
economic progress in leading industrialized na-
tions, as well as in former emerging markets like
Taiwan and Korea. Through strategic business
development “Silicon Saxony” has emerged as
a prime location for microelectronics in Europe.
Currently, the only cluster in Europe that can keep
up with competition from Asia is “Silicon Saxony”.
The microelectronic technology/ICT sector em-
ploys more than 43,000 people in the high-tech
region of Dresden, Freiberg and Chemnitz.
To secure and expand its position on the global
market, the cluster needs to focus thematically.
Regional assets must be better utilized for the
creation of internationally recognized innova-
tions, and those innovations must be success-
fully translated into production. With its strategic
importance for market growth, ICT forms the
dominant key market for micro- and nanotech-
nology. As a technology driver and high volume
market, ICT sets the standards that serve as
benchmarks for both development and produc-
tion. However, steady growth in the area of ICT is
not without consequences: by now the use of ICT
systems produces the same amount of carbon
dioxide as the entire emissions of civil air traffic.
Energy costs for operating ICT infrastructure have
also become a significant economic factor. The
most urgent challenge in the field of micro- and
nanoelectronics, therefore, is to greatly improve
energy efficiency, especially for ICT, the industry’s
key branch. This is the technical, economic, and
environmental goal of “Cool Silicon”.
Substantial progress in this field can only be
made through major innovations and new system
approaches that are grounded in a combination
of cutting-edge scientific research, close to mar-
ket development, and world-leading “know-how”
of production processes. Worldwide, no domi-
nant cluster for the field of energy efficiency in ICT
has been formed thus far. The partners involved
in this leading edge cluster strategy have already
taken the lead over global competition, with some
of their pioneering products.
“Cool Silicon” is well positioned to seize this
opportunity to massively build up the location’s
system competence, especially with the SMEs, in
order to develop the key technologies for energy-
efficient electronics and to secure them in the
long run for the region, for Germany, and for Eu-
rope as a whole. Furthermore, the establishment
of many new “hidden champions” will broaden
the economic foundation of the area.
Good practice in Saxony –
Cool Silicon: Energy efficiency
innovations from Silicon Saxony
Further information
Cool Silicon e. V.
c/o Silicon Saxony
Management GmbH
Email: info@cool-silicon.org
www.cool-silicon.org

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61
Micro- and nanotechnologies
The core objective of the area 1 project
partners is the development of basic
technologies, analysis and production
methods for the production of energy-
efficient electronics and their applica-
tion, in order to decrease the energy
consumption of computer systems.
Communication systems
In area 2, the research and develop-
ment projects are focussing on the
improvement of energy efficiency in
communications infrastructures and
mobile devices.
Network sensors
The project CoolSensorNet is the lead
project of area 3. It conducts research
on the whole electronic chain’s specific
requirements, including sensors,
analogue electronics, A-D converters,
processor systems and the telemetry
unit.
The Cool Silicon working areas
Examples of the three working areas of Cool Silicon

 
62
In Saxony, the medium-sized company Lehmann Maschinenbau GmbH has
developed a technology to increase biogas yield in biogas plants and to allow the
use of straw, grass, materials for landscape conservation (mulches), dung and
other materials for the production of biogas that could not, or to a very limited
extend, be used for biogas production until now.
During the process of bioextrusion the organic substrate is pre-treated by a hydro-
thermal extraction process. The surface of the organic material and, therefore
the bioavailability, are increased due to cell disruption by means of bioextrusion
(patented procedure) and the hydro-thermal decomposition involved. This pro-
cess requires the application of mechanical energy (friction, squeezing, crushing)
and an alternating pressure load and relief of the material with the positive result
of interfacial mechanisms and disintegration, in order to achieve higher decom-
position rates.
Good practice in Saxony –
Bioextrusion to make biogas
production more efficient
Fermentation of grass silage
300
250
200
100
0
50
150
0
5
8
10
15
20
25
30
Methane yield
Increase of
+26%
methane yield
Grass silage
extruded
Grass silage
chaffed
Surplus
Days
Grassilagevergärung
Methane yield [I
N
/kg oTS
zu
]
Biogas
yield
496,08
I
N
/kg oTS
zu
279,70
I
N
/kg oTS
zu
56 Vol. %
26%
29,5%
Methane
yield
Biogas
yield
Methane
level
Increase of
Methane
yield
Biogas
yield

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63
Bioextruder
Further information
Thilo Lehmann
Lehmann Maschinenbau GmbH
Email: post@lehmann-maschinenbau.de
www.lehmann-maschinenbau.de
The decomposition allows shorter dwell times for an equal
or better degree of putrescence of the digestate substrate
(the solid material remaining after the anaerobic digestion
of a biodegradable feedstock) and consequently, higher
throughput (higher digester load). The component sub-
stances cellulose and hemicellulose become available to
methanogenic bacteria thus allowing the use of fibrous
materials for biogas production. Apart from the described
process, the developed technology provides such further
process units as drying, compacting or pelleting of the or-
ganic substrates to optimise its use for biogas production.
Besides the fact that biogas production becomes more
efficient through bioextrusion, the technology allows use
of organic substrates such as wheat straw that are not re-
garded as being as competitive to food production, in terms
of land use as, for example, sweet corn.

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64
Within the EU-project SESAC, several research studies have been carried out on
Demand Side Management (DSM) and on potential cooperation between energy
companies and tenants to reduce energy.
Changing people’s behaviour greatly affects the possibility of saving energy. The
SESAC project aims at saving ten percent of energy by achieving desirable energy-
efficient behaviour from tenants. A Demand Side Management (DSM) method
has been developed and is being used with tenants to create good preconditions
for changing tenant behaviour. It is of great importance to understand the cor-
relation between lifestyle and consumption for DSM methods to be successful in
saving energy.
Apartments are equipped with four systems for individual measurement that are
used to create an incentive for tenants to lower their energy consumption. Three
apartment types in the SESAC project are equipped with a display mounted in
the apartment in order to make energy consumption visible to tenants. Tenants of
one type of apartment (EnergiKollen) can see their energy consumption online.
Energy consumption of electric appliances is 2 – 42 % lower and hot water con-
sumption is 35 – 70 % lower than in reference apartments. Cold water consump-
tion and heat for space heating and ventilation are also lower.
Good practice in Smaland
(Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge –
Demand Side Management in buildings
Online and hardware measurements system for electricity, heating, domestic hot and cold water

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65
The installation of meters, the presentation of consumption in the flat, either by
display or by website, as well as consumption-based billing are substantial and
necessary steps to obtain these good results. For additional motivation, energy-
saving competitions are also being organised within EnergiKollen.
The efforts to decrease energy consumption even more by DSM have been suc-
cessful for the individuals that were involved in the competitions, but the partici-
pation rate has been too low to see any overall effect of the competitions.
Further information
Erik Blomgren
Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden
Email: erik.blomgren@energikontorsydost.se

