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www.viaregiaplus.eu
Sustainable Mobility
and Regional Cooperation
along the Pan-European
Transport Corridor III
Studies and results

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Editor
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development Office
ul. Świdnicka 53, PL 50-030 Wrocław
as Lead Partner of the CENTRAL EUROPE project Via Regia Plus
- Sustainable Mobility and Regional Cooperation along the
Pan-European Transport Corridor III
Project partners
Poland
Municipality of Wrocław
Municipality of Kraków
Upper Silesian Agency for Entrepreneurship Promotion (GAPP)
Municipality of Gliwice
Municipality of Opole
Marshal’s Office of the Lower Silesia Voivodship – Regional Bureau for Spatial Planning
Germany
Saxon State Ministry of the Interior
Thuringian Ministry for Construction, Regional Development and Transport
Senate Department fur Urban Development Berlin
City of Leipzig
City of Dresden
Slovakia
City of Košice
Agency for the Support of Regional Development Košice
Ukraine
City of Lviv
Project duration: 09/2008 – 12/2011
Budget: 2.682.150,00 EUR, thereof 2.143.757,50 EUR financed from the ERDF
Photo credits (title page):
Berlin Partner / FTB-Werbefotografie; Dresden City Region; Municipality of Wrocław;
Municipality of Kraków; City of Košice; IU / Martin Reents
Contact
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development Office
ul. Świdnicka 53, PL 50-030 Wrocław
Phone: +48 71 777 86 60
Fax: +48 71 777 86 59
E-mail: brw@um.wroc.pl
www.wroclaw.pl
Editorial team:
Martin Reents, INFRASTRUKTUR & UMWELT
Jan Roga / Łukasz Górzyński, Wrocław Development Office
Layout and printing:
Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy w Radomiu,
www.itee.radom.pl
Editorial deadline:
09/2011
CENTRAL EUROPE is a European Union programme that encourages cooperation among the
countries of Central Europe to improve innovation, accessibility and the environment and to enhance
the competitiveness and attractiveness of their cities and regions.
CENTRAL EUROPE invests 231 million EUR to provide funding to transnational cooperation projects
involving public and private organisations from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy,
Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia.
The programme is financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and it runs from 2007
to 2013. Interested partnerships are invited to propose their projects following public calls for proposals,
which will be widely publicised.
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF
www.viaregiaplus.eu
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF
www.viaregiaplus.eu

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1
Preface
Via Regia
is the name of a
transport corridor, which
refers to a historical trade
route dating back to the
Middle Ages. Today, as
Pan-European Transport
Corridor III
or
Central
Axis,
it links European
cities and metropolitan
areas from Erfurt,
Dresden and Berlin
through Wrocław and Kraków to Lviv. The Via
Regia corridor encompasses an economic area
with more than 37 million inhabitants and creates
a region with a great potential for development.
A precondition is the strengthening of the role
of the cities and metropolitan regions located
in its borders as „motors“ of growth. To enable
these areas to fulfil their functions as regional
and European centres to the full extent, it is
necessary to activate and to use their potentials
for the wealth of the entire region, e.g. through
the creation of comfortable and efficient transport
connections between and within them.
The project
Via Regia Plus,
financed within
the CENTRAL EUROPE programme,
provided a platform for the realisation of the
abovementioned vision of a dynamic region of
growth and development. As joint operation of
fourteen cities and institutions from Germany,
Poland, Slovakia and the Ukraine the project,
lead by Wrocław, focused on activities aimed at
the better accessibility of metropolitan regions,
the elaboration of efficient models for territorial
cooperation and governance and the creation of
offers for tourism along the Via Regia corridor.
Using the name
Via Regia
for the project
underlines the tradition and the integrating
character of the trade route in the past, and the
development corridor today.
Participation in the project Via Regia Plus
gave local and regional institutions and self-
governments a unique opportunity to take part in
strategic discussions on the directions of economic
and spatial development along the Pan-European
Transport Corridor III. Without doubt the project
created an occasion for the elaboration of many
useful analyses and strategic documents, which
will surely generate impulses for the dynamic
and coordinated socio-economic development
not only of the corridor, but as well of cities and
regions located in its area of influence.
Obviously a lot of work is still to be done until the
Via Regia corridor will become an area of dynamic
development in all dimensions, in particular
regarding the quality and the standard of transport
connections. Therefore the promotion of the Pan-
European Transport Corridor III as European
development axis will as well enable to introduce
changes in many sectors of socio-economic life.
Not only the Pan-European Transport Corridor
III, but as well further regions of intensified
cooperation might play a crucial role for the
improvement of transport infrastructure in
Central and Eastern Europe. Without doubt this
will contribute to the increase of attractiveness
of location factors for economic subjects, as well
as the facilitation of cultural exchange and the
circulation of goods. Thus such initiatives may
significantly contribute to the equalization of
conditions of life between the different member
states of the EU, as well as to the complex
integration of Europe.
Taking the opportunity I would like to thank the
Ministry of the Interior of Saxony for the fruitful
cooperation during the continuation of the
project Via Regia. Based on the created network
of partners we could intensify the cooperation
of cities and regions along the Via Regia, and
I believe that our cooperation will as well in the
future lead to the next joint initiatives.
Adam Grehl
Vice-President of Wrocław

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Improve accessibility!
Keywords
Strengthen cities and metropolitan nodes as „motors” of development!
Use potentials for tourism!

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Contents
I
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
5
II
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
23
III
Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
37
IV
Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
45
V
Activating potentials for tourism
55

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I
Improving long-distance
and cross-border transport

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6
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
Potentials of long-distance rail transport
7
Effects of infrastructure investments
9
Integrated development of infrastructure and travel offers
11
Improvement of cross-border connections
12
Cross-border integration of tariffs and timetables
14
Lower Silesia: Improving the accessibility of mountain regions
15
Eastern Slovakia / Ukraine: Increasing spatial cohesion through road and rail connections
18
Upper Silesia: Small aircraft transportation and development of local airfields
19
Gliwice / Košice: Strategies for the activation of local airports
21

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
7
Analysis of current conditions – Strengths
and weaknesses
The analysis of socio-economic trends, the quality
of road and rail infrastructure, current offers in
road, rail and air transport and the evaluation
of effects in terms of competitiveness leads to a
comprehensive understanding of the current
conditions of rail transport. The strengths might
be summarised as follows:
Dense network of rail lines, well-developed
travel offer along main routes
Favourable settlement structure with high
density, leading to high potential demand
Many agglomerations with high attractiveness
for economical development and tourism
Attractive conditions for tourism in mountain
areas
Modernisation of rail stations in large centres
(Poland)
Potentials of long-distance rail transport
R
ail transport in Poland and Slovakia is
currently at a turning point – due to
decapitalised infrastructure and outdated rolling
stock the conditions for rail travel were in the past
subject to a continuous process of degradation.
Currently first improvements are visible: national
and regional railway operators are re-organised
and purchase modern railcars, and infrastructure
operators use the structural funds to modernise
the rail network.
But what are the potentials of rail transport along
the Via Regia, and what might be the perspectives
of future development? To find answers to these
questions, the Wrocław Development Office
and the Saxon State Ministry of the Interior
investigated the conditions and quality of the rail
infrastructure and the available offers, evaluated
the effects of planned investments and developed
a vision for the possible operation of this mode of
transport.
Passenger flows in rail transport 2010 per day (source: ETC)

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8
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
But there are as well numerous weaknesses, which
unfortunately equalise the strengths:
Limited number of connections, in particular
cross-border, lack of coordination and
integration of different modes of transport
Outdated rolling stock, not adapted to
the needs, continuous degradation of
infrastructure without sufficient renewal
(Poland)
Lack of funds for the financing of offers, in
particular in regional rail transport (Poland)
Unfavourable framework conditions for
the organisation long-distance transport
(Germany)
Lack of joint strategy for the development
of offers and cross-border coordination of
investments
Emerging competition through microbus
services (Poland) and threats through the
planned liberalisation of long-distance bus
services (Germany)
Despite these unfavourable conditions the
demand for rail transport along the “core section”
of the Via Regia from Wrocław to Kraków and
Rzeszów is still at a considerable level. Between
Opole and Katowice approx. 20.000 passengers /
day travel by train, and approx. 40.000 travellers /
day use the parallel A4 motorway. So there must
be a relevant potential to increase the demand for
rail services, if travel times would be reduced and
comfort improved.
Passenger flows on motorways 2005-2010 per day (source: ETC)
Partner:
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development Office
Contact:
Jan Roga, Marek Żabiński
External support:
ETC Transport Consultants, Berlin

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
9
Effects of infrastructure investments
C
urrently large investment projects are realised
along the E-30 railroad, and within few years
trains may run at a speed level of up to 160 km/h
from the German-Polish to the Polish-Ukrainian
border. The connection from Berlin to Cottbus
has been upgraded for 160 km/h in 2011, and
from 2012 trains from Wrocław might be operated
to the future Berlin-Brandenburg International
airport.
To evaluate the effects of these measures for the
accessibility of cities and regions and to assess the
need for further speed increase to reach sufficient
travel times, three different investment scenarios
for the planning horizon until 2020 / 2030 were
investigated:
Base development scenario
(scenario 1):
Projects with confirmed implementation
perspective (planning procedure and
funding), planned to be realised within the
next years
Further developments
(scenario 2): Projects
within the extended planning horizon of
national strategic plans and programmes.
Modernisation and upgrading of additional
rail lines with importance for the project area,
in particular supported and promoted by
partners
Development of transnational high-speed
schemes
(scenario 3): Joining national high-
speed networks, leading to transnational
integration of corridor infrastructure.
Consideration of additional lines with
relevant spatial effects and economic benefits
for the Via Regia corridor, in selected cases
evaluation of alternative investment options
The travel times achieved in the different scenarios
were compiled to an accessibility matrix for node
cities, which are located along the corridor and in
surrounding areas. The Polish “Y” high-speed rail
project was considered in scenario 2 to assess the
effects of this measure separately.
Need for action on cross-border sections
The results of the study have been visualised in
several maps and graphics. Accordingly, the effects
Time-consuming change of locomotives due to lack of
electrification – Węgliniec, June 2011
(source: IU / Martin Reents)
of investment measures might be summarised as
follows:
The most relevant reductions of travel times
might be achieved already through realisation
of scenario 1. So the short-term upgrade and
renewal of the railway network should be of
highest priority.
Selected measures of scenario 2 might improve
the accessibility of selected parts of the project
area. This is in particular true for cross-border
connections, which are not included in the
first priority of national investment plans and
programmes.
The development of high-speed rails along the
E-30 seems to be not feasible. The reasons are
two-fold: On the one hand, the national projects
for high-speed rails in Poland and in the Czech
Republic provide by-pass connections, which
reduce the added-value of high-speed connections

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10
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
along the Via Regia. On the other hand the spatial
structure along the Via Regia with many cities
and metropolitan regions reduces the benefits of
a speed increase beyond a level of 160-200 km/h.
Investment costs would increase significantly,
but effects would be marginal. Additionally the
development of high-speed rails might cause
conflicts with freight transport.
Partner:
Saxon State Ministry of the Interior (SMI)
Contact:
Andreas Kühl, Jörg Kellermann
External support:
ETC Transport Consultants, Berlin
Scope of investment measures in the second and third scenario – Further developments
and integration of high-speed schemes (source: ETC)
Effects of investment measures on travel times (source: ETC)

