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Temporal and spatial variability of sub-μm
aerosol concentrations in the urban
atmosphere of Leipzig
Wolfram Birmili
Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig
UFIPOLNET, Dresden, 24/10/2007
S. Klose, M. Merkel, D. Hinneburg, O. Knoth, K. König, A. Sonntag (IfT),
Th. Tuch (UfZ), D. Bake (UBA),
S. Warwel, I. Panzo, A. Schacht, J. Borken (DLR)

PURAT Project (2004-2006)
• Title “
Concentration of ultrafine particles
(Dp<100 nm) in urban atmospheres: validation
of measurement techniques, experimental
determination of their tempo-spatial variation,
and microscale transport and transformation
modelling
• Explore spatial variation
of nanoparticle
concentrations within one city
• How many measurement points
are needed to
characterise population exposure?

PURAT Project (2004-2006)
Experimental set-up
Experiment
Period
Location
Length scale
No. of sites
Long-term
2 years
Leipzig
1.5 km
2
PURAT 1
2 months
Berlin
100 m - 10 km
7+1
PURAT 2
2 months
Leipzig
10 m - 1 km
3+1
PURAT 3
6 months
Leipzig
1 m - 100 m
4
PURAT 4
3 months
Leipzig
1 m - 100 m
3+1

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Particle size spectrometers (IfT Leipzig)
Simple DMPS
1 DMA; Size range 10-900 nm
Twin-DMPS
2 DMAs; Size range 3-900 nm

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Long-term measurements in a street
canyon in Leipzig (Eisenbahnstrasse)
25000 veh / day
~ 4 % Heavy-
Duty Lorries
Narrow canyon
Almost complete
closure to traffic
during 6 months

image
Diurnal & weekly cycles of
particle number (40-120 nm)
Time of day (h)
Time of day (h)

Effect of street closure
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
0
4000
8000
12000
16000
20000
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
0
20
40
60
80
100
N
0.03-0.1
N
0.03-0.1
, cm
-3
Tage ab 1.1.2002
V
0.8
V
0.8
, μm
3
cm
-3
STREET OPEN
(> 20000 veh/day)
STREET CLOSED
(< 500 veh/day)
-50 %
-28 %

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UFP number emission factor also depends on
temperature here!
Ambient temperature (°C)

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PURAT-1
measurement stations:
7 permanent, 1 mobile,
duration: 2 months
2 km

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PURAT-1
measurement stations

Snapshot: Ambient size distributions
at 7 stations during 1 morning rush hour
10
100
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
+ 4 urban
background
stations
roadside III
(~ 8000 veh/day)
roadside II
(~ 50000 veh/day)
roadside I
(~ 80000 veh/day)
d
N
/ dlog
D
p
, cm
-3
D
p
, nm

N. METZ, G. RESCH, A. WIEDENSOHLER, H. HERRMANN, TH. M.
TUCH, B. WEHNER, D. ROSE, C. ENGLER, T. GNAUK, E.
BRÜGGEMANN, U. FRANCK (2004),
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROSOL PARTICLES FROM DIESEL
EXHAUST AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT, J.Aerosol Sci, S 391-392.
1
10
100
1000
1E+005
1E+006
1E+007
1E+008
1E+009
1E+010
T = 40°C
T = 100°C
T = 150°C
T = 200°C
T = 250°C
T = 300°C
T = 350°C
Number size distribution on dN/dlnD
p
[cm
-3
]
Mobility Equivalent Diameter D
p
[nm]
1
10
100
1000
1E+005
1E+006
1E+007
1E+008
1E+009
1E+010
T = 40°C
T = 100°C
T = 150°C
T = 200°C
T = 250°C
T = 300°C
T = 350°C
Number size distribution on dN/dlnD
p
[cm
-3
]
Mobility Equivalent Diameter D
p
[nm]
1
10
100
1000
1E+005
1E+006
1E+007
1E+008
1E+009
1E+010
T = 40°C
T = 100°C
T = 150°C
T = 200°C
T = 250°C
T = 300°C
T = 350°C
Number size distribution on dN/dlnD
p
[cm
-3
]
Mobility Equivalent Diameter D
p
[nm]
1
10
100
1000
1E+005
1E+006
1E+007
1E+008
1E+009
1E+010
1
10
100
1000
1E+005
1E+006
1E+007
1E+008
1E+009
1E+010
T = 40°C
T = 100°C
T = 150°C
T = 200°C
T = 250°C
T = 300°C
T = 350°C
Number size distribution on dN/dlnD
p
[cm
-3
]
Mobility Equivalent Diameter D
p
[nm]
Differenzspektrum und Motorenprüfstand
10
100
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
+ 4 urban
background
stations
roadside III
(~ 8000 veh/day)
roadside II
(~ 50000 veh/day)
roadside I
(~ 80000 veh/day)
d
N
/ dlog
D
p
, cm
-3
D
p
, nm
Comparison with dynamometer tests
Soot
Unburned fuel