 
66
Background
The High Technology Network of Emilia-Romagna, promoted and coordinated by
ASTER, is made up of Industrial Research Laboratories and Innovation Centres in
an infrastructural network distributed over ten regional Technopoles and organised
in six thematic platforms.
In the Technopoles, activities, services, and structures will be created and housed
to serve the purposes of industrial research and technology transfer, as well as to
serve as incubators for company creativity. Provinces and municipalities contribute
to the necessary investments, since the creation of the Technopoles will serve as
a driving force for the economy of the host territories.
The Technopoles will host 46 institutes (35 research structures and 11 innovation
centres) subdivided into 66 operational units, which will belong to one of the six
platforms:
Agriculture and Food
Construction
Energy Environment
ICT and Design
Mechanics Materials
Life Sciences
Objectives
The Energy and Environment Platform (ENA) has the objective of creating and
transferring technologies and innovative methods for environmental quality con-
trol and management and optimisation of resources. It is directed at bodies and
organisations set in place for monitoring and protecting the environment, “green”
companies engaged specifically in the production of technologies and in offering
environmental services, the energy production chain, including energy produced
from renewable sources, and companies from all industries interested in minimis-
ing their environmental impact.
Description
The ENA Platform possesses the special characteristic of confronting the research
on energy issues at the system level, also paying particular attention to the en-
vironmental implications tied both to the supply of raw materials (ex. biomasses)
and to the impacts of energy systems taken as a whole. Other platforms include
the vertical expertise that completes the framework of skills necessary for research
in the energy industry, from the single component to the system and to its con-
text: mechanical, installation, electromechanical, and ICT skills.
Results
The ability of the Energy and Environment Platform to operate in industrial
research is proven by the number and the value of the contracts signed. In less
than one year, the value has reached nearly 6 million EUR, of which approximate-
ly 25 % comes exclusively from nonsubsidised investments.
Good practice in Emilia-Romagna –
Energy and Environment Platform for
Energy Efficiency
Further information
Stefano Valentini
ASTER
Email: stefano.valentini@
aster.it
www.aster.it/tiki-index.
php?page=EnergiaAmbiente

67
BIOMASS
Analysis of environmental
sustainability and economy
Energy Balances and CO
2
Available potential assessment
identification bio-districts
Biomass characterisation
Models for assessment and
mapping of biomass availability
PHOTOVOLTAIC
Basic modules for the production
of electricity (thin film, inorganic
thin film, organic cells, thermo
photovoltaic, nanotechnologies
for the active layer and the incident
solar spectrum)
Concentrated solar power tech-
nologies (optical systems and cells)
Materials for backfilm and cover-
ing, materials for concentration
Balance of System (inverters,
control unit and controls, grid
protection)
Optimisation and integration of
the systems
BIOFUELS
Optimisation of production and
quality of non-food cultivation for
the production of biofuels
Planning
Identification, characterisation,
and optimisation of mix
Planning and innovation for
the transformation process
Energy Balances and CO
2
Use in vehicles and non-
industrial building services
Pilot production installations
Analysis of the thermodynamic,
fluid dynamic, and kinetic data
Shaping of the process in the
installation
Sizing and optimisation of the
installation
Integration with existent
installations
WIND
Blade
fluid dynamic analyses and
design, materials
Foundations and tower
structural analysis (static and
dynamic), materials (corrosion,
covering, non-metallic)
Aero generator
Boss and transmission reduction
gear, orientation and breaking
systems (HW and controls) car
and rotating electricity
Analysis of environmental
sustainability and economy
Energy Balances and CO
2
Available potential assessment
identification bio-districts
Balance-of-system (BoS)
Inverters, grid protections, wind
farm management and monitoring
systems, connection to the grid
(connection and management of
electrical charges)
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF
THE BUILDINGS
Energy diagnosis
energy diagnosis protocols,
energy simulations in quasi-static
and dynamic fields, fluid dynamic
analyses, identification of the
strategic paths
Instruments for the orientation
of planning
Integrated strategies for intervention
envelope technologies, installation
technologies, green integration,
envelope-installation integra-
tion, installations from renewable
energy sources
Effectiveness assessment
energy simulations in nearly static
and dynamic fields, energy simu-
lations in dynamic fields of power
parks, effectiveness of plant
coverage, fluid dynamic analyses,
cost-benefit analyses
HYDROGEN
Production
electrolysis of water (PEM, al-
kaline, vapour) steam reforming
methane, ethanol, natural gas
partial non-catalytic oxidation of
hydrocarbons gasification and
pyrolysis of biomasses
fermentation/digestion
photo-biochemical processes
thermal decomposition of water
Storage and distribution
cryogenic technologies
compressed hydrogen
metallic and chemical hydride
storage systems
carbon nanotube storage
Use
electrochemical systems, fuel
cells, combustion systems
(internal combustion engines,
turbines, etc.)
Working areas
of the Energy and
Environment
Platform

 
68
Background
The Smart Grids European Technology Platform defines Smart Grids as “electricity
networks that can intelligently integrate the behaviour and actions of all users
connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to ef-
ficiently deliver sustainable, economical and secure electricity supplies”.
The evolution of the current electricity grids towards this new model is necessi-
tated by different factors:
Liberalisation of energy markets and unbundling of the old monopolistic
operators obliges managers to enhance the capability of the different parts
and of the multiplied actors of the electric system to work together to
assure reliability, security and quality of electric supply.
The need for sustainable development demands improved efficiency,
cutting down CO
2
emissions and use of fossil combustibles, and enhancing
the diffusion of use of renewable energy sources.
Objectives
The traditional electricity grids are not able to fulfil the above mentioned require-
ments, since they are designed as monolithic systems, in which electricity flows
only from a bulk generator to passive consumers, with limited information flows
and with static management of generation and consumption.
Instead:
Improving efficiency demands a transformation in the role of the passive
consumer into an active consumer, aware of his/her consumption and able
to manage it according to when energy is available;
Reductions in CO
2
emissions and diffusion of use of renewable sources
call for transformation of the distribution grid from a passive grid to an
active one and implementation of bidirectional communications between
the new figure, the pro-sumer (producer-consumer) and the other actors of
the grid (for example, distribution management systems, electricity markets,
and such new actors as Aggregators, which aggregates and coordinates a
certain number of pro-sumers and/or active consumers).
It is evident that all these demands require the implementation of ICT layers
inside the old electricity grid to make it “smart”.
The building of these levels should lead to the construction of secure, robust,
reliable and interoperable communication architectures able to connect all the
devices, the software tools, and the actors that will take part in the Smart Grid.
Sometimes this architecture is referred as the Internet of Energy.
Good practice in Emilia-Romagna –
Smart Grid and the need for changing
the current paradigm of energy use
in industrial manufacturing
Further information
Angelo Frascella
Email: angelo.frascella@enea.it
Piero De Sabbata
Email: piero.desabbata@enea.it
www.spring.bologna.enea.
it/cross-tec.asp