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
11
integration stabilises demand even in areas with
shrinking population.
A model for future development
Based on the results of the demand forecast,
the results of the infrastructure analysis and
the available knowledge regarding the expected
level of service of long-distance, regional and
agglomeration transport a vision for the future
system of rail transport along the Via Regia was
elaborated.
Guided by the concept of integrated timetables
with regular intervals of operation between
defined exchange nodes until 2020 a systematic
offer of interregional trains is postulated, which
would use the available infrastructure most
efficiently. Until 2030, with increasing progress
of infrastructure renewal, these interregional
trains could be supplemented by qualified inter-
agglomeration trains, which would introduce a
new dimension of comfort and travel quality.
Integrated development of infrastructure and travel offers
T
o establish a vision for the efficient use of
the modernised infrastructure a forecast of
demand was prepared, which is based on three
different scenarios with pessimistic, optimistic
and “realistic” assumptions regarding the future
development. The latter scenario postulates:
A slight decrease of population and a further
decrease of unemployment
The further integration of Europe, with a
growing GDP and integrating effects on
border regions
The ability of bodies of self-government to
concentrate settlement areas and investments
at least partly along rail lines
A stable level of motorisation with 0,4-0,6
private cars / inhabitant, slightly increasing
fuel prices and the extension of toll systems
Balanced investments in road and rail
infrastructure, with visible improvements in
agglomeration transport
Still the “realistic” scenario leads to a significantly
lower demand for transport services on cross-
border relations, but the increasing level of
Proposal of network and level of service in 2030 perspective (source: ETC)

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12
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
At the same time the completion of crucial
infrastructure investments would allow the
separation of (slow) freight and regional
passenger transport from (fast) interregional and
inter-agglomeration transport. This concerns
in particular the “core” section of the Via Regia
between Wrocław and Kraków, which should
enable the handling of large transport volumes in
sufficient quality.
Partner:
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development
Office
Contact:
Jan Roga, Marek Żabiński
External support:
ETC Transport Consultants, Berlin
Creating the prerequisites for attractive and efficient offers – Modernised E-30 rail line in Oława,
renewal of Wrocław main station (sources: Mirosław Siemieniec / PKP PLK S.A., GRUPA 5 Sp. z o.o.)
Improvement of cross-border connections
C
ross-border rail transport faces many barriers,
which reduce its attractiveness. Different
signalling systems, safety systems, systems of
power supply and gauge of tracks limit the cross-
border operation of railcars, and the solutions of
operators (change of trains or engines at border
stations) lead to longer travel times and the risk
to miss connections. Additionally due to low
demand often outdated rolling stock is used.
The case of the connection between Dresden
and Wrocław demonstrates that these factors are
highly relevant. After the introduction of diesel-
operated direct trains the number of passengers
has been multiplied, and connections in the
morning and the evening efficiently facilitate
travel for tourism and business purpose.
A perspective for the Berlin-Wrocław
connection
A study prepared by the Senate Department
for Urban Development Berlin investigated the
possibilities to introduce a comparable offer
between Berlin and Wrocław, using the upgraded
rail infrastructure in Brandenburg (Berlin-
Cottbus) and Lower Silesia (Zgorzelec/Węgliniec-
Legnica-Wrocław). Since several route options
are possible, five different modules were assessed:
Module 1: Status quo, realisation of minor
improvements
Module 2: Modernisation and electrification
between Hoyerswerda and Horka, change of
route
Module 3: Electrification between Görlitz and
Węgliniec, change of trains in Cottbus and
Görlitz
Module 4: Electrification between Cottbus
and Görlitz
Module 5: Substantial renewal of the line
between Cottbus, Forst (Lausitz) and Legnica
The results demonstrate that it will be possible to
operate three pairs of trains between Berlin, the
Berlin-Brandenburg International airport and

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
13
Wrocław after the modernisation of the German
part of the E-30 freight line (module 2). The travel
time could be reduced to less than 3:45 h, with
trains being hauled with multi-system electric
traction between Cottbus and Wrocław.
The offer could be introduced in few years,
replacing current direct trains with time-
consuming double-change of engines or possible
intermediate solutions, which could be operated
by diesel units. A necessary prerequisite is the due
modernisation of the freight line Knappenrode-
Hoyerswerda-Horka, as it was agreed in 2003 and
confirmed by the Polish and German government
in June 2011.
Developing the regional network
Once the desired mid-term investments are
realised, several further options are available to
reach further improvements. These include the
electrification of the tracks between Cottbus-
Görlitz and Görlitz-Węgliniec to reduce travel time
and to strengthen the node of Görlitz/Zgorzelec.
In September 2011 the modernised rail line
Berlin-Cottbus returned to operation
(source: DB AG / Christian Bedeschinski)
Arrival of the direct train from Dresden in Wrocław
(source: BRW / Łukasz Górzyński)
Options (modules) for the reduction of travel times between Berlin and Wrocław (source: ETC)

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14
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
But as shortest connection the route via Forst
(Lausitz)-Legnica bears significant potentials, too:
After an upgrade already today diesel-operated
trains might provide competitive offers, and in
long-term perspective the route might serve as
capacity reserve in case of increasing demand.
Partner:
Senate Department for Urban Development Berlin
Contact:
Dr. Jürgen Murach, Gerd Müller
External support:
ETC Transport Consultants, Berlin
Cross-border integration of tariffs and timetables
B
esides technical barriers cross-border
rail transport faces as well organisational
barriers. Timetables are coordinated in long-
term perspective, flexible adaptations e.g. due
to short-term construction measures are nearly
not possible. In case of delays connecting trains
are missed if cross-border communication is not
sufficient, and the purchase of tickets at attractive
prices requires – besides language skills – often
expert knowledge.
The Saxon State Ministry of the Interior and
the Senate Department for Urban Development
Berlin realised two studies, which are aimed at
the reduction of these barriers: A proposal for
the cross-border integration of timetables and a
study on the improvement of travel conditions for
passengers using cross-border trains.
Synchronised timetables in the
Saxon-Polish-Czech triangle
Due to the close relation between infrastructure
and rolling stock and the need to consider the
capacity of tracks rail services must be planned and
developed in long-term perspective. Following the
up-to-date approach of synchronised timetables,
nodes in the railway network are identified and
linked in certain quality and travel time. The result
is an integrated offer with optimised connections.
Proposal for a system of timetable nodes in regional and cross-border transport (source: ISUP / LUB)

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
15
In the perspective of synchronised timetables the
cross-border integration of networks turns out to
be promising and challenging at the same time.
Regional and national infrastructure policies
need to be harmonised to reach the joint aim,
and agreements must be thoroughly prepared to
provide a reliable framework for investments.
Taking these conditions into account, the study
prepared by the Saxon State Ministry of the
Interior analyses the existing infrastructure in
the Saxon-Polish-Czech triangle and proposes
a system of timetable nodes with defined
connections. The resulting investments were
compiled to a strategy paper, delivering a possible
framework for the preparation of joint activities.
To implement the concept, it would be necessary
to agree on target travel times between Dresden,
Cottbus and Wrocław.
Tackling organisational barriers
in cross-border rail transport
There are many possibilities to increase the level
of service for passengers travelling from Saxony
and Berlin-Brandenburg to Lower Silesia:
Through a better coordination of timetables
attractive connections from Berlin and
Dresden to Jelenia Góra and further to the
Karkonosze mountains could be provided
Simple catering offers could increase the
experience value of the Eurocity Hamburg-
Kraków in sections without a restaurant car
Integrated tickets could reduce the risk of
excess payment and improve the access to
discount offers, which are not distributed
through standard channels
The accessibility of tourism destinations
in Southern Poland could be improved, if
bus timetables would be included in search
engines
To pave the way for practical improvements the
Senate Department for Urban Development
Berlin launched a moderated process with
stakeholders, which shall identify barriers caused
e.g. by contradicting interests and sketch possible
solutions.
The gate to Lower Silesia: Görlitz (source: Andreas Kühl)
Partners:
Saxon State Ministry of the Interior (SMI);
Senate Department for Urban Development Berlin
Contact:
Andreas Kühl, Jörg Kellermann; Dr. Jürgen Murach,
Gerd Müller
External support:
ISUP Ingenieurbüro für Systemberatung und Planung
GmbH, Dresden / LUB Consulting GmbH, Dresden
Lower Silesia: Improving the accessibility of mountain regions
T
he mountain range of the Sudetes leads to
a high attractiveness of the Polish-Czech
border area in terms of tourism, and at the same
time it limits as natural barrier the access to the
border region. Accordingly the southern parts
of the Lower Silesia and Opole voivodships are
characterised by a peripheral location, and there
is need for social and economic activation to
generate growth and development perspectives.
Transport infrastructure located in these areas
serves two functions: On the one hand it provides
access to the internal market and improves the
conditions for the development of tourism. On the
other hand it delivers the prerequisites to increase
trade and exchange with the Czech Republic, thus
supporting economic development.

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16
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
Strategical development of the road network
through coordinated investments
The Regional Bureau for Spatial Planning in
Wrocław (WBU) realised a study which is aimed
at the identification of a road integrating the
southern parts of Lower Silesia, considering as well
the improvement of North-South connections. In
the first step a comprehensive regional analysis
was realised, including geographical conditions
and requirements resulting from the need to
protect areas of high natural value.
Taking the results of the analysis three route
options were identified, using sections of existing
roads. To identify the priority solution, the options
were compared regarding economical effects,
effects on protected or sensitive areas, estimated
investment costs, the degree of compliance with
existing investment programmes and expected
benefits for multimodal transport and the
development of tourism.
The methodical approach and the results of
the study have been intensively discussed with
stakeholders to increase the acceptance of
results. In the effect a planning document has
been prepared, which facilitates the strategic
coordination of decentralised investments in the
regional road infrastructure.
Paving the way for decisions regarding
the renewal of rail infrastructure
The Municipality of Wrocław investigated the
development perspectives of the parallel rail route
from Wrocław to Wałbrzych, Jelenia Góra and
Zgorzelec, which was constructed from 1843-
1867. Due to lack of investments its infrastructure
is subject to continuous deterioration, and
travel times increase every year. At the same
time the route has some relevance for freight
transport through the transport of gravel for road
construction.
The study focused on technical aspects,
investigating in its first part the status of the rail
infrastructure with speed levels reached today.
In its second part three different scenarios for
modernisation were investigated:
Scenario I: Restoration of the rail line to the
initial technical parameters
Scenario II: Modernisation for a speed level of
120 km/h
Scenario III: Modernisation for a speed level of
160 km/h in the Wrocław-Marciszów section
(120 km/h in remaining sections)
Scenario III consists of several subscenarios,
investigating the partly relocation of tracks in
sections with an unfavourable alignment.
According to the results, the realisation of
measures foreseen in scenario I would enable
the reduction of travel times from Wrocław
to Jelenia Góra from 3:23 h to 1:53 h and from
Jelenia Góra to Zgorzelec from 1:40 h to 1:04 h.
In scenario II a level of 1:33 h and 0:54 h would
be reached, and taking into account significantly
higher investments in scenario III for the section
from Wrocław to Jelenia Góra a reduction to 1:03
h would be technically possible.
Participation of stakeholders: Regional workshop in in
Karpacz (June 2010), public presentation of results in
Wrocław (December 2010, source: WBU)

