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Lärmminderung bei der Beschallung von
Fil
Freiluftveranstaltungen am Beispiel
Bi ildder
„Filmnächte auf dem Theaterplatz“
in Chemnitz (FNC)
Referent:
Jörg Reiser, Abteilungsleiter
Stadt Chemnitz
Umweltamt
Untere Immissionsschutzbehörde

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Lärmminderung bei der Beschallung von
Freiluftveranstaltungen am Beispiel der
„Filmnächte auf dem Theaterplatz“
in Chemnitz (FNC)
1. Vorhabens-/Projektbeschreibung
2. Der Standort als Herausforderung
3. Die Beschallungsanlage – ein Lösungsansatz
4. Vb
Vorgaben der Bhöd
Behörde
5. Erfahrungen aus der
• Überwachung durch zugelassene Mtll
Messstelle 2011
• Eigenüberwachung durch den Veranstalter ab 2012
2

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Ausgangspunkt:
Filmnächte am Elbufer in Dresden (seit 1991)
Ziel des Veranstalters:
Durchführung von Sommerkino und
Konzerten in Chemnitz analog zu
Dresden
3
Bildquellen: Filmnächte am Elbufer

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2009
• erste Kontakte des Veranstalters mit der Stadt Chemnitz ohne konkrete
Vorstellungen, wann die Filmnächte stattfinden sollen …
• Standortvorschläge:
Hartmannplatz
Seeberplatz
Stausee Oberrabenstein
Theaterplatz
4

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5

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2010
• Konzepterstellung im Rahmen rechtlicher Vorgaben (auch zum Immissions-
schutz) vom Veranstalter vorgesehen,
Absage der Reihe, da erforderliche Unterlagen nicht erbracht,
• Entscheidung, 2011 erstes Veranstaltungsjahr
2011
• Anfang 2011 (immer) noch keine Unterlagen zur Veranstaltungsreihe
aber!!!
• Veranstalter drängt auf eine rechtsverbindliche Regelung für seine
Kinoveranstaltungen/Konzerte
• Vertrag oder Bescheid(e)???
* vertragliche Vereinbarung zur Überlassung des Theaterplatzes
* VhldV
Vorschlag des Veranstalters berücksichtigt
ükihtit u. a. Immissionsschutz
ii ht nur
ungenügend
Stadt entwickelt über das Rechtsamt einen eigenen Vertragsentwurf
6

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parallel dazu:
Prüfung der Durchführbarkeit anhand unserer Kenntnisse und ableitbaren Größen
• Anzahl der Kinovorführungen: 44
• bauliches Umfeld:
MI und WA
• unmittelbare Nähe ruheschutzbedürftiger Nutzungen (Hotels, Wohnen, …)
• Beschallungssystem:
(übliche) zentrale Frontbeschallung
• Sitzplatzanzahl:
1.000 –1.200
• Beschwerdesituation aus den 1990er Jahren
• eine Beschwerde im Vorfeld zum aktuellen Projekt
Schlussfolgerungen:
keine seltenen Ereignisse
Einhaltung der regulären Immissionsrichtwerte nach Freizeitlärmrichtlinie
Erfahrungen aus den Beschwerdesituationen sagen uns „Das geht nicht gut!!“
Prognoserechnung zeigt deutliche Überschreitung sogar der IRW für seltene
Ereignisse
Absage der Veranstaltungsreihe durch die Stadt Chemnitz
7

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!!! - trotz allem - !!!
hartnäckiger Veranstalter, der am Vorhaben festhält
… und … eine nicht zu vernachlässigende politische Komponente
der Vertrag wird weiterentwickelt
wesentliche immissionsschutzrechtliche Bestandteile (für die Machbarkeit)
• Nachweis Einhaltung IRW durch Schallschutzgutachten
• Aufgabenstellung
• Benennung der maßgeblichen IO und einzuhaltenden IRW
• Nennung zu berücksichtigender Schallquellen
wesentliche immissionsschutzrechtliche Bestandteile (für die Durchführung)
• Überwachung der Veranstaltungsreihe durch eine zugelassene
Messstelle
(g
(Einhaltung der IRW an den maßgeblichen IO)
• Einhaltung des Spitzenpegelkriteriums
• ausreichender Schutz vor tieffrequentem Schall
• verbindliche Festlegung von Beschallungs und Veranstaltungsende
8
• verbindliche Festlegung von Beschallungs- und Veranstaltungsende