69
The research project ARTISAN
The regional CROSS-TEC Laboratory (set up by ENEA
inside the Techno’pole of Bologna) is coordinator of a FP7
project: ARTISAN (Energy-aware enterprise systems for
low-carbon intelligent operations).
The project aims at stimulating the European textile industry
to employ real time energy consumption indicators in both
its day-by-day operations and business partnerships,
supporting operations and decisions in the supply chain
through information related to the energy/environmental
“identity” of processes and products.
ARTISAN will provide, among other things:
Decision Support Systems that fit in with enterprise
decision processes, such as:
Dynamic electricity pricing
Energy consumption indicators
Internal energy production (if any)
Services for energy and emissions trading arising
from more accurate energy forecasts, both to the
single enterprise and to the entire supply chain.
Thanks to ARTISAN, textile enterprises could become ac-
tive consumers, integrated with the electricity markets and
able to provide the distribution management systems with
reliable forecasting of their consumption. Therefore, these
services will help enterprises to act as active users in the
upcoming smart electricity grids.
Backhaul
Distribution
management
system
Electricity
market
Other third
parties
(Match maker, clear-
ing houses, etc.)
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Load
Controller
Load
Load
Load
Load
Smart appliances
Smart
vehicle
Smart
generators
Display
Area network ( home / building / industry )
Utility remote
agent
Aggregator
remote agent
AMI
Smart meter
1
4
ZigBee | Z-Wave | KNX | Home Plug | BacNet | Lon Works |
oBIX | ISO/IEC 18012 | AS 4755.3.1.2008
ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 | SAE J2931 | Draft result
of PAP11 | IEC 61850
1
4
2
2
2
IEC 61850-7-420
5
ANSI C12.22 | M/441 | Open Meter | DLMS| EMD | EDINE
3
ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 | SAE J2931 | Draft result of PAP11
OpenADR | Open ADE | Energy Interop | EMIX |
Electric M&V | CME (only Aggregator Remote Agent)
3
6
5
8
7
8
8
6
6
Backhaul
Distribution
management
system
Electricity
market
Other third
parties
(Match maker, clear-
ing houses, etc.)
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Controlled
device
Load
Controller
Load
Load
Load
Load
Smart appliances
Smart
vehicle
Smart
generators
Display
Area network ( home / building / industry )
Utility remote
agent
Aggregator
remote agent
AMI
Smart meter
1
4
ZigBee | Z-Wave | KNX | Home Plug | BacNet | Lon Works |
oBIX | ISO/IEC 18012 | AS 4755.3.1.2008
ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 | SAE J2931 | Draft result
of PAP11 | IEC 61850
1
4
2
2
2
IEC 61850-7-420
5
ANSI C12.22 | M/441 | Open Meter | DLMS| EMD | EDINE
3
ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 | SAE J2931 | Draft result of PAP11
OpenADR | Open ADE | Energy Interop | EMIX |
Electric M&V | CME (only Aggregator Remote Agent)
3
6
5
8
7
8
8
6
6
Distribution management system

image
 
70
Chatel is located in Haute-Savoie in Abondance Valley, around 40 km from
Thonon-les-Bains (Southern shore of Lake Léman). It is one of the 14 ski resorts
that form the “Portes du Soleil” domain that adjoins Switzerland. It sprawls
across 7,954 acres, between altitudes ranging from 1,053 m to 2,432 m. The
population varies from 1,300 permanent inhabitants to more than 20,000 people
during high season in winter.
To cope with the extra water demand, the municipality built a 300 m³ tank in
2002. The topographical constraints are marked, since the tank has been set up
at an altitude of 1290 m, on a steep slope over 40 % of which is covered in snow
for more than half of the year.
The water that is collected is quite risky as far as bacterial content is concerned,
due to the pastures upstream. UV radiation treatment and a little chlorination are
enough to treat the water, but an electrical installation is needed. However, this
place is too far away to be connected to the electrical network.
Therefore, it has been decided to produce electricity from the energy created by
the water coming into the pressure tank.
15000
5000
0
10000
20000
2000 m³
1000 m³
3000 m³
1950
1946
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Year
Water
demand
Water demand / population
Population
Good practice in Haute-Savoie –
The tank of the Ardosières in Chatel
Water demand in Chatel has greatly increased over the last 40 years

image
image
The municipality chose a system of microturbines, as
springtime in Ardoisières has quite reliable characteristics:
Constant and sufficient rate of water flow all year long:
Minimum 16 m³/h
Maximum 30 m³/h
Altimetrical position allowing gravity distribution:
Altitude of the tank: 1,300 m
Average altitude of the network: 1,200 m
The turbine’s brand is IREM ECOWATT:
Net power: 300 W
Single-phase voltage: 220 V
Pressure at normal speed: 0.9 bar
Fixed injectors whose openings are set at 4 litres/second
The electricity produced feeds the equipment for the water
treatment, the lighting of the premises when visited, as well
as the equipment for teleprocessing.
Further information
Jean-Philippe Bois
General Council of Haute Savoie
Email: jean-philippe.bois@cg74.fr
71
The intended operation for the installation is the following:
If the rate of flow available is lower than the minimum
necessary for the turbine to work, the turbine stops.
If the rate of flow available remains between the
minimum and maximum necessary for the turbine to
work, all the water passes through the turbine.
As soon as the rate of flow available gets higher than
the maximum for the turbine, the excess water goes
through a bypass located above the normal flow
going into the turbine network, and is then poured
into the tank. This equipment renders the water
potable, by making the appropriate treatments with
a completely autonomous system.
The cost of the equipment and work on the microturbine
amounted to 13,200 EUR, while the network connection
was valued at 90,000 EUR.
Hydro power with micro water turbine in Chatel

 
72
Increasing
energy e ciency
through good
communication
and motivation
Starting point and challenges
Energy efficiency starts at home! This is how the EU Energy Efficiency Action
Plan introduces the launch of one of its priorities, which focuses on changing
behaviour. Energy efficiency solutions require a multitude of approaches based
on good communication and motivation to get both local authorities and citizens
involved. Civic engagement has also become one major objective of the strategy
for a civil society and greater involvement of citizens, which was adopted by the
European Ombudsman.
However, information on energy-efficient technology and behaviour is often
communicated in a way that is not sufficiently oriented toward citizens and local
authority staff, who are often lacking in depth prior knowledge.
In the past few years, the European Commission has highlighted the importance
of this aspect of information dispersal. They have started supporting projects for
integrated initiatives for energy education or action programmes in sustainable
energy communities, mobilising civic society to endorse energy related measures,
for example, under the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme.
As well as providing leadership, the public sector should initiate communication
with and among the citizens. However, it is not only the communication of knowl-
edge that matters; the motivation of citizens is even more important. Public mo-
tivation is key for citizens to become involved in campaigns and to subsequently
kick-start and implement their own projects.
Incentives can support this process in various ways, not just in financial terms,
but also in the appreciation of citizen involvement in a project. Energy efficiency
visions that are developed at the political level will generally be more successful if
citizens can identify with and contribute to the relevant aims.
The French EnercitEE partner, Haute-Savoie, has initiated a number of cam-
paigns, awareness projects and education programmes addressing and involving
citizens, some of which are described in this Good Practice Guide and provide
good models for encouraging active participation by citizens.