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
17
Route options for the road integrating the southern parts of Lower Silesia (source: WBU)
Rail line 274 Wrocław-Wałbrzych-Zgorzelec (source: PKP PLK)

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18
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
A priority scenario was not identified. Nevertheless
the study provides a comprehensive framework
for a qualified discussion about the perspectives
of development of the investigated rail line, which
is of high relevance for regional development and
the provision of access to the E-30 corridor.
Eastern Slovakia / Ukraine: Increasing spatial cohesion through
road and rail connections
T
he external border of the EU influences the
development perspectives of the regions
located in Eastern Poland, Eastern Slovakia and
the Ukraine significantly. Trade and exchange are
highly regulated and subject to intensive border
controls, and the “border economy” is limited to
activities creating rather marginal added value.
Road transport from/to the Ukraine is possible, but
long waiting times in uncomfortable conditions
with a high level of psychologic pressure makes
the journey not attractive. Local trains have been
abandoned due to devastation of rolling stock
(smuggling of alcohol and cigarettes), so travel
by rail is limited to long-distance night trains. In
the effect air transport remains the most attractive
option.
Cross-border links in the Slovak-Polish
border area
The quality of accessibility of Eastern Slovakia
depends on the direction – from Bratislava
and Budapest connections are well-developed:
motorways are already available or under
construction, and regular train services provide
comfortable connections to Prague, Ostrava and
Vienna. But travel to Poland, Romania and the
Ukraine remains difficult – the road network
is limited to national or regional roads, and rail
connections are nearly not existent.
Therefore the development of a multimodal
corridor from the Baltic states through Poland and
Slovakia to South-East Europe is of high priority,
by road from Białystok through Lublin, Rzeszów
and Košice further to Miskolc and Bucharest, and
by rail through the nodes of Warsaw and Kraków.
On regional and local level a multitude of
cross-border connections provides access to
Eastern Slovakia. Transnational cycling routes
are in process of development, and rail lines
from Rzeszów and Tarnów to Košice improve
the accessibility of mountain regions. But it is
necessary to revitalise cross-border passenger
transport, since currently no regular services are
operated.
Košice rail station (source: IU / Martin Reents)
Partners:
Regional Bureau for Spatial Planning in Wrocław (WBU);
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development Office
Contact:
Rajmund Nowicki, Aleksandra Sieradzka-Stasiak; Jan
Roga, Marek Żabiński
External support:
EKKOM Sp. z o.o., Kraków; ARCADIS Sp. z o.o., Biuro
Infrastruktury Kolejowej, Wrocław

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
19
A breakthrough could be the planned renewal of
the rail line from Kraków to Zakopane with the
construction of a new track between Podłęże and
Piekiełko, since new perspectives for the joint
marketing of potentials could emerge. In the effect
the visibility of Eastern Slovakia on the tourism
map of Northern and Western Europe might be
significantly increased.
Developing Lviv as intermodal node and
hub for the EU-Ukraine relations
In the case of the Ukraine the future perspectives
depend mainly on political developments. If
the relations between the EU and the Ukraine
improve, the regulations for the exchange of
people, services and goods could be simplified,
leading to an increase of trade and welfare in
particular in the border region.
Night train to Lviv ready for departure in Wrocław
(source: IU / Martin Reents)
Partners:
Agency for the Support of Regional Development Košice;
City of Lviv
Contact:
Ján Dzurdženík, Jaroslav Tešliar
With increasing welfare the character of cross-
border transport could change, facilitating as well
the realisation of more ambitious perspectives.
Lviv could be developed in mid-term perspective
as hub of trade, commerce and tourism, linking
the cultural and economical space of Western and
Eastern Europe. The construction of a European
gauge track towards the Polish-Ukrainian
border would support this vision and improve
the possible gateway functions, which today are
heavily limited.
Upper Silesia: Small aircraft transportation and development
of local airfields
T
he development of small aircraft transportation
(SAT) may improve interregional mobility
and local accessibility in regions where transport
networks are underdeveloped. Through the
introduction of a system of scheduled and non-
scheduled flights with small-size aircrafts an
additional component may be added to the
transport system, which fills a niche between
surface and scheduled air transport. Furthermore
it promotes local airfields and its surroundings as
focal points of economic development.
Potentials of small aircraft transportation
To investigate the feasibility of a SAT system in
Poland and its neighbouring countries the Upper
Silesian Agency for Entrepreneurship Promotion
(GAPP) contracted a study on the possible
directions of development of local airfields. In
the study the network of airfields in Poland was
analysed, including an evaluation of their current
use and the needs and potentials for air-based
business tourism.

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20
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
Conference on the development of modern air services
and small airports (September 2009, source: GAPP)
The results demonstrate that – taking into
account the insufficient quality of road and rail
infrastructure – innovative transport solutions
are needed for business travel in a range of 200
– 1.400 km, in particular on routes with limited
demand. SAT may satisfy this need, if an adequate
system of airfields, a suitable fleet of aircrafts
and an efficient system of route management are
implemented.
To increase the feasibility of the system an intensive
cooperation and coordination with neighbouring
countries is inevitable, since its economic success
depends on a sufficient number of flights on
distances of several hundred kilometres. During
the project first contacts with Ukrainian partners
were established, but it is expected that only a
broad implementation in European scale would
generate sufficient demand.
Strategies for the revitalisation of local
airfields
To provide the prerequisites for the introduction
of a SAT system and to create new development
perspectives as well for economic development
GAPP prepared in cooperation with local
stakeholders a set of four concepts for the
modernisation of local airfields in Silesia. The
activities, which supported the regional policy
regarding the modernisation of airports, lead
to the preparation of technical projects for the
following facilities:
Rybnik-Gotartowice: Currently used as sports
airfield, extension to local business airport
and commercial development of surrounding
areas
Concept of extension of the Rybnik airport, including the development of neighbouring industrial areas
(source: Susuł & Strama Architekci)

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Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
21
Częstochowa: Reconstruction and modernisa-
tion of post-military airfield to serve e.g. charter
flights, development of multimodal logistics
centre
Czechowice-Dziedzice: Development as
special-purpose airport to serve the aviation
industry, equipment with research, laboratory
and navigation devices
Bielsko-Biała: Extension to local business
airport, supplementing use as location for
events and concerts
The identification of specific functions of
each airport increased the added-value of the
elaborations as well as the preparation of concepts
for the use of surrounding areas.
To prepare subsequent decisions regarding further
implementation and financing of investments the
economical feasibility of the proposed measures
needs to be assessed, taking into account the
number of expected operations and possible
restrictions caused by conflicts with neighbouring
uses. Furthermore solutions for the financing of
continuous operation need to be identified, since
local airfields with more advanced technical
equipment cannot be operated without external
support.
Partner:
Upper Silesian Agency for Entrepreneurship Promotion
(GAPP)
Contact:
Bartłomiej Płonka
External support:
Instytut Lotnictwa, Warszawa / Susuł & Strama
Architekci S.C., Oświęcim (Rybnik) / Nizielski & Borys
Consulting Sp. z o.o., Katowice (Bielsko-Biała) / Zygmunt
Greń Biuro Projektowo – Architektoniczne, Brenna
(Czechowice-Dziedzice) / Inco Sp. z o. o., Gliwice
(Częstochowa)
Modernisation of Rybnik airport – Visualisation
(source: Susuł & Strama Architekci)
Gliwice / Košice: Strategies for the activation of local airports
T
he Municipality of Gliwice realised an in-
depth study, which prepared through legal
and economic studies a comprehensive framework
for a decision regarding the future status of the
local airport. In the case of the Košice airport an
attempt was made to identify the perspectives of
the regional airport, which depends on regular
airline services.
Evaluating the possible effects of airport
redevelopment
Main user of the Gliwice airport, which is owned
by the municipality, is the local airsports club.
Each year approx. 7.000 starts and landings are
observed, and currently not more than 15 %
of these operations are targeted at tourism or
business purpose. Additionally the airport hosts
an air rescue station.
The concept prepared within the project describes
the conditions to change the status of the airport
from non-public to public use. It is estimated that
the modernisation of the airport to the required
standards would cost approx. 15 mln EUR, with
yearly operation costs being estimated at a level of
approx. 750.000 EUR. Investments would include
a runway, hangars, a control tower and service
facilities for the handling of small passenger and
freight aircrafts.

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22
Improving long-distance and cross-border transport
To investigate the economic environment and the
possible level of income a complementary analysis
was prepared, which includes an estimation of
the expected demand and possible relations, the
resulting number of passengers and operations
and an analysis of related markets: air taxi
services, private business flights, training flights
and services connected to airport operation. The
results demonstrate that the economic success or
failure of the airport depends as well on the ability
to define a network of regional airports, which
complies with the expected demand.
Strengthening the airport as regional
gateway
Since the failure of the low-cost airline SkyEurope
in 2009 the airport of Košice faces a sharp decline
in the number of passengers. Besides several daily
connections to Prague, Vienna and Bratislava the
airport is predominantly used for charter flights,
and its potential as gate to Eastern Slovakia is not
used.
Current use of Gliwice airport and concept for extension (source: Municipality of Gliwice / EMA projekt)
Bus transfer from Budapest airport to Košice
(source: IU / Martin Reents)
To achieve a more active marketing approach
and to gain new carriers and airlines the Agency
for the Support of Regional Development Košice
prepared a study, which compared the airport with
competing facilities in Slovakia, Poland, Hungary
and Ukraine. Considering the expectations of
public and private stakeholders recommendations
for further development are proposed, which shall
strengthen regional accessibility and improve the
utilisation for tourism purpose.
Partners:
Municipality of Gliwice; Agency for the Support of
Regional Development Košice
Contact:
Anna Włodarczak; Jozef Sulak, Jaroslav Tešliar
External support:
AD NOTAM Kancelaria Prawna, Warszawa / intelligent
aviation, Warszawa / Instytut Lotnictwa, Warszawa

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II
Sustainable transport
in agglomeration areas

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24
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
Kraków / Gliwice: Investigation of needs and expectations of passengers
25
Kraków: Towards fast and integrated suburban rail transport
27
Wrocław / Gliwice: Revitalising rail stations as intermodal hubs
28
Opole: Integrated system of city transport (mobility management)
30
Wrocław: Flexible solutions for public and private transport – Bike & Ride
32
Dresden / Wrocław: Reducing the negative impact of freight transport
34

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Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
25
Potentials for the shift from road transport
to rail transport
In Kraków agglomeration a system of fast rail
transport (Szybka Kolej Aglomeracyjna – SKA)
shall be introduced, which will improve the
conditions for public transport significantly.
To investigate the current modal split, the
functionality of actual offers and possible effects
of the SKA system a questionnaire was carried
out, which focused on inhabitants of areas located
within the main railway corridors.
It turned out that current offers of rail transport
are weakly known and used at a low level.
Respondents could not answer to questions
regarding the duration of travel and the frequency
of service, and the quality of offers is evaluated at
a significantly lower level than in the case of the
remaining means of public transport.
In case of remarkable improvements through
the SKA system a relevant share of respondents
declared to be ready to use rail transport in future.
This shift would concern mainly existing bus and
Declared change of travel choice after improvement of rail transport (source: Jan Friedberg)
Kraków / Gliwice: Investigation of needs and expectations of passengers
W
ith increasing level of income citizens
are free to decide about preferred means
of transport. Therefore the success of collective
means of transport depends increasingly on the
degree of satisfaction of passengers. Adequate
travel times, high frequency of service and
sufficient comfort – if these conditions are missed,
only passengers without choice, often with limited
income and reduced fares, will remain in public
transport.
In the effect due to lack of income the level of
service will be reduced to a minimum level, and
negative effects of increasing individual transport
through pollution, noise and congestion will
prevail in the urban landscape. Urban space will
become less attractive, and quality of life will
decrease.
Nevertheless due to limited funds decisions must
be made, which elements of public transport
should be improved in first priority. Towards this
aim the cities of Kraków investigated the needs
and expectations of passengers in rail and bus
transport.