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… das Gutachten liegt vor
vor… …
• betrachtet nur Kinoveranstaltungen,
• Ergebnis 1: zentrale Beschallung geht nicht,
Ergebnis 2: anderes Beschallungskonzept prognostiziert Machbarkeit
des Vorhabens
die Durchführbarkeit kann nicht mehr bezweifelt werden
Einhaltung des Vertrages fordert Überwachung der Veranstaltungsreihe
Abstimmung Behörde, Veranstalter und Messstelle zu Überwachung,
maßgebliche Messpunkte, Mess- und Speichergrößen,
konkrete Festlegungen:
* Beschallungssystem und Einpegelung durch die Messstelle,
*
Ausschluss von Aftershowpartys,
* keine Konzertveranstaltungen,
* maßgebliche IO und Ersatzmessorte,
* Speichergrößen (Schallpegel, Tonaufzeichnungen),
* Überwachungsbeginn und -ende,
*
Datenübergabe/Auswertung zu/von Vorführungen
9
Datenübergabe/Auswertung zu/von Vorführungen
Fixierung in einer Vertragsergänzung

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… 2012
… gab es einige Änderungen …
• der Vertrag wurde neu verhandelt,
• Vertragslaufzeit von 5 Jahren mit Verlängerungsoption
• Grund: Änderungen am Veranstaltungsumfang
60 Kinoveranstaltungen
2 Konzerte
Vertragsanpassungen auch immissionsschutzrechtlich erforderlich,
neues Gutachten, dass die Konzertveranstaltungen berücksichtigt,
i hti t
Einpegelung der einzelnen Veranstaltungsgenre durch Messstelle,
Eigenüberwachung durch den Veranstalter wurde zugelassen,
* damit verbunden: ein höherer Überwachungsaufwand,
Auswertung der Vorführungen
… 2013 –2015
… wurde versucht, die Vertragsregelungen weiter zu varieren,
… und weitere Veranstaltungen durchgesetzt… …
… seit
seit2016
2016
… neuer Veranstalter mit demselben Veranstaltungskonzept
10

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Lärmminderung bei der Beschallung von
Freiluftveranstaltungen am Beispiel der
„Filmnächte auf dem Theaterplatz“
in Chemnitz (FNC)
1. Vorhabens-/Projektbeschreibung
2. Der Standort als Herausforderung
3. Die Beschallungsanlage – ein Lösungsansatz
4. Vb
Vorgaben der Bhöd
Behörde
5. Erfahrungen aus der
• Überwachung durch zugelassene Mtll
Messstelle 2011
• Eigenüberwachung durch den Veranstalter ab 2012
11

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betroffene Immissionsorte (1)
einige mehrgeschossige WA-Nutzungen und MI-Wohnbereiche mit
gesetzlichem Ruheschutzanspruch
12

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betroffene Immissionsorte (2)
und Hotels sowie Einrichtungen mit eigenen Veranstaltungen
13

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Übersicht Immissions--((richt
richt))--werte entsprechend Freizeitlärmrichtlinie
GI
GE
MI/MD
WA
WR
Kurgebiete,
Seltene
Veranstal-
Industrie-
gebiet
Gewerbe-
gebiet
Dorf-/Misch-
gebiet
Allgemeines
Wohngebiet
Reines
Wohngebiet
Kranken-
häuser
tungen*
(gebietsunab-
hängig)
werktags
außerhalb
der Ruhezeit
(8 – 20 Uhr)
70
65
60
55
50
45
(70*)
werktags
innerhalb der
Ruhezeit +
sonn- und
feiertags
z. B.:
(6 8Uh
70
60
55
50
45
45
(6 - 8 Uhr,
20 - 22 Uhr)
nachts
ab 22 Uhr
70
50
45
40
35
35
(55*)
14
*Immissionswerte entsprechend Punkt 4.4.2 Freizeitlärmrichtlinie LAI vom 06.03.2015

