image
image
image
image
image
image
Foreword
The research project aims at establishing the gas-particle ratio of PAHs at typical
measurement locations in Saxony and at various outside temperatures over the
course of the year. For this purpose, sampling of particle-bound PAHs as per
VDI 2463, Part 11, currently applied in Saxony, is to be compared with parallel
sampling of gaseous and particulate PAHs as per DIN ISO 12884 which the EU
suggested as reference procedure in its 4th Daughter Directive.
Measurement locations
Radebeul-Wahnsdorf City outskirts
North Dresden
Inner city location
Görlitz
Inner city location
Sampling
Sampling of particulate PAHs
The air sample is drawn over 24 hours at a volume flow of 30m³/h via a PM10
sampling head through a quartz fibre filter. The sampling system is located in
a measuring container air conditioned to 20°C (Fig. 1).
Sampling of gaseous and particulate PAHs
The air sample is drawn over 24 hours at a volume flow of 30m³/h via a sampling
head (Fig. 2) through a glass-fibre filter and a downstream PU foam cartridge.
Laboratory analyses and quality assurance
PAH establishment by means of GC-MS
Using toluol, the filter and PU foam are jointly subjected to hot extraction in a
Soxhlet extractor over at least 16 hrs under fast reflux. Water is extracted with
the help of Na
2
SO
4
and the extract further concentrated. The GC-MS is cali -
brat ed against internal (deuterated) standards. Both the GC-MS and the
columns used are made by Hewlett-Packard.
PAH establishment by means of HPLC
Using toluol, a quarter filter is subjected to ultrasonic extraction. The extract is
filtered through silica gel. PAHs are then analysed using HPLC with fluorescence
detector. Calibration is effected by means of an internal standard (methylfluor an-
thene). Both the HPLC and the columns used are made by Merck-Hitachi.
Quality assurance measures
Process blank values
Recovery rates (including by deuterated standards)
Detection limits
Sampling efficiency
Certified reference material
Real sample comparison,
Gravimetric analysis of PM 10 (Fig. 3)
Comparison of calibration standards
Results
Both procedures are comparable for the purpose of the method specified in
DIN ISO 12844. The currently used HPLC procedure for benzo(a)pyrene complies
with the requirements of the 4th Daughter Directive (Fig. 4).
The analysis of coronene with HPLC reveals a noticeable systematic error as
a result of coelution.
In the gaseous phase, a significant fraction of the volatile compounds fluor-
anthene and benzo(a)anthracene is found, in particular in the summertime
(Fig. 5). Therefore only the method outlined in ISO 12844 should be used during
that time.
Acknowledgement
The project was founded by the Saxon State Office of the Environment and
Geology (Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, LfUG) under project number
13-8802.3521/52.
Fig. 1 Sampling system
Fig. 1 Sampling head
Fig. 4 Benzo(a)pyrene correlation
Fig. 3 Comparison of particulate matter concentrations
Fig. 5 Temperature dependence of fluoranthene
1 TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH, Dresden · harald.bittner@tuev-sued.de
2 Saxon State Office of the Environment and Geology, Dresden · holger.gerwig@lfug.smul.sachsen.de
Monitoring of PAHs in vapour and particle phase
at representative locations in Saxony
H. Bittner
1
, H. Gerwig
2
TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH ·
www.tuev-sued.com