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26
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
microbus services, but individual transport as
well. An important condition for change would
be the information about the provided services
and the improvement of access to rail stations.
Currently the users of rail transport live mostly in
a distance of up to 1 km from a railway station.
Investigating preferences to prepare
investment decisions
In the case of Gliwice the revitalisation of areas
in the city centre creates an opportunity to review
the strategies for the development of urban
transport. Accordingly the questionnaire realised
among inhabitants and passengers investigated
mobility habits, the level of satisfaction with
public transport, needs, expectations and opinions
regarding the need for action.
It turned out that approx. 35 % of inhabitants use
the local bus system regularly. The most relevant
reasons for using public transport are the lack
of possibility to use a private car, low travel cost
and short travel times. Need for action is stated
regarding the frequency of service, waiting time
at interchanges and punctuality.
In the mid-term perspective more comprehensive
measures are postulated: purchase of modern
buses, modern bus stops, bus-lanes, introduction
of ticket vending machines. Interestingly 65 % of
respondents support the idea to limit car traffic in
the city centre.
The study launched a process of analysis and
investigation. Its results shall be used to identify
and specify the hierarchy of needs, paving the way
for necessary decisions regarding the directions of
development.
Weight (left) and evaluation (right) of service factors of public transport in Gliwice (source: PBS DGA)
Partners:
Municipality of Kraków; Municipality of Gliwice
Contact:
Włodzimierz Zaleski; Anna Włodarczak
External support:
Jan Friedberg – Projektowanie i doradztwo
w zarządzaniu, Wieliczka / Stowarzyszenie Inżynierów
i Techników Komunikacji Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej,
Oddział w Krakowie; PBS DGA Sp. z o.o., Sopot

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Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
27
“Bronowice Nowe” located in the
neighbourhood of existing housing estates
and large areas planned for commercial use.
This station will also be a part of the Park &
Ride system.
Kraków: Towards fast and integrated suburban rail transport
A
comprehensive system of public transport in
agglomerations requires the integration and
networking of all modes: Rail, metro, tram and
bus, taxi and car sharing, cycling and walking.
In particular the activation of rail transport is
of high relevance: It delivers high capacity and
creates efficient transport corridors, which shape
the development of settlement areas and provide
excellent conditions for the creation of intermodal
nodes at stations.
Accordingly in all major cities networks of fast
suburban rail transport are operational or in
process of creation. In the German part of the Via
Regia area the Berlin system is most advanced
(including as well regional trains), and the systems
in Halle/Leipzig and Dresden are in the stage of
significant improvements. But in Polish cities
implementation is still at the beginning, maybe
with the exception of Warsaw.
Facilitating access to the railway system
The challenges that need to be tackled are
enormous: Huge railway nodes with an outdated
infrastructure must be redeveloped, changing
the structure of tracks and adapting the technical
systems to the needs of the 21
st
century. Massive
investments are required, which reach far
beyond the actual renewal and modernisation of
station buildings e.g. in Wrocław and Katowice.
Bottlenecks need to be removed, and at the
same time the awareness of stakeholders for the
expected benefits must be increased to justify
these interventions.
A crucial task is the creation of an adequate
network of access points, which are located
near sources, destinations and interchanges of
passenger flows. Towards this aim conceptual and
technical studies were prepared for the following
stations:
“Złocień” and “Prądnik Czerwony” – located
close to the city borders near existing and
planned housing and commercial areas with
unsatisfying public transport services.
Structure of the Kraków railway node
(source: Jan Friedberg)
Rail station Kraków-Bronowice: Functional spatial study
and visualisation (source: ALTRANS)

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28
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
T
hroughout history rail stations were subject
to a complete change of functionality: As part
of the technical infrastructure, station buildings
were inevitable for the organisation of rail
transport and used completely for this purpose.
Today their function is mostly reduced to access to
rail transport and – if still operated – ticket sales.
In major stations sufficient passenger flows may
vitalise the buildings through related services, but
minor stations are often subject to deterioration.
So a place which once had an important role in
urban life may become a problem.
Perspectives for the Wrocław Nadodrze
station
The discussion about the future of the Nadodrze
station started in 2007 within the project ED-C III
Via Regia with a first rough study on possibilities
for the revitalisation and extension of the station
building. Due to the encouraging reaction of the
public it was decided to prepare an in-depth study,
which includes the station surroundings and
considers to a greater extent its strategic location
in the city structure.
Partner:
Municipality of Kraków
Contact:
Włodzimierz Zaleski
External support:
Pracownia Planowania i Projektowania Systemów
Transportu ALTRANS - Stanisław Albricht, Kraków
Wrocław / Gliwice: Revitalising rail stations as intermodal hubs
Wrocław Nadodrze – Site plan and visualisation
(source: AA Studio)
“Sanctuary” – to be used mainly by pilgrims
arriving to the Sanctuary and the new John
Paul II centre as well as users of a large
shopping centre.
The studies specified the location and technical
framework of platforms and relations to
surrounding areas (access paths, desired land
use). All works were done in close and thorough
cooperation with the Małopolskie voivodship
as organisator of rail services and PKP PLK as
infrastructure operator.
Introducing a system of integrated tariffs
The activities aimed at the creation of railway
stations were supplemented by a study on the
integration of tariffs in Kraków agglomeration.
Taking the experience of joint monthly tickets for
urban and rail transport, the possibilities and effects
of a comprehensive system of integrated tariffs
are investigated. The study includes the design
of the tariff system, organisational and financial
aspects and possible models of cooperation with
municipalities and service providers. Considering
as well the expected economic effects, it shall
provide the necessary basis for negotiations and
agreements with stakeholders.

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Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
29
Social consultations (source: AA studio)
A public workshop on the directions of further
development was organised, and a draft design
of the park and the square in front of the station
was prepared. The extended concept provides
now a comprehensive guideline, which is
suitable to shape the process of revitalisation and
modernisation. So in case of increasing awareness
and pressure for action a socially accepted concept
will be ready for implementation.
In the effect the rail station could regain the
role of a connecting element in the Nadodrze
district, which needs complex interventions and
dedication of stakeholders for revitalisation.
Additionally the successful transformation of the
station building would be a pilot for comparable
projects, since feasible models for cooperation
between the state railways PKP, public authorities
and interested stakeholders in case of stations
with limited potential for commercial use are
urgently needed.
Redevelopment of the Gliwice main station
The need for revitalisation of the Gliwice main
station and its surrounding areas lead in 2010 to
an agreement between the Municipality of Gliwice
and PKP state railways regarding the elaboration of
a joint concept for spatial development. It should
specify the functions and land use of particular
areas and support the spatial integration of the
station surroundings. Starting with areas located
near the railway station, in the end the agreement
covered an area of 40 ha.
The “heart” of the new communication centre is an
intermodal interchange facility with the historical
rail station and a new building, which integrates
different means of transport and provides areas
for commercial uses. Through these interventions
a new quality of public space shall be created.
It is expected that in the effect a useable floor space
of approx. 160.000 m² might be developed. In this
process the joint concept shall serve as guideline,
enabling the realisation of all necessary measures
in close cooperation – and to the mutual benefit
– of the Municipality of Gliwice and PKP state
railways.
Partners:
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development
Office; Municipality of Gliwice
Contact:
Jan Roga, Marek Żabiński; Andrzej Karasiński
External support:
AA Studio, Wrocław; P.A. NOVA S.A.

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30
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
Visualisation of the concept for the redevelopment of the surroundings of Gliwice main station
(source: Municipality of Gliwice / P.A. NOVA S.A.)
Opole: Integrated system of city transport (mobility management)
O
pole is among the European cities that have
undergone numerous historical changes.
In the transport sector, the excessive growth of
the use of private cars puts new challenges to
urban development. To keep the high level of
quality of life and to increase the attractiveness of
public space new solutions for the management
of transport are required. Public transport must
be prepared for the future, and the potentials of
an advantageous spatial structure should be used
to promote walking and cycling as eco-friendly
modes of transport.
To change the approach to transport management
and to evaluate possible options of future
development a comprehensive programme for
an integrated system of city transport (mobility
management) was prepared, and a process
of discussion with the interested public was
launched.
A set of measures for more sustainable
urban transport
The study follows a systematic approach. Based
on the spatial analysis certain areas of preference
were identified, which divide between the city
centre with priority areas for pedestrian and
public transport, areas with high density of
housing, where a high quality of public transport
is desired, and remaining areas of lower density, in
which might be used by private transport without
restrictions.
For each mode of transport a set of measures was
defined:
Walking and cycling: Pedestrian and cycling
routes in the city centre, possibilities to
increase the use of bicycles for commuting
purposes
Bus: Introduction of a comfortable system
of high-capacity bus transport, bus lanes,

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Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
31
transport for persons with reduced mobility
(PRM), design of bus stops, integration of
tariff system and support of intermodality
Private transport: One-way lanes and parking
restrictions in the city centre to increase the
share of space for cycling and walking, parking
policy including Park & Ride system
All measures were adapted to the needs of
Opole, and where applicable, the possible
spatial implementation was visualised. After the
relocation of stops, the regional railways could
support the system of public transport with
regard to suburban and regional connectivity.
Options for the development of a tram system
were investigated as well.
Proposed system of pedestrian routes and changes in the bus system (source: TRAKO)
Implementation needs an institutional
framework
For implementation of the programme a preferred
scenario was identified, which could be realised
through step-by-step measures. To facilitate
the realisation, quantified indicators were listed
which are suitable to evaluate the progress.
Expected development of the modal split as result of the
proposed measures (source: TRAKO)