 
73
Saxony
Communication and motivation are considered
key factors in the Saxon Climate and Energy
Plan and play an essential role in achieving the
ambitious Saxon climate protection goals. Since
energy efficiency includes every sector of society,
the Saxon Free State encourages a constant flow
of information for private households, industry,
trade, professionals and local authorities through
local agenda offices, chambers, associations and
educational institutes and many others.
In Saxony, the communication of policies,
standards, new technologies and demonstration
projects concerning energy efficiency is carried
out by a number of actors who are recruited and
coordinated by the Saxon Ministry for the Environ-
ment and Agriculture and the Saxon Ministry for
Economics and Labour.
Their key actor is the regional energy agency
SAENA (Saxon Energy Agency), which serves
as the Saxon expertise and information hub for
energy efficiency and renewable energies.
SAENA carries out most of the regional energy
campaigns for local authorities, private house-
holds and industries in Saxony. The network
Communal Energy Dialogue Saxony (keds), which
established by SAENA, fosters the exchange of
experience on different energy efficiency topics
between local authorities several times a year.
This network originated from EnercitEE’s forerun-
ner, INTERREG project enercy’regio.
Moreover, SAENA hosts and supervises a number
of initiatives and networks, provides training,
advice, and exchange of experience to cities and
citizens as well as assessing guides and promot-
ing demonstration and good practice projects
within Saxony. The collection of EE and RES data
and projects from the entire region has recently
been compiled and imported into a Saxon online
energy portal.
In addition to communication over these channels,
the motivation of citizens and local authorities
through campaigns and monetary programmes
are part of the Saxon approach. Various motiva-
tion campaigns, such as energy competitions
for private households and schools have been
organised in recent years. In addition, the Saxon
funding guideline on energy and climate protec-
tion (RL EuK2007) stimulates a broad target group
to invest in energy efficiency technology and local
authorities to participate in quality management
systems, such as the European Energy Award
®
.
Smaland (Kalmar and
Kronoberg)/Blekinge
Communication and motivation are important
means to increase energy efficiency in the region.
Kronoberg’s Climate and Energy Strategy does
not list this in a separate chapter, but politi-
cians have realised its impact on the success of
projects in the region, both now and in the past.
Regional and local policy background

74
Tenants, for example, have been identified as one target
group in the Climate and Energy Strategy, which emphasises
encouraging them to save electricity. This has been ad-
dressed, for example, by the introduction of an IT based
feedback system between tenants and energy companies.
The project SAMS, by VäxjöEnergi, worked as a pilot project
and led to an energy reduction of around 20 – 30 % among
tenants. Another project, called EnergiKollen, encourages
tenants to lower their energy costs by changing their habits.
The project provides a web tool that helps tenants to see
and understand how their energy consumption changes
day by day. Similar projects that include direct contacts and
small energy-saving competitions in the entire region are
climate pilots in Kalmar, and Energy Neighbourhoods.
These projects try to find ways, that will help people to
improve their energy consumption, through learning and
behaviour change. Working with Smart Grids is still at an
early stage; even though there is a lot of talk about this,
not so much has happened in the region so far. Important
actors in the field of communication and motivation are the
public energy advisors in each municipality who support
house owners, tenants, and SME in many areas, with free
and neutral advice.
This is a system that has significant support from the Energy
Agency for Southeast Sweden, which has a network that
is based on a national strategy, in which all municipalities
in Sweden take part. Communicating with and motivating
children is done by both school training campaigns and
through the Science Centre’s eXperimentlabbet, which deals
mainly with energy and climate issues and is open to both
the public and to school groups. The training of teachers is
an important part of this and is carried out in cooperation
with the region’s Linnaeus University.
Additionally, a regional climate commission is working with
communication and motivation issues in their action plans.
These will include the creation of a regional climate centre,
energy advice to citizens, training and information to compa-
nies and the public, and in-school development of hands-on
knowledge and skills with respect to energy and sustainable
development. The Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden
has a strong role in this commission.
Emilia-Romagna
Spreading and affirming a new culture of rational energy use
and the further development of renewable energy sources
are strategic actions with the goal of reaching the ambitious
objectives of the energy policies of the Emilia-Romagna region.
With the triennial plan, the region strives to increase awareness
about the importance of the many good practices for saving
energy and for developing and spreading scientific and techni-
cal knowledge about increasing energy efficiency and about
installations that use all types of renewable energies.
Above all, the principal initiatives are designed to: develop local
planning and promotion initiatives in combination with suitable
communication activities (for example, supporting positive ex-
periences like the EU-Initiative “Covenant of Mayors”); expand
the activities of the energy office and its website, which informs
and advises citizens; support participation in (and provide
booths for) fairs and events (e.g. Ecomondo, Agrofer, Saie,
Ecocasa, R2B, etc.), and the organisation of related meetings
and seminars.
While working closely together with local authorities, the region
strives to implement as many projects as possible related to
energy and the environment. This will improve the knowledge
and experience of environmental education centres, of energy
offices in municipalities and in the provinces, and of energy
agencies. As a consequence, it can create a group of serv-
ices, products, and initiatives that transform the issues and
objectives of regional energy and environmental planning into
educational, informational, and training plans, and support and
oversee their implementation.
The project “towards sustainable energy” will be given
particular emphasis; approved with Council decision no. 2295
of 27 December 2010, it is to be implemented through the col-
laboration of the Provincial Administration, whose objectives,
consistent with Regional Law no. 27 of 29 December 2009,
“Promotion, Organisation, and Development of the Activities of
Information and Education on Sustainability”, concern:
The development of knowledge, awareness, and
appropriate behaviours for pursuing environmental
sustainability;
The collection and distribution of information on
environmental sustainability to encourage the
conscious participation of citizens in decision-making
processes;
The provision of information on the environment and
energy to citizens, in order to promote their active
participation in building a sustainable future;
The development of the school system and of higher
training;
Integration and coordination on a regional, provincial,
and municipal level of the various timetables and
educational experiences related to the subject.

75
Haute-Savoie
Energy Information Centres (EIC) were initiated by ADEME
in 2001, in order to educate and inform the general public
free of charge, and in a neutral and independent way, about
energy efficiency and renewable energy. These EIC activities
are co-financed by local authorities, including regional and
départment councils. Their activities are reinforced by the
commitments made in the context of the Environment bill,
Grenelle, that supports France in reducing its greenhouse
gas emissions.
The network has 235 energy info centres, supported by
more than 400 consultants located throughout France.
In 2009, over 1.6 million people have been informed by
energy information centres (more than seven million people
since the establishment of the network), with an overall
satisfaction rate of 80 %. The economic impact is also
important because the energy information centres have
contributed to the execution of work amounting to more
than 465 million EUR in 2009.
The Environment bill, Grenelle, has also helped to develop
many energy efficiency projects for reaching different target
groups (large audience as well as enterprises, local authori-
ties, staff etc.).
Locally, the General Council of Haute-Savoie is also funding
an energy plan, to improve energy efficiency knowledge, to
attain better energy autonomy, and to reduce greenhouse
gases. The General Council of Haute-Savoie also develops
and supports waste management within the local com-
munities: the priority is to reduce waste at its origin/starting
point. Haute-Savoie is also implementing a local climate
plan for the region and all public buildings managed by the
General Council of Haute-Savoie.
Lower Silesia
As a city located within the area of the European Union,
Wroclaw is obliged to apply regulations in the field of energy
efficiency for member states at the local level.
At the local level, Lower Silesia is a region that, every year in
its development plans, tries to put more and more emphasis
on the issues of nature protection and sustainable develop-
ment, as well as focusing on problems related to energy.
The Programme of environmental protection for the City of
Wroclaw for the years 2004 – 2015 can serve as evidence
for that; it includes a detailed description of the present
state of the environment, as well as the methods and mea-
sures which will be used by the authorities for sustainable
social and ecological development.
One measure is addressed especially to the youngest resi-
dents of Lower Silesia, and it includes a variety of activities.
Competitions, training sessions, seminars and lectures are
organised to teach young people in an interesting way to
care for the environment and save energy. Education from
an early age will contribute to increased energy and environ-
mental awareness in this and future generations.
A number of competitions, actions, and workshops organ-
ised for educational institutions working with different levels
of education by the Environmental Protection and Agriculture
Division of the Municipal Office in Wroclaw have already
been carried out in the city.
An important entity contributing to improving energy efficiency
is the Voivodeship Fund for Environmental Protection and
Water Management in Wroclaw. In 2010, within the frame-
work of actions for the Development of ecological awareness
of Lower Silesia residents through informational media, the
residents of Lower Silesia had an opportunity to receive a
wide range of information on the issues of nature protection
and energy-saving. Both press publications and television
programmes were created, which included:
Educational programmes in regional television
stations
Pro-ecological supplements in regional monthly
magazines
Three ecological articles
Ten 14-minute broadcasts on television within the
programme ECOREGION – educational education
through a cyclical television programme
Ekodekalog (eco-decalogue) –
television pro-ecological magazine
Ten radio broadcasts
Internet websites, Your ecological office and Your
ecological house
The Programme of ecological education for Lower Silesia
is the first of its type in Poland that strives to monitor and
to improve the ecological awareness of Lower Silesian
residents.

