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Tackling the Problem of Soil
Contamination in Denmark
Christian Andersen
The Information Centre on Contaminated Sites
Tom Heron
NIRAS

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Numbers on contaminated sites in DK
2
Total sites
2003 estimate
2009 status
Potentially
contaminated
sites
55,000
27,000
Of which to be
confirmed
contaminated
23,000
14,000
Of which to be
cleaned up
8,500
(2000)
Total 2003 estimate: 2 bill. €
The job is expected to be completed by 2060-2090

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Expenses
3
*
*Estimated €
15 –
40 mio.

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The Funding Mechanism for Remediation of
Petrol Stations
4
Operated since 1995 by of Danish Petroleum
Association
Near completion in 2011
10.000 former petrol stations has been risk
assessed
Costing appr. 260 m €
Financed by adding 0,5 cent / l. petrol

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Scaling DK numbers
Population:
1 % of EU (5.4 mio )
Area:
1 % of EU (43,000 km
2
)
Economy:
2 % of EU (GDP 230 bn €)
Multiply by 100 to get EU no. and by 50 to get EU €
National multiplication factors:
15
10
10
3
2
5

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DK
EU
6
DG ENV estimate:
3.5 m potential sites
-
500,000 sites to clean
DK numbers scaled to EU:
5.5 m potential sites
2.3 m proven cont.
850,000 sites to clean
Total cost:
100 billion
10
National multiplication factors
15
10
3
2

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Value created by the subsector
Direct value
Increase in property value & Brown Fields
Clean drinking water
Health of citizens
Citizens feeling secure irt contamination
Ecological value
Derrived benefits
Jobs
Research
Export (potentials)
7

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8
Denmark
Belgium
Netherlands
France
Source EEA
Clean Drinking Water
UK
Germany

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Value of naturally pure and purified ground
water
9

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Value created by the subsector
Derived Benefits
Jobs (appr. 1,000 in public adm. and consultants)
Research; (appr. 30 people), ‘Danish Model’
Export (potentials)
10

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‘Danish Model’
Applied R & D
University
Regional
authority
EPA
Contractor
Site owner
Consultant
PROJECT
The best way to
solve the problem!

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TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND
COLLABORATIONS
Company
Country
Type of project
Bioclear
NL
Enhanced Reductive Dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes
Logisticon
NL
Enhanced Reductive Dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. Rent of bioreaktor from contractor
Geosyntec
USA
Collaboration on a number of Danish field projects, remediating chlorinated solvents: Enhanced
Reductive Dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. Biological degradation of polare solvents.
Remediation of molybdaen contamination. Electrokinetic enhanced remediation of PCE
SiREM
USA
Laboratory studies of Enhanced Reductive Dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes, free phase PCE,
polare solvents
TRIAD Env. Solutions
USA
Field laboratory, Site Characterisation in DK at 4 sites
Redox-tech
USA
Direct GeoProbe-injection for remediation by Enhanced Reductive Dehalogenation and In Situ
Chemical Oxidation
Verutek
USA
Remediation by Chemical Oxidation, S-ISCO (Surfactant enhanced in situ chemical oxidation) of PCE
and heating oil
GeoSolutions
USA
ZVI Clay v. soil mixing
remediation of free phase PCE by Chemical Oxidation
Adventus
USA
In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR) of POP (pesticides)
Sogreah /ARTELIA
FR
Partner in the Strategic European Expertise Network, SEEN
Witteween+Bos
NL
SEEN partner. Subconsultant on water as an element in modern cities
Université de Neuchâtel
CH
Laboratory analyses of stable isotopes (Chlorinated Ethenes and BTEX)
The University of Umeaa
SE
Joint EU-project with Ph.D studerende
Ivey International
USA
Laboratory tests investigating accelerated remediation of jetfuel by surfactants
Geoprobe
USA
Collaboration on develloping a new probe that combines hydraulic
and contaminant measurements
Colorado State University
USA
Collaboration on development of the ZVI-Clay technique (Soil Mixing) for remediating chlorinated
ethenes
TerraTherm
USA
Coorporation on remediation of a number of sites using, thermal technologies: ISTD, Steam and ERH

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13
Potentials for large cost savings in MANY developing and
developed countries
YES!
CAN EXPORT OF SOIL REMEDIATION COMPETENCES
POTENTIALLY CREATE SIGNIFICANT VALUE ??
Monitoring
Toxicology, exposure pathways, COC
Historical revue
Mass, flux, initial risk assessment
Site Characterization
Riskassessment and prioritisation
Risk reduction/elimination
Project oversight and documentation
Export of Soil Contamination Competences
-
Value & potentials
Site Closure

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NOT REALLY!
14
IS SOIL REMEDIATION DRIVING ECO BUSINESS ??
Concepts/knowledge is hard to export commercially
Only whealthy countries enforce the environmental
legislation
Commercial interest can drive remediation
Multinational companies with CSR
Otherwise; must be local, add competitive advantage
Export of Soil Contamination Competences
-
Value & potentials

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15
Enforcement of regulations
Demand for Best Available Technology
Consumers pushing CSR
Efficient exchange of knowledge between
contries
What would it take?

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A suggestion
Knowledge Exchange at the Public Level
Municipality
EPA
Regional
Authority
Consultant
Municipality
EPA
Regional
Authority
Consultant
SPECIFIC WELL DEFINED CHALLENGE

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PAGE
17
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