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32
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
Proposed set of indicators and possible target values
(source: TRAKO)
Additionally it was proposed to create a board
for traffic management, which should coordinate
all activities and realise tasks of monitoring and
supervision.
If the “core set” of measures would be realised, the
experts preparing the study expect a shift in the
modal split from motorised individual transport
(63 %
è
47 %) to public transport (36 %
è
46 %) and cycling (1 %
è
7 %), increasing the
sustainability of urban transport significantly.
Partner:
Municipality of Opole
Contact:
Danuta Wesołowska, Krzysztof Początek
External support:
TRAKO Marek Wierzbicki, Wrocław
Wrocław: Flexible solutions for public and private transport – Bike & Ride
I
t is not yet visible in statistics, but it is visible
in the urban scenery – cycling is already today
an important part of urban transport in Wrocław.
And its role shall grow – the city intends to increase
the share of cycling from currently 1-2 % to 15 %
in 2020. Important steps towards this aim were
the nomination of a bicycle officer as coordinator
of local activities and the recent launch of the city
bike rental.
To support this policy and to extend the use of
bicycles for commuting and leisure purpose in the
entire agglomeration, the Wrocław Development
Office prepared a study aimed at the development
of a Bike & Ride (B&R) system at railway stations.
Analysis of potentials and technical
framework conditions
In the first step a questionnaire was realised
to identify the railway lines where passengers
show the highest interest in a B&R system.
Supplemented by a spatial and infrastructural
analysis three railway lines were identified, where
the highest demand for the use of B&R might be
expected.
In the second step each station at the selected lines
was analysed in detail. The access to platforms,
the available equipment, the intensity of use,
investment perspectives, the planned offer of
services and access by local roads and dedicated
cycling paths were investigated and evaluated.
Finally for each station solutions for the future
functionality with regard to B&R were elaborated,
including site plans with access routes and
proposals for the installation of parking facilities.
Bike
&
Ride is more than parking facilities
for cyclists
The study proposes two options for
implementation: The minimum variant, which
would focus on the construction of parking
facilities and the target variant, which would
include supporting investments on roads and
access paths, too. It turns out that the costs of
parking facilities are comparably low, but relevant
funds are needed to create an adequate cycling
infrastructure. Without these investments, it is
doubtful if the B&R system would be accepted by
the users.

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Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
33
Therefore the challenges are two-fold and closely
interconnected: Citizens need to be motivated
to include cycling into their choice of transport
modes, and local authorities must realise the
necessary investments according to a joint
strategy and well-defined quality standards to
make this happen. In case of success a B&R
system could contribute to a more flexible and
cost-efficient system of public transport in the
Wrocław agglomeration.
Area of analysis and rail lines with high potential for Bike & Ride (source: TRAKO)
B&R station and city bike rental
(source: Municipality of Wrocław)
Partner:
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development Office
Contact:
Jan Roga, Marek Żabiński
External support:
TRAKO Marek Wierzbicki, Wrocław

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34
Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
R
oad freight transport is a burden for each
city: Noise, emissions, the risk of accidents
and increased expenditures for road maintenance
make it necessary to develop strategies, which
reduce the impact of freight transport on
the urban environment. At the same time an
increasing division of labour and just in time
production generate transport needs, which
require a good accessibility of urban areas. To
handle this dilemma, the cities of Dresden and
Wrocław developed different approaches towards
solutions.
Support of freight transport management
through efficient routing
In the Dresden agglomeration a truck guidance
system is implemented, which is based on several
elements:
A city truck map, which shall guide freight
transport through the city.
A system of road signs, guiding trucks to
important transport hubs and industrial
estates.
Interactive offers, providing information by
the Internet.
Dresden / Wrocław: Reducing the negative impact of freight transport
Freight transport on urban roads (source: City of Dresden)
These tools shall influence long-distance freight
transport as well as local freight transport and
direct the vehicles to routes which are adapted to
heavy transport and have a limited impact on the
urban environment.
Within the project a routing tool was developed,
which uses the information included in the truck
guidance system and might be distributed as part
of navigation systems. The benefits are evident:
Since most drivers use navigation systems,
such an IT tool could influence their behaviour
Translating the concept of truck guidance to routing tools: Example sheet of the truck city map (source: City of Dresden)

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Sustainable transport in agglomeration areas
35
immediately – without any language barrier. At
the same time the quality of navigation would be
improved, since standard systems lack attributes
relevant for truck drivers (e.g. information
regarding the height of tunnels or bridges).
A key measure for the dissemination of this very
innovative approach would be the introduction
of European standards and methods for the
preparation and provision of truck-related data,
which serves as well the aim of efficient guidance.
Would the data be published in open databases,
even an obligation to use these systems could be
feasible.
A regional dialogue about the needs for
infrastructure development
Transport volumes in the Wrocław agglomeration
are heavily growing, and in particular the road
infrastructure is in a continuous process of renewal
and modernisation. Even after the motorway
bypass will be opened, relevant amounts of goods
need to be carried inside the agglomeration from
and to production facilities.
In this situation more effective coordination of
transport routes and infrastructure investments
and better coordination transport businesses
could significantly improve the quality of life and
the economical attractiveness of the region. To
investigate the current situation, two studies were
prepared:
Investigation of bottlenecks in transport
infrastructure and analysis of investment
programmes of all modes of transport
Investigation of size changes of cargo transport
(im- and export from the agglomeration,
focused on international corporations)
To improve communication between
stakeholders and public administration the
Wrocław Agglomeration Logistics Forum was
established as advisory, non-formal body. It
includes representatives of public administration,
transport infrastructure operators, logistic and
transport organisations, business chambers and
higher education in transportation.
Study tour to Dresden, Leipzig and Halle to visit best
practices and to share experience
(source: Municipality of Wrocław)
Partners:
City of Dresden, Office of the Dresden City Region;
Municipality of Wrocław, Economic Development Office
Contact:
Matthias Mohaupt; Witold Wiński, Tomasz Stefanicki
External support:
PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe;
Międzynarodowa Wyższa Szkoła Logistyki i Transportu
we Wrocławiu, Wrocław / Wrocław Agglomeration
Development Agency, Wrocław

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III
Efficient land use management
and regional cooperation

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38
Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
Halle/Leipzig: Commercial land use management in city regions
39
Wrocław / Kraków: Coordinating land-use planning and transport systems
40
Lower Silesia: Enhancing cooperation through exchange of spatial information
41
Saxony: Increasing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized centres
43

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Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
39
Halle/Leipzig: Commercial land use management in city regions
T
he Halle/Leipzig region developed very well
during the recent years. A main European
logistics hub emerged around the joint airport,
and huge production facilities were set-up in
particular in the automotive sector.
But despite large resources of unused and derelict
land (approx. 2.000 ha) a certain mismatch has
been observed between a high quantitative supply
and the current demand, which has specific
qualitative requirements. Even though the future
demand is hardly predictable it is estimated that
in terms of quantity and quality within the next
10-15 years nearly each request of investors for
areas suitable for commercial or industrial use
can be answered positively – at least from regional
perspective.
In this situation a lack of efficient structures for
day-to-day cooperation of cities and surrounding
municipalities might lead to an allocation of
land use that is economically inefficient and
ecologically not sustainable. Therefore the cities
of Leipzig and Halle (Saale) decided to launch a
dialogue of stakeholders to initiate a coordinated
development of commercial areas.
An evidence-based process of voluntary
cooperation
To establish a joint approach in land use planning
two main issues had to be addressed:
The organisation of the cooperation had to
be set up, taking into account that the area of
interest covers the intermunicipal level as well
as the area of two federal states (Saxony and
Saxony-Anhalt) with certain differences in
administration.
Information about quantity and quality of
commercial areas was compiled in a regional
database, allowing the assessment of the
available portfolio.
Area of investigation (source: IÖR)

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40
Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
From the very beginning the relevant stakeholders
and decision-makers were involved through
regional workshops, which provided a platform
for cooperation at equal levels. Thus substantive
research and the process of dialogue were carried
out hand in hand. The activities were guided by a
regional steering group, which turned out to be
an efficient body for exchange of information and
coordination.
Perspectives for future activities
In November 2010 a joint declaration was
signed, which confirmed the will to continue
the cooperation. With the joint framework for
the evaluation of commercial areas a tool has
been prepared which is suitable to facilitate the
discussion about the development perspectives
of selected locations. Main tasks are now the
continuous update of the regional database and
its integration into the website “Wirtschaftsregion
Leipzig/Halle”, the organisation of regular
meetings of the steering group and annual high-
level conferences to discuss directions and aims of
further cooperation.
With the process realised in the field of commercial
land use management a remarkable input for the
institutionalisation of regional cooperation in the
Halle/Leipzig region could be achieved. If the
stakeholders succeed to maintain the structures
created so far, it might be possible to tackle as
well further fields of interest, thus increasing the
competitiveness of the joint city region.
After the signature of the joint declaration
(November 2010, source: City of Leipzig)
Partners:
City of Leipzig, City Planning Office; City of Halle (Saale),
City Planning Office
Contact:
Reinhard Wölpert, Peggy Sacher; Karsten Golnik,
Wolfgang Besch-Frotscher
External support:
Leibniz-Institut für ökologische Raumentwicklung e.V.,
Dresden (IÖR)
Wrocław / Kraków: Coordinating land-use planning and transport systems
L
and-use planning may lower traffic volumes
through the reduction of transport needs, and
it may create better conditions for the use of public
transport through the concentration of areas with
housing or service functions along infrastructure
axes. This is especially true for rail transport – due
to the need for high demand rail stations should
be surrounded by densely used areas and serve
their catchment area as intermodal nodes.
Within the project two different options have
been investigated to increase the demand for rail
transport in agglomeration areas:
The reactivation of a local railway line
(Wrocław)
Coordination of spatial planning along a
transport corridor (Kraków)
Case study: Reactivating a local railway line
Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the rail
infrastructure in the Wrocław agglomeration
area the line no. 285 was chosen for an in-depth
analysis. It connects Wrocław with Sobótka
and Świdnica, and passenger rail service was
abandoned nearly ten years ago.
The study includes a description of the technical
status of the infrastructure, a functional-spatial
analysis and scenarios for the modernisation
and revitalisation of the railway line. A possible
standard for reconstruction is identified, and
sets of measures are defined which would need
to be implemented by the different stakeholders
involved.

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Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
41
Case study: Coordinating spatial planning
along a transport corridor
The study investigates the possibilities for the
intensification of land use along the rail line
no. 8 Kraków-Kielce-Warszawa in the section
from Kraków to Miechów, which is currently
being modernised. It shall initiate a discussion
among local stakeholders, which options should
be realised to create a more efficient system of
agglomeration transport.
Besides recommendations aimed at a harmonised
investment policy, possible adaptations of the
system of public transport are analysed as well.
These include the organisation of bus transport,
the introduction of Park & Ride and/or Bike &
Ride systems and the possible relocation of railway
Successful revitalisation: Rail line Wrocław-Trzebnica
(source: GRAD)
stations. Finally the effects of possible measures in
terms of travel times, the resulting transport work
and the modal split are investigated.
Conclusions: Efficient rail transport requires
efficient regional cooperation
The results of the case studies underline the
relevance of local self-governments for the
success of strategies aimed at more sustainable
urban transport. Of course operators of rail
infrastructure and passenger rail services play
an important role e.g. through the decision to
modernise or reactivate a railway line or not. But
without sufficient support from local authorities
through the harmonisation of their spatial
policies and an integrated approach towards
public transport significant improvements will be
difficult to achieve.
Partners:
Municipality of Wrocław, Wrocław Development Office;
Municipality of Kraków
Contact:
Jan Roga, Marek Żabiński; Włodzimierz Zaleski
External support:
WYG International, Warszawa
Lower Silesia: Enhancing cooperation through exchange of spatial
information
T
he technological progress facilitates the
creation and the management of spatial data.
Today, geographical information systems (GIS)
are used in many fields of life, but of course in
particular in the field of spatial planning.
The broad application of GIS tools creates
potentials, which might be used as well for
efficient land use management. A lot of work is
currently being done by different agencies and
stakeholders to prepare and actualise spatial data
for their well-defined, but individual purpose.
If this effort would be bundled, the currentness,
quality and spatial coverage of data could be
significantly increased.
The most relevant prerequisites for such an
approach are two-fold:
Data must be prepared according to widely
accepted standards, which enable the efficient
exchange of data.
The use of GIS tools needs to be intensified,
and the awareness of the benefits of GIS-based
planning methods has to be increased.