 
76
Cities and communities are challenged in the 21
st
century by climate change and
the need for energy-saving, increased energy efficiency and a sustainable energy
supply. Local authorities bear responsibility and play an exemplary role in this
process; they have to initiate the process, implement solutions and make results
available to the public at the local and regional level.
At the same time, an increasing number of Saxon communities implement good
practices for climate protection by taking measures to increase energy efficiency
and energy-saving and by investing in a sustainable energy supply.
One of the main goals of the Saxon Energy Agency is to highlight ways to improve
local energy work and to foster the exchange of information on energy related
topics. The Saxon Communal Energy Dialogue (keds – Kommunaler Energie-
Dialog Sachsen) serves as the main platform of the Saxon Energy Agency to sup-
port Saxon communities and counties concerning qualification for funding and
information and exchange of experience for improving local energy work. keds is
one of the corner- stones of the Saxon Action Plan on Climate and Energy.
The key topics for keds include the European Energy Award
®
, energy-effi
cient
communities and energy services.
Good practice in Saxony –
keds: Saxon Communal Energy
Dialogue and energy portal

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Energy portal
The energy online portal
www.energieportal-sachsen.de
is an interactive map
that has been developed by the Saxon Energy Agency in order to present exist-
ing energy activities and projects in the region. Portal users can browse through
a number of maps that help them to locate relevant communities and energy
projects in the region, to get background information on the relevant project or
activity, or to search for one.
The portal provides information on the following topics: Waste heat sources,
energy self-sufficient regions, energy-efficient construction, RES, European En-
ergy Award®, Saxon Trade Energy Passport, model and demonstration projects,
enterprise network, passive houses and solar fairs.
Moreover, there are additional tools for a statistical overview, such as the accu-
mulated installed capacity of all wind or PV plants in a certain district or city.
Saxony’s online energy portal
Further information
Björn Wagner
Saxon Energy Agency
SAENA GmbH
Email: bjoern.wagner@saena.de
www.keds-online.de
www.energieportal-sachsen.de

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78
The tiny community of Zschadrass, with 3,200 inhabitants, is one of the most
active communities in Saxony when it comes to renewable energies and energy-
saving.
According to the mayor Matthias Schmiedel, Zschadrass first assessed its
energy-saving potential a couple of years ago, in order to reduce operating costs
for energy.
As a first step, the local council decided to carry out one of the easiest and most
visible saving solutions, street lighting – after midnight, street lights are turned off.
This was followed by an assessment of energy-saving potentials for communal
buildings. In this process the community tries to create a regional added value,
where energy is generated locally thus reducing costs for imported fossil fuels,
creating jobs and promoting sustainability. This also inspired the vision of an
energy self-sufficient community by 2050.
The council decided to switch fuel for the heating of communal buildings from
fossil to local biomass. For example, wood residues are collected on the town’s
territory when cutting trees and bushes in parks and along roads. Citizens can
carry their wood residues from their garden to the public biomass grounds. This
provides two third of the biomass needed. The rest is produced by the local
farmers’ short rotation forestry. With this method, they harvest 10 to 12 tons
of wood each year. After this, the wood needs to be dried. Together with an
engineering office and the university, Zschadrass developed a system to allow
self-drying of the wood chips, which takes 6 – 8 weeks. The wood chips are then
used all year for the local heating plant in the basement of the school.
Some years ago, a new big wind power plant with a capacity of 2.2 MW has
been installed, with a height of 138 m. The commune owns 20 % of this wind en-
gine. In addition, the majority of the public buildings carry PV plants, which adds
up to around 17,000 EUR income from the feed-in tariff of the German EEG.
Revenues from renewables help the community to finance local services, such
as the kindergarten, holiday camps and local transportation services. In 2007,
Zschadrass covered more than 24 % of its final energy consumption by renewa-
bles; electricity generation is already far beyond 100 %.
The mayor emphasizes that it is essential to involve citizens from the very begin-
ning into any process in the commune that concerns them, such as new forms
of energy production. If well informed and involved, the citizens are willing to fully
support decisions by the local council to change energy production in the region
and to change their own energy patterns. Since it is not profitable for such a
small community to have their own public utilities and, for legal reasons, private
energy production can be difficult; Zschadrass has formed an association and a
foundation for this purpose.
Good practice in Saxony –
The community of Zschadrass

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Activities of the ecological and social foundation Zschadrass
Further information
Matthias Schmiedel
Email: buergermeister@colditz.de

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Children and teachers represent important target groups for energy efficiency is-
sues; they transfer knowledge idealistically to their homes. In the future, children
will run our societies and take decisions on energy generation and supply.
Therefore, young people‘s awareness about energy efficiency should be trained
as early as possible. The Saxon ministries have placed special emphasis on en-
ergy efficiency education in schools and started the campaign “climate protection
in Saxon schools”.
The campaign includes various components, such as:
A mobile exhibition, called the climate pavilion. The exhibition stand has a
touch-screen that informs about climate change and its consequences,
climate protection, and actions to be taken. The topics are illustrated
based on Saxony as an example.
A climate suitcase with hands-on energy measuring devices, school
science experiments, teachers’ handouts and a large-scale board game.
A book for pupils dealing with everything about climate protection,
including images and examples from the region.
A teachers’ handout. This handout provides an interesting and methodo-
logically diverse pool of knowledge about climate protection and energy-
saving and includes everything for a successful lesson: distribution of
topics, various worksheets and school science experiments.
Good practice in Saxony –
Energy efficiency campaigns for schools
Climate pavilion and climate suitcase
80

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Further information
Nicole Sommer
Saxon Energy Agency –
SAENA GmbH
Email: nicole.sommer@saena.de
www.umwelt.sachsen.de/umwelt/
klima/1275.htm
www.saena.de/Saena/
Schueler_Schulen.html
Call for participation at the school competi-
tion “Climate Heroes”, Teachers’ hand-out,
Climate protection brochure for pupils
SAENA’s comic heroes Offi & ON
In addition to this campaign, the Saxon Energy Agency SAENA organises a
variety of hands-on energy-saving projects for children and students of different
ages. During the project week energy reporters (Energiereporter) children can
create their own short film on energy-saving and learn how to structure a film that
includes interviews, tips and much more.
An electricity-saving handbook has been developed for children (Stromsparfibel)
with the two comic heroes called ON and Offi (On/Off). The handbook explains
how electricity is produced and how it can be saved at home. ON does not know
too much about electricity, and he is not too convinced about energy-saving. Offi
is cleverer. She tries to teach ON why energy-saving is so important.
The handbook about ON and Offi is also the didactical
basis for a theatre week on energy-saving in schools, called
STROMSPARtheater. Pupils start reading this story and
think about the energy-saving potential in their homes, share
it with other pupils and prepare a theatre play on the topic.