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Open-Air-Veranstaltungen für Konzerte und Kino
erfordern
fd den Einsatz von Beschallungsanlagen
l
= lärmschutzrelevante Emissionsquellen
Aufgaben der Beschallungsanlagen
:
• Schallverstärkung,
• qualitativ hochwertige Signaltransformation (elektrisch zu akustisch),
• qualitativ hochwertige Beschallung des gesamten Zuschauerbereiches.
Lautsprecherboxen:
• Subbass oder Subwoofer (Tiefsttöner)
• Bass oder Midbass (Tieftöner)
• Top (Mittel- und Hochtöner)
• 3 – Wege Lautsprecherboxen (diese kombinieren Tieftöner mit Mittel-
und Hochtönern und decken als Hauptbeschallung praktisch den
gesamten für die Musik und die Moderation relevanten
Übertragungsbereich)
15

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Beschallungstechnik, wie man sie üblicherweise von
Open-Air-Konzerten kennt
16
Bildquellen: Musikservice Lehmann
ACS Medientechnik GmbH

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„Klassische“ Kinobeschallung
am Beispiel Elbufer in Dresden
Die Lautsprecher zur Beschallung
Die Lautsprecherboxen für den
des Publikums (PA) werden im
allgemeinen auf der Bühne und
itlihi B ihd
d
Die Lautsprecherboxen für den
Bassbereich (Tieftöner) stehen in der
Regel auf oder unter der Bühne, weil
seitlich im Bereich des vorderen
idi
F
b ihd
Bühnenrandes aufgestellt
(gestapelt oder aufgehängt).
in diesem Frequenzbereich der
Pegelverlust durch Abschirmungen
z. B. auch durch die Zuschauer und
17
durch die Bodendämpfung relativ
gering ist.

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mögliche zentrale Anordnung einer Open-Air-Beschallung
auf dem Theaterplatz
18
Quelle: Digitalisierung Akustik Bureau Dresden,
aus IMMI-Projekt-Datei

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je nach Veranstaltungsgenre muss mit einem
bestimmten mittleren Mindestversorgungspegel
L
V,min,mittel
beschallt werden
zB
. B.
L
V,min,mittel
= 89,1dB(A) Großbühnen > 500 Gäste
L
Vi
V,min,mittel
= 81,1dB(A) Kleinbühnen/Jazzbühnen
L
V,min,mittel
= 74,7dB(A) Klassik
L
V,min,mittel
= 64,3dB(A) Pausenbeschallung
• dementsprechend leistungsstarke Beschallungsanlagen
erforderlich
19

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Ergebnisse eines eigenen Prognoseansatzes
gem. Sächsischer Freizeitlärmstudie
- Rockkonzert mit Großbühnenbeschallung -
L
Vmin
=
89,1dB()
A)
L
WA
= 126,4dB(A)
(A-bewerteter Schallleistungs-
pegel der Quelle)
+ kI =
4,5dB
(Zuschlag für Impulshaltigkeit)
20

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Ergebnisse des Prognoseansatzes
„Open-Air-Kino mit zentraler Beschallung“
eine Einhaltung der IRW
nachts nach FZLR
westlich des Theaterplatzes
40 dB(A)
östlich des Theaterplatzes
45 dB(A)
ist
nicht
möglich
21

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Lärmminderung bei der Beschallung von
Freiluftveranstaltungen am Beispiel der
„Filmnächte auf dem Theaterplatz“
in Chemnitz (FNC)
1. Vorhabens-/Projektbeschreibung
2. Der Standort als Herausforderung
3. Die Beschallungsanlage – ein Lösungsansatz
4. Vb
Vorgaben der Bhöd
Behörde
5. Erfahrungen aus der
• Überwachung durch zugelassene Mtll
Messstelle 2011
• Eigenüberwachung durch den Veranstalter ab 2012
22