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42
Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
Developing tailor-made technology
Taking into account these challenges, the
Regional Bureau for Spatial Planning in Wrocław
(WBU) developed the prerequisites for a regional
node for spatial data infrastructure, which
provides a platform for the coordination of land
use management in the functional area of the
Wrocław agglomeration. A key activity was the
creation of a GIS tool for the processing of data
in line with the INSPIRE
1
directive as well as ISO
2
and OGC
3
standards.
The tool is based on open source licenses,
which allows its free use and the independent
improvement through interested communities.
In parallel a process of collection and compilation
of data from different spatial levels has been
started, creating the necessary resources for the
regional node for spatial data infrastructure.
The combination of both elements (software
development & data compilation) in line with
European standards is a unique and highly
innovative feature of the activity.
1
Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for
Spatial Information in the European Community
2
International Organisation for Standardisation,
www.iso.ch
3
Open Geospatial Consortium,
www.opengeospatial.org
Increasing the awareness for the benefits of
GIS-based planning methods
The challenge is now to disseminate and to
encourage the application of the tool. It will
be necessary to convince public authorities
and private planning offices to skip individual
approaches towards mapping and to introduce
harmonised methods of data management. Here
the open source approach might be helpful, since
it efficiently reduces the cost of market entry.
Elements of the regional node for spatial data infrastructure (source: WBU)
Discussion during the public presentation of results
(April 2011, source: WBU)

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Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
43
An important step towards the implementation
has been made through the launch of cooperation
with public authorities and institutions of higher
education. Additionally it is planned to use the
results for the coordination of an inter-regional
spatial study, which investigates the Polish part
of the German-Polish border area. In perspective
this activity may create an opportunity even for
the cross-border application of the tool.
Partner:
Regional Bureau for Spatial Planning in Wrocław
(WBU)
Contact:
Przemysław Malczewski, Aleksandra Sieradzka-Stasiak
External support:
GISPartner, Wrocław /
Kon-Dor GIS Konsulting, Wrocław
Saxony: Increasing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized centres
T
rans-European transport corridors connect
logistic hubs, node cities and metropolitan
areas. At the same time they influence the areas
in-between, which bear the costs of transit
traffic (noise, emissions) in exchange for better
accessibility. But which factors decide about the
future perspectives of these areas? Should they
focus on cooperation with large corridor nodes,
or should they create their own, independent
networks?
Difficult situation of rural areas affected by
demographic change
Within the study the region between Leipzig and
Dresden was analysed, which is part of the Central
Germany metropolitan region. It is characterised
by a weak economical structure, and the results
confirm that the influence of the corridor on
regional development is rather limited: “Spill-
over” effects of the centres of Leipzig and Dresden
remain within their vicinity, and relevant
economic activities are concentrated on medium-
sized cities and selected transport nodes.
In fact the perspectives are rather determined by
challenges resulting from demographic change
and a shrinking population: Declining revenues
of public budgets and decreasing capacity of
public administration, loss of purchase power and
lack of perspectives for well-qualified employees.
So there is a need for the development of new
solutions for local and regional development.
Supporting a dialogue culture for integrated
regional strategies
It is evident that the activation of the existing
potentials will not be possible without intensified
cooperation of local self-governments. The study
proposes to create regional partnerships, which
might be aimed e.g. at the consolidation of public
finances, the stabilisation of public services
or the development of strategic locations for
investments.
Through a regional strategy dialogue the mutual
information and support of stakeholders could
be facilitated, creating as well a platform for the
intensification of cooperation with neighbouring
centres and metropolitan areas. To support these
developments, the following principles should be
applied:
Openness for different development paths of
regions
Strengthening of integrating and interdisciplinary
solutions
Marketplace of Oschatz, located between Leipzig and
Dresden (source: Steffi Pelz / pixelio.de)

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Efficient land use management and regional cooperation
Problem-related connection of bottom-up
and top-down approaches
Strengthening of the regional level and inter-
municipal cooperation
Support of small and medium-sized cities
with important functions for the provision of
public services
A relevant resource are the funds for the support
of rural development (ILE / LEADER regions),
which might serve as well as incentive for regional
cooperation.
Proposal for a regional strategy dialogue (source: isw Institut)
Partner:
Saxon State Ministry of the Interior (SMI)
Contact:
Dr. Ludwig Scharmann, Christian Glantz
External support:
isw Institut für Strukturpolitik und
Wirtschaftsförderung gGmbH, Halle (Saale)

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IV
Tackling demographic change
and attracting human capital

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46
Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
Wrocław, Lviv and Dresden: Work migration and cross-border integration of labour markets
47
Halle/Leipzig: The impact of demographic change on skilled labour
49
Dresden: Development of strategies on regional level
50
Opole: Development of strategies on city and district level
52

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Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
47
Wrocław, Lviv and Dresden: Work migration and cross-border integration of
labour markets
Besides regional profiles of migration (see
below) the study delivered the following results
and knowledge, which are of relevance in the
transnational dimension:
The young and active parts of the population
migrate, and to influence their choices and
decisions it is important to address them
through targeted policies.
The language and the different employment
conditions are still relevant barriers between
the German and the Polish labour market. In
particular in Germany good language skills are
a “must” to take a qualified and well-paid job.
To achieve further integration these barriers
must be reduced.
Exchange programmes aimed e.g. at the
organisation of internships for graduates may
reduce the risk of depreciation of qualification,
which is still apparent in the Polish case.
T
hroughout the centuries migration processes
have been observed along the Via Regia, which
are – at least in peace time – part of a steady flow
of people from the poorer to the wealthier regions
of Europe. In the age of globalisation these trends
are still in place, as the mobility of European
citizens even increases. But the dynamics and
the patterns of economic migration are subject to
continuous change.
To extend the knowledge regarding this issue
the Office for Economic Development of the
Municipality of Wrocław analysed the attitudes
towards work migration in the agglomerations
of Wrocław, Lviv and Dresden in a comparative
study, which was partly based on quantitative
research
1
.
1
CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews), June-July 2009,
approx. 1.000 respondents in each agglomeration in the age of 18-64.
Education and qualification as assets in global competition (source: Municipality of Wrocław)

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48
Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
Partner:
Municipality of Wrocław, Office for Economic
Development
Contact:
Janina Woźna, Małgorzata Golak
External support:
PBS DGA Sp. z o.o., Sopot / Human Capital Business
Sp. z o.o., Sopot
Profiles of migration – Selected results of empirical research
Wrocław
In general the occupational and territorial mobility of the Polish labour market is quite low
due to the educational system, housing problems and an insufficient public transport and road
infrastructure. In the effect migration abroad might be in some cases even easier than regional
migration.
The “typical” economic migrant is young and without children, relatively well-educated, but
usually taking jobs which do not require high qualification. Most migrants work abroad (United
Kingdom, Germany) and mainly short term (high share of seasonal work). Since a shortage of
qualified employees is not noticed, “brain drain” is not regarded to be a problem.
Lviv
The situation in the Ukraine can be compared to Poland. Most migrants work abroad, carrying
out work below their skills. Economic migration is often short term, and the “typical” migrant is
young and well-educated. In contrary to Poland, “brain drain” is considered a problem, since many
highly qualified persons leave the country for higher salaries and appropriate jobs. Furthermore
the estimated share of illegal work is significantly higher than in Germany and Poland.
Dresden
The dynamics and reasons for economic migration are quite different from the cases of Wrocław
and Lviv. The level of mobility is higher, but migrants stay in Germany and work in jobs that
correspond to their qualification. Migration is mostly long term, and besides the search for better
jobs the willingness to learn, easy access to education, culture and health care are at least equally
important.
Reasons for economic migration within the last 5 years (source: PBS DGA Sp. z o.o.)

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Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
49
Halle/Leipzig: The impact of demographic change on skilled labour
I
n the region of Halle/Leipzig, which is
significantly affected by demographic change,
the level of education and qualification decides –
among other factors – about the ability to cover
the future demand of qualified employees. It is
expected that on regional level until 2025 the
population at employable age between 20 and 65
will drop from 1,17 mln to 0,94 mln (– 19,7 %).
Accordingly the number of qualified employees
will diminish despite a continuously high demand.
To investigate the effects of this development the
City of Leipzig contracted a study for the Halle/
Leipzig region, which analysed the expected
supply and demand of skilled workforce according
to economical sectors and different scenarios of
development. Through the regional approach
the study delivered new knowledge about the
joint labour market, which is covered by the
administration of two federal states.
A mismatch of supply and demand
The current situation is in general characterised
by high requirements and qualification standards
for jobs and a shrinking demand for low qualified
employees. The results are increased problems
for staffing and a risk of unemployment, which
is accompanied by a high demand for skilled
employees.
The scenarios for the years 2020 and 2025
demonstrate that – besides the current deficit
of physicians and IT professionals – a critical
situation might arise in particular in technical-
scientific professions. In general an above-average
need for medium-level qualification is observed,
which is caused by the economic structure with
an under-average disposition of management
functions.
Possibilities for action on local level
The influence of local authorities on the supply
of skilled workers is limited. But local self-
governments have an important function for
mediation and coordination, which might
influence the local position in the increasing
competition between cities and regions for
qualified employees. This concerns in particular
two fields of action:
School-leavers, trainees and students
should be attracted and kept in the region,
strengthening the regional potential of labour
force.
Already at early stages of education targeted
action is necessary to motivate and to activate
the youth, e.g. through joint projects of schools
and enterprises.
Examples for initiatives promoting
qualified job training
Population forecast for Halle/Leipzig region
(source: isw Institut)