 
82
The project Energy Neighbourhoods aimed at influencing the energy-saving
attitudes of participants in private households in order to change their behaviour.
Groups of households form an Energy Neighbourhood bet with their community
that they will save 8 % of energy in six months, compared to the previous year.
For this purpose energy masters from the neighbourhoods assist the households
with practical energy-saving tips. The households have to fill in their consumption
data for heat and electricity on regular basis.
It is a difficult task to reach out to households with the message that they must
reduce their climate impact, but it is essential for achieving results. Energy Neigh-
bourhoods stimulated an increased awareness about energy and changed the
participants’ everyday behaviour, while allowing them to have a good time. About
6,000 households in nine countries participated in Energy Neighbourhoods; in
Sweden 90 households. Team Ahlgren from Karlskrona reduced its energy use
by 37 % and won the Swedish campaign. The team also became European
champion in energy-saving.
The project Energy Neighbourhoods has shown that everyone can save energy
and that small changes in behaviour can achieve remarkable results. Simple
measures like switching off the light when leaving the room, adjusting the room
temperature and avoiding standby mode were decisive factors for the energy-
savings made by the participating households from nine countries.
One of the participants said that she hardly could wait until it was time to do the
weekly check of the energy consumption, to get to confirm that the daily efforts
made changes in the energy consumption of the family.
Success factors
The commitment and dedication of the energy masters who guided their
groups were essential. They kept their teams together, provided energy-
saving tips and kept up the motivation to save energy. The energy masters
were the key to a successful campaign.
The social aspect of the campaign was very important. Individuals can
save energy on their own, but it is proven that saving in a group is more
fun, works as an incentive and is more sustainable in the long run.
The constant input and activities that were provided by the national
coordinators and the participating cities was vital. Project events such
as information events, energy-saving parties, energy-saving posters and
energy audits were important in providing easy-to-understand energy-
Good practice in Smaland
(Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge –
Energy Neighbourhoods
Further information
Lena Eckerberg
Energy Agency for
Southeast Sweden
Email: lena.eckerberg@
energikontorsydost.se
Energy-savings in Sweden
Reduced energy use: 63,800 kWh
Reduced CO
2
emissions: 57 tons
Average energy-savings: 9.6 %

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Various newspaper articles on Energy Neighbourhoods
saving tips, keeping up the competition between the participants and in
maintaining motivation throughout the campaign. The Swedish partici-
pants received an electronic newsletter with energy-saving tips and
reminders every third week during the campaign.
A continuous measurement of energy use was critical to achieve energy-
saving behaviour. Regular meter readings reminded the households of
their energy use, sometimes as often as every week. This was also an
ongoing reminder of energy use as one’s own responsibility. Entering
these data into an online calculation tool and instantly receiving feedback
about the savings achieved helped make energy use less abstract and
more real.
And last but not least, the media response was important. The project
and its results were very well received by the media. TV interviews with
participants and articles in the press transformed some of the participants
into local media stars and further ensured that the project and its ideas
were disseminated to a broad audience.

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84
In the city of Kalmar, the idea was conceived that a group of so called “test
pilots” might yield more information on the obstacles that exist in the daily lives
of private citizens that keep them from living climate-smart lives. Making this
information available was the goal of the project. The project also provided the
opportunity to test methods for decreasing CO
2
emissions to a more sustainable
level.
During spring 2007, the search for twelve “climate pilots” began. During a period
of twelve months, the “climate pilots” would receive twelve challenges connected
to the environmental effects of their daily way of living. In August 2007, twelve
households had been chosen; they were a mixed group of families with or with-
out children, single persons, retired persons, households in rural areas as well as
apartment households in the city centres.
To facilitate an assessment of present circumstances and to have a basis from
which to proceed toward change, the pilots were asked to collect all of their re-
ceipts during a period of eight weeks, so that a “greenhouse gas profile” for each
household could be produced. The “climate pilots” were also asked to establish
goals for themselves as regards the decrease in energy consumption that they
intended to aim for and hoped to see realized at the end of one year.
The twelve challenges
During one year the twelve “climate pilots” were given twelve challenges within
the following areas: food, transportation/travel, energy, and other consumption.
The “climate pilots” received personal advice and guidance during the year from
energy and climate-control advisors and from certain experts that were tied
to the project in order to provide answers to more advanced questions, those
dealing with food and transportation, for example. The “climate pilots” also had
the opportunity to test new products and were able, among other activities, to
test-drive environmentally friendly vehicles in Kalmar and receive instructions in
“Eco-driving” techniques.
Results
On average the “climate pilots” in Kalmar decreased their emissions by 32%.
This means that together they achieved a reduction corresponding to 53 tons of
GHG that would have been produced during one year, taking into account each
member of each household. Fifty-three tons of GHG is equal to driving “round
the globe” ten times, or 400,000 km in a car that consumes 0.5 litres of gasoline
per 10 km.
Good practice in Smaland
(Kalmar and Kronoberg)/Blekinge –
Climate pilots in the city of Kalmar

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Climate pilots in Kalmar
Further information
Tove Lund
City of Kalmar
Email: tove.lund@kalmar.se
www.climatepilots.com

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86
Background
Since the beginning of the 21
st
century, the region of Emilia-Romagna has felt
that its territory as a whole was going through an evolution in the direction of
greater sustainability, enriched by important, avant-garde experiences across
widely differing sectors. These experiences, however, should have been acknowl-
edged, taken advantage of, and standardized, so that they could be made into
good examples that could act as a driving force for the entire region.
Objectives
The objectives are to communicate the good practices collected here to the out-
side world, to suggest ways of duplicating and implementing the initiatives and to
promote opportunities for the participants to meet one another.
Description
The Sustainability Showcase is a collection of over 350 good sustainable
practices realised throughout the regional territory, which are characterised by in-
novation, continuity of the commitment and transferability to other contexts. The
project was launched in 2002 on the initiative of the Emilia-Romagna region, in
collaboration with the principal socio-economic actors present in the territory; its
central nucleus is the online database that gathers the good practices included in
the project, describing them through brief information sheets rich in quantitative
data. The showcase is aimed at businesses, local authorities and associations
that carry out any type of activity, product, service, process or initiative that has
repercussions in terms of sustainability.
Results
More than 350 good practices in ten thematic areas;
62 % of the owners are companies, 21 % are associations, NGOs and
monitoring bodies, 12% are local authorities, 5 % are schools and uni-
versities;
Various communication activities carried out, among which are: Shared
Communication Plan, 2 participations in Ecomondo, Brenda l’Agenda
2007, 2004 ERA Award, presentation at the Sixth European Conference of
Sustainable Cities in Dunkirk in 2010.
Various collaborative and involvement activities on the part of good
practices’ owners, among which are: project INFEA “School: A sustainable
business”, collaboration in a Master Class organized by the Fondazione
Alma Mater “Culture of Business Innovation, Markets, and Creativity:
institutions and business for the green economy” (academic year 2009 –
2010), creation of the Wikibook, Green Economy, a shared book on the
topic of a green economy;
91,000 hits to the site in 2010;
Over 85,000 hits to the site in the first three months of 2011.
Good practice in Emilia-Romagna –
Sustainability window
Further information
Giuliana Venturi
Regione Emilia-Romagna –
Communication and Sustainable
Education Dept.
Email: gventuri@
regione.emilia-romagna.it
Luna Beggi
Eco&Eco Srl
Email: vetrinasostenibilita@
regione.emilia-romagna.it
www.ermesambiente.it/
vetrinasostenibilita