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Lösungsansatz für den Standort:
Vorschlag des Ingenieurbüros Akustik Bureau Dresden
• nur Kino
• mit spezieller dezentraler Beschallung
• über
236
Einzellautsprecher
mit einem Schallleistungspegel von je 75 dB(A)
23
Quelle: Digitalisierung Akustik Bureau Dresden,
aus IMMI-Projekt-Datei, IMMI-3-d-Viewer

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Prognoseergebnis
Open-Air-Kino mit dezentraler Beschallung
eine Einhaltung der IRW
nachts nach FZLR
westlich des Theaterplatzes
40 dB(A)
östlich des Theaterplatzes
45 dB(A)
ist (theoretisch) möglich
24

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Vlih
Vergleich zwischen
ih dem Rechenmodell
mit „normaler“ = zentraler Beschallung
und der Prognose mit einer
dezentralen Beschallungsanlage
gg
über 236 Einzellautsprecher
25

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Eigenschaften
hft der dezentralen Beschallung
hll
• sehr viele Lautsprecher (Kostenfaktor!),
in mehreren Ebenen/Linien angeordnet,
– damit auf der Beschallungsfläche verteilt,
– daher unterschiedlich weit vom Hörer entfernt;
• beim Hörer treffen Schallwellen zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten mit
unterschiedlichen Lautstärken und aus unterschiedlichen Richtungen
ein,
die wegstreckenbedingten Laufzeitunterschiede müssen kompensiert
werden.
d.h. …
26
d. h. …

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Erfordernis einer zeitverzögerten Ansteuerung der Laut-
sprecher zur Kompensation der Wegstreckendifferenz
• befriedigende Ortungsgenauigkeit
der Filmgeräusche,
• kein Doppelhören,
•glih
eichmäßige Lautstärken
ttäk an allen
Zuhörerplätzen,
• bessere Sprachverständlichkeit
steuerbar,
• geringe Rückkopplungsgefahr,
Lautstärke der einzelnen Systeme
kann deutlich geringer gefahren
werden
27
Hauptziel für den Schutz der Nachbarschaft

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Das Beschallungssystem
„Hauptakteure“
*
5 "/1" Koaxial Neodymium Lautsprecher
* Nennimpedanz:
16 Ohm
* Empfohlene Verstärkerleistung :
250 W
*
Frequenzgang :
90 Hz -30 kHz ±3dB
* Maximaler Schalldruck:
117 dB Peak
* Abstrahlwinkel:
90°Coaxial
*Ab
(H B T)
160
160
160
28
* Abmessungen (H x B x T):
160 mm x 160 mm x 160 mm
* Gewicht:
3,5 kg

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Lärmminderung bei der Beschallung von
Freiluftveranstaltungen am Beispiel der
„Filmnächte auf dem Theaterplatz“
in Chemnitz (FNC)
1. Vorhabens-/Projektbeschreibung
2. Der Standort als Herausforderung
3. Die Beschallungsanlage - ein Lösungsansatz
4. Vb
Vorgaben dBhöd
der Behörde
5. Erfahrungen aus der
• Überwachung durch zugelassene Mtll
Messstelle 2011
• Eigenüberwachung durch den Veranstalter ab 2012
29

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Fragen über Fragen
(Theorie
Praxis?)
Umsetzung der gutachterlichen Theorie in die Praxis
– Akzeptanz des Projektes bei den (beschwerdeführenden) Anwohnern
– Akzeptanz des Projektes bei den Besuchern
– Sind die „normalen“ Immissionsrichtwerte für Freizeitlärm an der
nächsten Wohnbebauung einhaltbar?
– Ist bei den Vorgaben des Gutachters (L
WA
≤ 75dB(A)) überhaupt noch
ein Hörgenuss für den Kinobesucher möglich?
– Auswirkungen der Fremdgeräuschbelastung auf das Vorhaben
– Überwachung der gutachterlichen Vorgaben
30
Überwachung der gutachterlichen Vorgaben

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Aufbau der Anlage
31

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