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50
Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
For Halle/Leipzig region these conclusions might
be amended by the need to intensify the regional
networking of related projects and initiatives.
Administrative borders should be no barriers to
education and qualification, taking into account
the need for a broad dissemination of successful
approaches and practices.
Partner:
City of Leipzig, City Planning Office
Contact:
Reinhard Wölpert, Peggy Sacher
External support:
isw Institut für Strukturpolitik und
Wirtschaftsförderung gGmbH, Halle (Saale)
Dresden: Development of strategies on regional level
A
lready during the recent years demographic
change has been a topic of high political
relevance in the Dresden City Region, which is a
body of voluntary cooperation between the City
of Dresden and its surrounding municipalities.
Therefore it was decided to develop a joint action
programme, which shall qualify activities and
strategies realised on local level.
Joint identification of fields of action
The preparation of the action programme was
subject to extensive quantitative and qualitative
research. The regional population forecast and
current observations on demographic change
were analysed, the participating stakeholders
were interviewed and examples of good practice
compiled. The result was a reliable assessment
of the current situation in the Dresden City
Region, taking into account the demographical
situation as well as the awareness and readiness of
stakeholders for action.
As result of the process of research and
consultation the joint regional approach was laid
down in four fields of action:
Evaluation of basic data
as precondition to
raise the awareness of politicians, regional
stakeholders and the population.
Quality of life
as essential location factor for
existing and future residents, including e.g.
the elderly as well as well-qualified employees.
Family-friendly policies
to attract young
families, e.g. through attractive offers in
the field of leisure and recreation and good
opportunities for education.
Regional identity
as basis for joint activities,
in the internal as well as in the external
dimension.
For each field of action a comprehensive catalogue
of activities was identified and agreed on by the
Conference of Mayors, the decision-making body
of the Dresden City Region.
Job starters at a fair for training offers (source: Halle Messe GmbH)

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Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
51
Implementation of pilot measures
In parallel to the joint action programme a
concept for public relations was developed to
improve the internal and external perception of
the Dresden City Region. So far, the knowledge
about the inter-municipal cooperation was rather
low, and there was no joint strategy to promote
the region’s attractiveness.
Based on a survey and a workshop with
stakeholders a mission statement and measures
for the marketing on regional level were identified.
Main target groups are citizens, future inhabitants
and investors, municipalities and regional
stakeholders such as enterprises, associations and
societies. Already during project implementation
first measures were implemented, including the
development of a new name, logo and slogan and
the publication of a brochure on family-friendly
leisure facilities.
Brochure on family-friendly
leisure facilities
New name and logo of the Dresden City Region
Regional population forecast (source: IÖR)

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Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
A remarkable result of the discussion on the
joint communication strategy is the effect for
the institutionalisation of regional cooperation,
which is reflected in the mission statement. The
document defines besides aims and priorities as
well guidelines and principles of joint work, thus
strengthening the framework for cooperation and
paving the way for the extension of the network to
further municipalities.
Partner:
City of Dresden, Office of the Dresden City Region
Contact:
Rolf Hermann, Petra Knothe
External support:
DISR Deutsches Institut für Stadt und Raum e.V.,
Berlin / complan Kommunalberatung GmbH, Potsdam
/ Technische Universität Dresden, Lehrstuhl für
Marketing / Werbeagentur Diemar, Jung & Zapfe, Erfurt
/ Werbeagentur Anigrafik, Dresden
Opole: Development of strategies on city and district level
L
ow birth rates and increasing life expectancy
influence as well the development perspectives
of Polish cities. Whereas in larger centres the
effects of demographic change are balanced by
migration processes, medium-sized cities observe
already today a slight decrease of the number
of inhabitants. This is true as well for Opole,
and therefore the city decided to investigate
its demographical perspectives and the impact
of expected developments on the local labour
market.
Exploring the demographic structure of the city
Work migration and suburbanisation influence
the number of inhabitants, but what are the effects
of demographic change on the labour market, and
what will be the needs of the population resulting
from the trends observed? To investigate these
questions a comprehensive data analysis with
a population forecast until 2020 was realised,
leading to a demographical image of Opole on
city and district level.
In particular the small-scale analysis turned out
to be very useful since it allowed to analyse the
directions of demographical development of
particular spatial units. According to the results,
in the city centre due to the age structure the
population is expected to decrease significantly.
These developments will be partly balanced by an
increase of the number of inhabitants of “younger”
districts.
But nevertheless it is expected that the population
of Opole will decrease by approx. 8 % until 2020,
with a focus on the age group at employable age.
Development of age groups 2002-2020 (source: WSZiA)

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Tackling demographic change and attracting human capital
53
Conclusions for future development
From the results of the analysis and a
benchmarking with cities of comparable size
policy recommendations were derived, which are
used as input for the current revision of the city
development strategy:
Due to the low birth rate the demand for
child care and offers of school education will
decrease. But at the same time the resulting
transformation should not lead to a reduced
quality of offers – family-friendly policies
supporting the increased economic activity of
women must be of high priority.
The number of young people entering the
labour market is expected to decrease. To keep
a high level of economic activity, the activity
period of the elderly needs to be extended,
and processes of early retirement should be
avoided.
It is necessary to prepare for a higher share of
retired persons with an increasing need for
social care.
The development of urban space (e.g. areas
for housing and recreation) should be adapted
to the needs of the population living in the
respective areas.
As it is the case in Wrocław, Halle/Leipzig and
Dresden, the ability to attract the active parts of
the population will decide as well in Opole about
the perspectives for future development. Here
the location could be an additional advantage, if
the agglomerations of Wrocław and the Upper
Silesian industrial area are seen as sources of
demand for goods and services and as sources
of possible inward migration in search of good
conditions for living and working.
Urban life in Opole (source: Sławoj Dubiel)
Partner:
Municipality of Opole, Department for Planning
and European Affairs
Contact:
Krzysztof Początek, Danuta Wesołowska
External support:
Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Opolu
(WSZiA) / Public Profits Sp. z o.o., Poznań
Ratio of pre-working age population to post-working
population 2009 and 2020 according to city districts
(source: Municipality of Opole)

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V
Activating potentials
for tourism

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56
Activating potentials for tourism
Via Mobil – 135 days on tour through Europe
57
Thuringia: Marketing of city and culture tourism
58
Experiencing the Via Regia by bicycle
60
Eastern Slovakia: Regional cultural routes
62
Cross-border promotion of offers
64
Discovering the Via Regia by rail and bus
65

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Activating potentials for tourism
57
T
o promote the Via Regia as resource for
cultural co-operation, sustainable territorial
development and social cohesion the partners of
Via Regia Plus supported the “Via Mobil” moving
exhibition, which toured the historical route of
the pilgrims’ way from Santiago de Compostela
to Kiev – the Cultural Route of the Council of
Europe – during summer 2010. It announced the
3
rd
Saxon State Exhibition, which presented the
history of the Via Regia as “800 years of movement
and mobility” from 21
st
May to 31
st
October 2011
in Görlitz.
Bringing the “spirit” of the Via Regia to the
public
The tour was realised by the State Art Collections
Dresden, the organiser of the 3
rd
Saxon State
Exhibition. The partners of Via Regia Plus
contributed to the conceptual preparation,
provided the exhibition car with information
materials about the project and supported the
organisation of the tour within the project area
from Eisenach to Lviv.
Via Mobil – 135 days on tour through Europe
29.7.-31.7.
Eisenach
1.-2.8.
Gotha
3.-6.8.
Erfurt
7.-8.8.
Weimar
9.-10.8.
Naumburg
11.-12.8.
Weißenfels
13.-16.8.
Leipzig
17.-18.8.
Grimma
19.8.
Oschatz
20.-21.8.
Großenhain / Königsbrück
22.-23.8.
Kamenz
25.-26.8.
Bautzen
27.-30.8.
Görlitz / Zgorzelec
1.-3.9.
Lubań
4.-5.9.
Bolesławiec
6.-7.9.
Legnica
8.-11.9.
Wrocław
12.-14.9.
Brzeg
15.-17.9.
Opole
18.-19.9.
Gliwice
20.-22.9.
Bytom
23.-26.9.
Kraków
27.9.
Tarnów
28.9.
Rzeszów
29.-30.9.
Przemyśl
2.-5.10.
Lviv
Impressions from Gotha, Bautzen, Wrocław and Lviv
(source: SKD)

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Activating potentials for tourism
Here the “Via Mobil” visited more than 25 cities,
and more than 20.000 visitors used its information
offers. The vehicle itself was equipped with an
interactive media screen, and an accompanying
programme of talks and public discussion events
took place at several stops. The experience of the
journey was documented in an interactive blog,
and a documentary was prepared to create a fresh,
contemporary view of the Via Regia.
The final station of the Via Mobil was the Euregia
fair for local and regional development in October
2010 in Leipzig during the mid-term conference
of Via Regia Plus.
Strengthening transnational identity
The moving exhibition increased the awareness
of the public and political stakeholders for the
potentials of joint development. Through the
concept of an exhibition car the broad public
could be reached, and the term “Via Regia” was
successfully promoted as part of a transnational
identity. Finally the stakeholders were encouraged
to intensify their activities aimed at the promotion
of the Via Regia as Cultural Route, taking into
account the benefits of a joint approach and
perspective.
Partner:
Saxon State Ministry of the Interior (SMI)
Contact:
Andreas Kühl, Dr. Fritz Schnabel
External support:
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (SKD)
INFRASTRUKTUR & UMWELT, Potsdam
Thuringia: Marketing of city and culture tourism
T
o capitalise the “Via Regia” as brand for the
development of tourism it is necessary to
identify and to define comprehensive marketing
strategies, which might be applied for the
transnational promotion of potentials. But what
should be the scope of these strategies? Who
are the target groups, which offers might be
promoted on local, regional and transnational
levels, and what should be the tools to reach the
target groups?
To find answers to these questions, the Thuringian
Ministry for Construction, Regional Development
and Transport realised a feasibility study on city
and culture tourism along the Via Regia, which
was elaborated in close cooperation with experts
and stakeholders.
Investigating the potentials
The approach of the study was two-fold: In the
first step, a screening of offers and potentials
for tourism along the Via Regia was realised.
All regions were investigated, and offers with a
high visibility and thus high potential for joint
marketing and networking were identified. In the
Thuringian chain of cities (source: FH Erfurt)
www.landesausstellung-viaregia.museum

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Activating potentials for tourism
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second step, for the area of Thuringia an in-depth
study was prepared, defining a set of measures for
the activation of potentials on regional level.
As previously expected, the transnational
investigation demonstrated that the Via Regia
area includes a variety of attractive offers in the
field of city and culture tourism. Each region has
its specific potentials, and a journey along the
Via Regia leads through a European space with a
unique heritage of intercultural relations, which
are visible e.g. in the built environment (castles
and residences, UNESCO World Heritage sites).
But there are doubts if the term “Via Regia” may
serve as stand-alone guiding theme, since its
meaning is currently limited to the trading route,
and obvious relations to its environment and
character are missing.
Developing pilot measures
Therefore the proposals made for the region of
Thuringia are mainly aimed at the increase of the
knowledge and awareness regarding the Cultural
Route, with a focus on the cities of Eisenach,
Gotha, Erfurt, Weimar, Jena, Gera and Altenburg.
Audio guides, printed materials and information
signs could increase the visibility of the Via
Regia in public space and establish adequate
links to existing offers. A harmonised visual
appearance of the Via Regia would support these
interventions, and through interactive city games,
school exchange and class trips as well the youth
and pupils could be addressed.
Part of the proposed measures and
recommendations is as well the identification of
a transnational cycling route, which would link
attractions and destinations along the historical
route and enable to experience the Via Regia at
adequate speed level. From the point of view of
the partnership this measure has a high potential
for implementation, since it is directly connected
to the issue of mobility and would close a gap in
Erfurt: Cathedral and Chandlers’ bridge
(source: ETMG / Barbara Neumann)
Partner:
Thuringian Ministry for Construction,
Regional Development and Transport (TMBLV)
Contact:
Susan Protzel-Graube
External support:
IRS CONSULT AG, München
the transnational network of cycling routes. Thus
further activities were launched, aimed at the
preparation of a geo framework for a Via Regia
cycling route.