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Next steps
The next main initiative for continuing the project will be an ever-increasing
involvement of the regional network of Centres for Education on Sustainability,
which, owing to their strong local roots, will become genuine collection reservoirs
of good energy and sustainability practices. This will be achieved through the
creation of specific educational actions directed to the operators of the Centres
for Environmental and Sustainability Education.
The collaboration with the Fondazione Alma Mater also continues. A Master Class
on sustainability is being organized for the 2012 – 2013 academic year.

 
88
With energy costs on the rise, a growing number of families in France and in
Haute-Savoie have difficulties in paying their bills and often find themselves in
difficult situations (cold homes, conflicts with owner, choices to make between
household expenses). Energy and water consumption in households is a major
social issue.
The domestic sector is more difficult to reach than organised companies in
the commercial sector, and it seems more difficult to motivate households to
“change their habits”. Moreover, an energy consumption analysis is difficult to
carry out when the social situation of a household is already difficult to manage.
In 1999, the Haute-Savoie Energy Advice Centre (EAC) created the “Ambassadeurs
de l’énergie” (Energy Ambassadors) concept, where energy advisers tackled energy
poverty topics directly with the social services. The programme was funded by
the General Council of Haute-Savoie for ten years before it came to an end. The
concept had nine main activities:
1.
Participation in the monthly meeting of the social energy funds (SEF)
commission created by the General Council of Haute-Savoie
2.
Regular dissemination of information to social workers
3.
Creation of an “Energy guide” for the social workers
4.
Development of training modules for social workers and public housing
organisations
5.
Home visits and interventions with households when the SEF asked for it
(30 per year)
6.
An advice hotline for households provided by the energy adviser of the
Energy Advice Centre
7.
Joint meetings to raise awareness among the families
8.
Demonstration and distribution of energy-saving material within the
framework of SEF (low energy bulbs, heating programmers, etc.)
9.
Regular tips and hints sent to households
The activities were very successful and were highly appreciated among families
and social workers. For this reason, Prioriterre as EAC, together with eight other
European partners submitted a proposal in the EU Programme Intelligent Energy
Europe (IEE) in 2008, regarding the idea of tackling energy poverty by supporting
the target groups that are affected.
Good practice in Haute-Savoie –
The “Ambassadeurs de l’énergie”
concept
Main objectives
To implement sustainable solu-
tions and actions in order to
struggle against energy poverty
and manage the energy-saving
efforts of families;
To adapt and transfer the French
concept to other countries: tele-
phone advice, home visits, train-
ings, conference meetings;
To raise awareness and give
information to the final target
group on energy-saving and to
succeed in changing behaviour,
To train social workers on
energy-saving and energy
efficiency topics;
To enable exchange of experience
between social workers in the
framework of the project.
Further information
Guénaëlle Carton
Prioriterre
Email: guenaelle.carton@
prioriterre.org

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Tools created for families and social workers
For households
A practical guide on energy-saving at home was created in
2003; it is full of advice on energy and water savings. Social
workers can give it to families or ambassadors when they
visit homes. The guide was also sent by post.
The “Bill mask” was created in 2007 to help families in read-
ing their electricity bill. It is an A4 form folder, with “opened
windows” cut in the paper in which households can enter
their bill. Important pieces of information are highlighted by
the “windows”. Collaboration with EDF (Électricité de France
SA) allowed printing of more than 1,000 bill masks in 2008,
and the project Energy Ambassadors also made possible
the printing of 1,000 more. Another project regarding the
gas bill is also ongoing.
An energy-saving calendar was created in 2008, with the
help of local public housing associations, a sociologist and
a designer.
At times, the calendar is more practical than a guide and
it can easily be put up in the kitchen or in the office. Each
month, it offers energy advice and funny drawings to the
targeted families and helps to reduce the gas, electricity and
water consumption of the households! A table at the end of
the calendar allows a calculation of the family’s annual con-
sumption. The first page of the calendar is a reminder about
how to read a meter that is illustrated with drawings.
For social workers
The “guide fourmi” (Ant’s guide) was made specifically for
social workers. It lists the main energy issues in households
and proposes solutions to help families with social needs.
The guide was updated in 2009 during the Energy Ambas-
sadors EU-project.
Energy-saving calendar
Guide on saving energy
“Guide fourmi” for social workers

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image
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90
One focus of the city of Wroclaw is to educate its inhabitants about energy
efficiency, especially the youngest.
In 2004, the first edition of a project called 50/50 non-investment energy-saving
in the schools of Wroclaw and Dolina Baryczy was launched by the Polish Eco-
logical Club – The Lower Silesian District. In 2010, the financial coordinator was
the Education Department of the Municipal Office, and the funding came from
the Voivodeship Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in
Wroclaw.
The programme is aimed at making school areas, institutions and enterprises
more energy-efficient. The principal idea is to reduce energy use and, con-
sequently, to reduce the costs of facilities maintenance. Due to a change in
energy-use habits, the project yields 5 – 10 % savings in its energy use. 50 % of
the saved money is left at the school’s disposal, and the other 50 % goes to the
aptly named energy fund, from which major projects are implemented, such as
window replacement, building insulation, etc.
Seminars, lectures, experimental demonstrations and scientific sessions are an
important element of the project, and many events were carried out in 2010.
Moreover, students and teachers can participate in pro-ecological workshops
and educational trips. The entities participating in the activities systematically
measure water and energy use in order to better control costs.
Due to interesting lessons on biology, physics, foreign languages and mathemat-
ics, connected with teaching how to save energy, young people can understand
how to save energy in practice and why it is so important. This type of activity,
thanks to effective communication and education from the earliest years,
contribute to the development of ecological awareness and teach how to save
energy, both at school and at home. What’s more, the positive results achieved
by schools in the form of reduced building operation costs motivate students to
continue ecological attitudes.
Good practice in Lower Silesia –
Energy efficiency education in Wroclaw
Description
2008
2009
2010
Preschools
22
23
22
Primary schools
25
18
16
Lower secondary schools
16
16
12
Secondary schools
12
7
7
Total establishments
75
64
57
Number of participants
1,200
no data
500

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91
Further information
Arkadiusz Suliga
Marshal’s Office of Lower
Silesian Voivodeship
Email: arkadiusz.suliga@
dolnyslask.pl
Energy-saving theatre and experiments in schools of Wroclaw and Dolina Baryczy