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
cm
-3
time of day (h)
UB I
UB II
RS I
UB III
RS II
UB IV
Rural
RS IV (temp)
RS V (temp)
UB V (temp)
Diurnal average cycles of
particle number (40-120 nm) at 10 sites in Leipzig

111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
0
10
20
30
40
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
0
1x10
4
2x10
4
3x10
4
4x10
4
Julian Date 2005
V < 470 nm
μm
3
cm
-3
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8c
N(10-40 nm)
cm
-3
Particle number and volume during PURAT-1

3
10
100
800
8a
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
d
N
/ dlog
D
p
, cm
-3
Particle diameter in nm
200.0
321.2
517.0
832.4
1337
2152
3464
5563
8955
1.442E4
2.315E4
3.727E4
6E4
3
10
100
800
10
100
500
Particle diameter in nm
3
10
100
800
7
10
100
900
Particle diameter in nm
3
10
100
800
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
7
10
100
900
Particle diameter in nm
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
10
100
500
roadside
roadside
roadside
rural
urban background
urban background
urban background
urban background
Size distributions on 11/4/2005 (Monday)

-100
0
100
200
300
400
Rural
UB V
(temp)
UB III
RS V
(temp)
UB I
RS IV
(temp)
RS I
RS II
UB IV UB II
RS III
(temp)
Increment (%) compared to station UB III
N[10-40]
N[40-120]
N[120-500]
V(<500 nm)
Differences in mean particle concentrations

image
Inter-site correlations (R
2
) during PURAT-1

image
Dispersion modelling with ASAM

Conclusions
• Intensive field experiments confirmed large
variations of UFPs within the same urban
atmosphere
• Distance and orientation towards traffic sources
were crucial for station mean values
• Topography and meteorology are crucial for
ambient concentrations at high time resolution
Report available
Birmili W. et al. Konzentration ultrafeiner luftgetragener Partikel (< 100 nm) in
städtischen Atmosphären87 S., Abschlussbericht UFOPLAN-Projekt 20442204/03,
Umweltbundesamt, Dessau, 11. April 2007.

Birmili, W., K. Schepanski, A. Ansmann, G. Spindler, I. Tegen, B. Wehner, A. Nowak, E. Reimer, I. Mattis, K. Müller, E. Brüggemann, T.
Gnauk, H. Herrmann, A. Wiedensohler, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, T. Tuch, and G. Löschau (2007) An episode of extremely high PM
concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine.
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss
.
7
:12231-12288.
Voigtländer, J., T. Tuch, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler. Correlation between traffic density and particle size distribution in a street
canyon and the dependence on wind direction.
Atmos. Chem. Phys
.,
6
:4275-4286, 2006.
Kulmala, M., Vehkamäki, H., Petäjä, T., Dal Maso, M., Lauri, A., Kerminen, V.-M., Birmili, W. and McMurry, P. H. Formation and growth
rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: A review of observations.
J. Aerosol Sci
.,
35
, 143-176, 2004.
Birmili, W., H. Berresheim, C. Plass-Dülmer, T. Elste, S. Gilge, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Uhrner. The Hohenpeissenberg aerosol formation
experiment (HAFEX): a long-term study including size-resolved aerosol, H2SO4, OH, and monoterpenes measurements.
Atmos. Chem.
Phys
.,
3
:361–376, 2003.
Wehner, B., W. Birmili, T. Gnauk, and A. Wiedensohler. Particle number size distributions in a street canyon and their transformation into
the urban background: Measurements and a simple model study.
Atmos. Env
.,
36
:2215–2223, 2002.
Birmili, W., A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, and K. Lehmann. Atmospheric particle number size distribution in Central Europe:
Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology.
J. Geophys. Res.
,
D23
:32,005–32,018, 2001.
Birmili, W. and A. Wiedensohler. New particle formation in the continental boundary layer: Meteo-rological and gas phase parameter
influence.
Geophys. Res. Lett
.,
27
:3325–3328, 2000.
Birmili, W., A. Wiedensohler, C. Plass-Dülmer, and H. Berresheim. Evolution of newly formed aerosol particles in the continental
boundary layer: A case study including OH and H2SO4 measurements.
Geophys. Res. Letters
,
27
:2205–2209, 2000.
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operation.
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die Entwicklung von Empfehlungen zu ihrer systematischen Überwachung in Deutschland
. 93 S.,
UBA-Texte,
No. 26/06, document
available as
www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3114.pdf
, 2006
.
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Transformationsmodellierung
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Literature