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Activating potentials for tourism
As a platform for the networking of local and
regional initiatives, the geo framework allows
the intensification of transnational cooperation
and the development of joint marketing
strategies despite limited funds and resources of
stakeholders. Regional routes and existing offers
are not replaced, but they may be qualified and
promoted to reach a higher visibility.
The main challenge for the operation and extension
of the platform is the creation of a durable
supporting network, further institutionalisation
e.g. through joint financing and the agreement
on standards regarding e.g. the signposting of
Experiencing the Via Regia by bicycle
A
long the Via Regia several cycling routes are
available, which serve eco-friendly forms
of tourism and recreation. But so far no attempt
has been undertaken to create a transnational
offer, which would allow individual tourists
to travel along the Cultural Route – despite an
increasing demand for cycling tourism, attractive
destinations and good geographical conditions.
The reasons for this situation are obvious, since
most cycling routes emerge as bottom-up
initiatives. Only few routes receive support from
the regional level in terms of financing and a
visual and organisational framework, and on the
interregional level a route must be rather located
along a river (Elbe cycling route, Oder-Neiße
cycling route) to have a chance of consideration.
But new opportunities are provided by modern
media.
Platform for the networking of offers:
Geo framework
The approach of the geo framework aims at the
creation of an integrated database for a Via Regia
cycling route from Frankfurt (Main) to Kraków.
Information about regional cycling routes has
been collected and is presented in a web portal,
which is prepared to host additional information
regarding the Cultural Route.
The adequate speed to experience landscape and culture
(source: EKT)
Spatial scope of the geo framework for the Via Regia cycling route (source: EKT)

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Activating potentials for tourism
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the cycling route. A first crucial milestone would
be the integration of initiatives from Thuringia
and Saxony, which was supported by the City of
Leipzig through an investigation of potentials for
cycling tourism in the section Leipzig-Görlitz.
Creation of regional routes: St. James’ Way
in Lower Silesia
A remarkable contribution to the Via Regia
cycling route was prepared by the Regional
Bureau for Spatial Planning in Wrocław (WBU)
through the investigation of cycling paths along
the St. James’ Way in Lower Silesia. Four routes
from Görlitz/Zgorzelec to Brzeg, Głogów, Jelenia
Góra and Sobótka were identified, which provide
the backbone of a regional cycling network.
The proposed Via Regia cycling network in Lower Silesia (source: WBU)
Signposts of bicycle routes near
Siedlecin (source: WBU)
Logo of the
St. James’ cycling
route in Lower
Silesia
(source: WBU)

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All sections were verified in terrain investigations
and documented through maps, profiles
with data e.g. on surface quality, GPS traces
and supplementing descriptions of attractive
destinations. In the effect the spatial framework
for a product of regional tourism was created,
which may serve for local recreation as well as for
cross-border marketing of offers. Already during
the elaboration first contacts to stakeholders
were established to prepare further realisation
through local self-governments and interested
associations.
Partners:
Thuringian Ministry for Construction, Regional
Development and Transport (TMBLV); Regional Bureau
for Spatial Planning in Wrocław (WBU); City of Leipzig,
City Planning Office
Contact:
Susan Protzel-Graube; Wojciech Maleszka, Aleksandra
Sieradzka-Stasiak; Reinhard Wölpert, Peggy Sacher
External support:
Europäisches Kultur- und Informationszentrum in
Thüringen, Erfurt; Geoplan, Wrocław
Panorama near Pokrzywnik (source: WBU)
Eastern Slovakia: Regional cultural routes
U
p to now, the development of tourism in
Eastern Slovakia is focused on highlights
like the “Slovak Paradise” or the Tatra mountains.
The knowledge about further destinations in
this region with a rich cultural heritage is rather
limited – on the one hand due to the peripheral
location in Europe, but on the other hand as
well due to the lack of a coherent vision for the
development of ambitious and qualified thematic
offers.
To change this situation and to motivate the
stakeholders to realise the necessary investments
the Košice Self-Government Region and the
Agency for the Support of Regional Development
(ASRD Košice) undertake the attempt to develop
networks of offers along thematic routes. Parts of
these activities were supported and encouraged
by the project Via Regia Plus.
Paving the way for the support
of investments
A comprehensive analysis was realised, which
provided an overview about existing offers and
potentials along three routes: Gothic route,
Wine route and Iron route. The aim was to
describe in detail the existing situation and
thereby to create suitable conditions for cultural
tourism development in line with the regional
development policy.
The results are used to prepare further support
through the TERRA INCOGNITA programme,
which shall enhance the quality of life and
increase the visit rate through strengthening of
the cultural background and higher awareness,
capacity building, a better level of services and
the improvement of infrastructure for domestic
and foreign tourism. Proposals for the evaluation

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Gothic route (source: ASRD Košice)
Iron route (source: ASRD Košice)
Wine route (source: ASRD Košice)

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Activating potentials for tourism
of destinations and a system of certification
introduced as well elements of a quality
management system.
In the focus of pilot activities:
Tokaj wine region
Further steps towards implementation are made
through additional interventions in a region,
which already has a sufficient level of maturity to
receive significant demand from abroad: the Tokaj
wine region. Located in the south-east of Slovakia
and in the north of Hungary the Hungarian part
of the Tokaj region is a world-wide known tourist
destination, while the Slovak part is merely not
known.
A marketing study analysed current offers and
provided a vision to develop the Tokaj region
as tourist destination, including measures
and activities that should be implemented to
achieve the vision. Additionally a technical
documentation was prepared, defining the
characteristics and requirements for the creation
of a tourist information point.
Together with the analysis these measures pave
the way for the introduction of a pilot region for
qualified tourism in the Košice Self-Government
Region, which will provide valuable experience
for the development of comparable offers.
Partner:
Agency for the Support of Regional Development Košice
Contact:
Jozef Sulak, Gejza Legen, Jaroslav Tešliar
Cross-border promotion of offers
T
he location of a region or a destination at a
border has often two-fold effects: On the one
hand, the border location makes access more
difficult and limits the outreach to target groups
on domestic markets. On the other hand, the
border may create a unique value, since selected
locations may offer a high variety of offers and the
cross-border experience as additional attraction.
Two case studies in Via Regia Plus investigated
the possibilities to capitalise these effects for the
development of tourism.
Revitalising a trade route
in Eastern Slovakia
The Minor Amber Route connects the region of
Eastern Slovakia with its centre, the city of Košice,
with Poland, Hungary, Romania and the Ukraine.
Through the joint route a city network is created,
which represents the cultural heritage of a region
with a long history of cross-border exchange.
During the Austro-Hungarian Empire, no borders
crossed this part of Europe.
The name of the route refers to amber as evidence
for activities related to trade and commerce.
Within the project a brochure is created to promote
Historical centre of Košice, Abaújszanto
(source: City of Košice)

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Activating potentials for tourism
65
the route and to establish contacts between local
authorities. In the context of the European Capital
of Culture 2013 the Minor Amber Route might
contribute to the activation of potentials for cross-
border tourism.
Promoting the asset of cross-border tourism
PL-CZ-SK
The “Tripoint” marks the crossing point of the
Polish-Czech and the Polish-Slovak border in
the south of the Silesia voivodship. It creates with
the Municipality of Istebna (PL) and the districts
of Jablunkov (CZ) and Kysucký Triangel (SK) a
tourist region, which is easily identifiable through
its unique location. To support the further
development, the Upper Silesian Agency for
Entrepreneurship Promotion (GAPP) developed
a marketing strategy in close cooperation with
local stakeholders.
Taking into account the potential demand and
the regional opportunities to satisfy the needs of
tourists, the strategy drafts an action plan towards
the “Tripoint” tourism product, which is to be
implemented in a multi-stage process. A mission
statement, a promotional slogan (“Experience
three times more”) and a system of visual
Polish, Czech and Slovak logo of the “Tripoint” area
(source: GAPP)
identification complete the toolbox generated
within the project.
A specific opportunity for development is provided
by the dense railway network, which connects the
“Tripoint” to neighbouring agglomerations. It
may guarantee good accessibility throughout the
year, enabling at the same time the preservation
and protection of the natural landscape.
“Tripoint” promotional brochure (source: GAPP)
Partners:
City of Košice; Upper Silesian Agency for
Entrepreneurship Promotion (GAPP)
Contact:
Andrea Gizická, Andrea Rešovská; Zofia Stompor
External support:
Collect Consulting Sp. z o.o., Katowice
Discovering the Via Regia by rail and bus
S
ince 2008 the Senate Department for Urban
Development Berlin and the VCD Verkehrsclub
Deutschland (Association of transport users)
publish a periodical guide for travels by public
transport along the Via Regia. The first editions
of the guide were published in German language,
and from 2010 a bilingual version in German and
Polish language is available. These travel guides are
among the most popular results of the previous
project ED-C III Via Regia and Via Regia Plus.
Promoting the use of public transport
through better information
Although the Via Regia developed as a road, it
was transformed through the development of
the rail system which today still enables travel
as well in the mountain regions between Poland,
the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Of course there
are barriers due to insufficient infrastructure
and need for revitalisation, but one of the most

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Activating potentials for tourism
important barriers is lack of information about
available offers.
Therefore the travel guide includes all information
which is necessary to travel by rail and bus
(timetables, prices) and explains how to reach the
most attractive destinations. It shows that some
areas are quite well accessible, but it shows as well
the work which is still to be done. Rural districts
are only reached by non-regular bus services,
and on cross-border lines passenger transport is
sometimes reduced to one train per day.
Intermodal information and information about
special discounts is difficult to obtain, and
schedules of long-distance trains are sometimes
not harmonised with regional trains. On the other
Proposals for trips in the Via Regia area
2011 edition of the Via Regia travel guide
hand the revitalisation of the rail line between
Szklarska Poręba (PL) and Harrachov (CZ)
demonstrates the potential of rail transport for
cross-border tourism.

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Supporting selected offers through targeted
activities
Taking into account the difficulties of cross-
border transport, the promotion of existing
offers like the Eurocity between Hamburg, Berlin
and Kraków (EC Wawel) and the regional trains
between Wrocław and Dresden is of high priority.
Therefore the partners amended the travel guide
by thematic folders, which present destinations
and offers along selected relations. These guides
deliver information for trip planning, but they
increase as well the experience of travel through
information about destinations along the track.
Partners:
Senate Department for Urban Transport Berlin;
Saxon State Ministry of the Interior (SM)
Contact:
Dr. Jürgen Murach, Gerd Müller; Andreas Kühl
External support:
VCD Verkehrsclub Deutschland, Landesverband
Nordost e.V., Berlin
Promotion flyer for the Eurocity Wawel Hamburg-Kraków
Promotion flyer for the Dresden-Wrocław regional trains