 
92
References,
abbreviations
and picture
credits

 
93
References
Introduction:
COM (2010) 639 final: Communication from the
Commission to the European Parliament, the Council,
the European Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions: Energy 2020: A strategy for
competitive, sustainable and secure energy
COM (2011) 370 final Proposal for a Directive of the
European Parliament and of the Council on energy
efficiency and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and
2006/32/EC
Buildings:
COM (2006)545 final; Communication from the
Commission, Action Plan for Energy Efficiency:
Realising the Potential
Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and
the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy perfor-
mance of buildings (recast)
Heat and power generation and supply
Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and
of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the promo-
tion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand
in the internal energy market and amending Directive
92/42/EEC
Transport:
Intelligent Energy Europe, Project Report 34; Energy-
efficient transport: Green mobility on the move;
No. 5 of April 2009
Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and
of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of
clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles (Text
with EEA relevance)
Technology:
COM (2009) 519 final; Communication from the
Commission to the European Parliament, the Council,
the Economic and Social Committee and the Com
mittee of the Regions; Investing in the Development
of Low Carbon Technologies (SET-Plan)
Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament
and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use
efficiency and energy services and repealing Council
Directive 93/76/EEC
Communication:
EO/10/20; the European Ombudsman P. Nikiforos
Diamandouros; New strategy for greater involvement
of citizens and civil society
Intelligent Energy Europe, Project Report 34; Sustain-
able Energy Communities: Common actions for com-
mon goals; No. 6 of April 2009
Intelligent Energy Europe, Project Report 16; Energy
education: Changing their habits in our lifetime;
No. 8 of April 2009

 
94
Abbreviations
ADEME
Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie
(French Environment and Energy Management Agency)
BBC
Bâtiment de basse consommation énergétique (low-energy house)
BMBF
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
(Federal Ministry of Education and Research)
CCI
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie (Chamber of Industry and Commerce)
CHP
Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
CHCP
Combined heat, cooling and power (trigeneration)
CO
Carbon monoxide
COP
Coefficient of performance
DH
District heating
DHW
Domestic hot water
CNG
Compressed natural gas
DSM
Demand Side Management
EAC
Energy Advice Centre
EDF
Électricité de France SA (Energy company of France)
EE
Energy efficiency
EEG
Erneuerbare Energie Gesetz (German RES act)
EER
Energy efficiency ratio
EEWärmeG
Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz (Renewable Energies Heat Act)
EIC
Energy Information Centres
ENA
Piattaforma Energia Ambiente (Energy and Environment Platform)
ENEA
Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l’Energia e l’Ambiente
(National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment)
EnercitEE
European networks, experience and recommendations helping cities and
citizens to become Energy Efficient
EnEV
Energieeinsparverordnung (German Energy Saving Ordinance)
EPBD
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
ERA
Emilia-Romagna Environment Award
ERDF
European Regional Development Fund
ICPE
Installation classée pour la protection de l’environnement
(classified installation for protection of the environment)
ICT
Information and communication technology
IEE
Intelligent Energy Europe (EU Programme)
IEMP
Inter Enterprise Mobility Plan
GAEC
Groupement agricole d’exploitation en commun (collective group farming)
GHG
Green house gas
GPG
Good Practice Guide
GWh
Gigawatt hours
HC
Hydrocarbon
HCNM
Non methane hydrocarbon
HVAC
Heat Ventilation Air Conditioning
Keds
Kommunaler Energie-Dialog Sachsen (Saxon communal energy dialogue)
Ktoe
Kiloton of oil equivalent
kWh/m²/a
Kilowatt hours per m² per year
KWKG
Kraft-Wärme-Kopplungsgesetz (German CHP act)
MT
Medium voltage
MWh/a
Megawatt hours per year
Nm³
Normal Meter Cube
NMVOC
Non methane volatile organic compounds
NOx
Nitric oxide
PM
10
Particulate Matter = Particles of 10 micrometers or less

 
95
Picture Credits
Page 10, 48, 65, 83, 85 Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden
Page 12,13
Karsten Vietor
Page 14
Saxon State Ministry for the Interior
Page 15
Professur für Bauphysik, Prof. Grunewald / Professur Denkmalpflege und
Entwerfen, Prof. Will (TU Dresden), only valid for building type C.2
Page 16, 17
Anders Persson
Page 18, 19
Bioeclab
Page 20, 21, 89
Prioriterre
Page 22
Lipinscy Domy studio
Page 28
DREWAG Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH
Page 29
Thomas Göschel
Page 30, 31
energie consult sachsen-ost GmbH
Page 32, 33
E.ON. Värme Sverige Ab-Osby Parca
Page 35, 64
VEAB
Page 36, 37
ASTER
Page 39, 70, 71
General Council of Haute-Savoie
Page 41
Warsaw’s Polenergia Biogaz Sp. z o.o.
Page 47
ENSO Netz GmbH
Page 50, 87
Emilia-Romagna Region
Page 55
M. Sliczna
Page 61
Cool Silicon e.V.
Page 62, 63
Lehmann Maschinenbau GmbH
Page 67
ENA
Page 69
ENEA
Page 77
Saxon Energy Agency – SAENA GmbH
Page 79
Ökol.-Soz. Stiftung Zschadrass
Page 80, 81
Saxon State Ministry for the Environment and Agriculture
Page 81
(bottom pictures) Saxon Energy Agency – SAENA GmbH
Page 91
Marshal’s Office of Lower Silesian Voivodeship
PRIT
Regional Integrated Plan for Transport
PV
Photovoltaic
PZPWD
Plan zagospodarowania przestrzennego województwa dolnoslaskiego
(Zoning Plan of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship)
RES
Renewable energy sources
RL EuK 2007
Förderrichtlinie Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz
(Saxon funding guideline on energy efficiency and climate protection)
RT
Réglementation Thermique (thermal regulation)
SAENA
Sächsische Energieagentur (Saxon Energy Agency)
SEF
Social energy fund in the region of Haute-Savoie
SHON
Surface hors d’œuvre nette (floor area for real estate construction projects)
SME
Small and medium enterprises
SMI
Staatsministerium des Innern (Saxon State Ministry of the Interior)
SMWK
Sächsisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst
(Saxon State Ministry for Science and the Arts)
SO
2
Sulfur dioxide
SYANE
Syndicat des Energies et de l’Aménagement Numérique de la Haute-Savoie
(Syndicate of Haute-Savoie municipalities)
TWh/a
Terrawatt hours per year
VT
Low voltage

 
Issued by:
Saxon State Office for the Environment, Agriculture and Geology
(Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie)
Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden
Telephone: + 49 351 2612 - 0
Facsimile: + 49 351 2612 - 1099
Email: lfulg@smul.sachsen.de
enercitee.lfulg@smul.sachsen.de
www.smul.sachsen.de/lfulg
In cooperation with the EnercitEE partners:
Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden
www.energikontorsydost.se
ASTER
www.aster.it
General Council of Haute-Savoie
www.cg74.fr
Marshal’s Office of Lower Silesian Voivodeship
www.umwd.dolnyslask.pl/ewt
Region Regional Council for Productive Activities, Commerce, Tourism
www.regione.emilia-romagna.it
Edited by:
Anja Barth, Christian Borchard, Christina Mante
Layout:
VOR Werbeagentur Dresden,
www.vor-dresden.de
Printed by:
Druckerei Wagner,
www.druckereiwagnergmbh.de
Press date:
15.06.2011
Circulation:
900 copies
Paper:
printed on 100 % recycled paper
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