ResiBil – Bilance vodních zdrojů ve východní části česko-saského
pohraničí a hodnocení možnosti jejich dlouhodobého užívání
ResiBil - Wasserressourcenbilanzierung und –resilienzbewertung
im deutsch-tschechischen Grenzraum
Geology of the Saxonian and Bohemian
of May 2017
nur für den Dienstgebrauch
Excursion was guided by
Dr. Frank Horna
Material was composed and translated by
Bohemian Cretaceous sandstone rocks in the Elbe River valley - View from
Belveder to the Southwest (Photo: ResiBil project)
Palaeogeography, depositional environment conditions and integrated stratigraphy of the
Saxonian Cretaceous (Elbtal Group, Cenomanian to Coniacian) are described formation-
wise following the current lithostratigraphy and the succession is placed in a regional context.
The Elbtal Group formed in a narrow strait between the Mid-European Island in the
southwest and the Lausitz Block in the northeast (West Sudetic or Lusatian Island). During
the Late Cretaceous period, the Elbtal Group was situated in an important intermediate
position between the temperate Boreal in the north and the Tethyan warm water areas in the
south, and it shows a strong relationship in terms of litho- and biofacies to contemporaneous
deposits and fauna of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Lithologically, the Elbtal Group
consists of marine sandstones, calcareous siltstones (“Pläner”), marls and marly limestones
which are in part very rich in fossils. The overall sequence describes a transgressive–
regressive megacycle with maximum flooding in the late Middle Turonian. Although
sedimentation allegedly persisted into the later part of the Late Cretaceous, the youngest
strata preserved today, dated into the Middle Coniacian. The rich fauna of the Cenomanian
to Coniacian stages form the basis of the present fossil compendium.
Simplified stratigraphic sketch of the Saxonian Cretaceous Basin from the basinal facies of Dresden to
the coastal sandstones of the Elbsandstein Mountains, From: Voigt (1995).
Lithostratigraphy of Cretaceous deposits in Saxony and correlation with the Bohemian Cretaceous.
From: VOIGT (2007).
Petrography of the Saxonian cretaceous from the basin facies (Dresden-Pirna) to the marginal facies
(Elbsandsteingebirge, Zittauer Gebirge), From: VOIGT et al. (2012).
Facies map of Upper Cenomanian, From: VOIGT (2007).
Facies map of Lower Turonian/ basal Middle Turonian (Labiatus sandstone. From: VOIGT (2007).
Facies map of the higher Middle Turonian/ Upper Turonian. From: VOIGT (2007).
Facies map of the higher Upper Turonian/ Lower Conacian. From: VOIGT (2007).
Correlation of the Lower Turonian in Saxony on the base of borehole descriptions. The vertical extent of
the profiles is not true to scale (does not correspond to the thickness) but to the extent of the
biostratigraphic zones. The chronological extent of the biozones is not known. From: VOIGT et al. (2012).
Facies correlation of the Lower Turonian in Saxony. From: VOIGT (2007).
Excursion stops in Saxony
1. Kaiserkrone point with a view to Schrammstein Massif
2. Hockstein lookout point near Hohnstein
Fig. 10: Excursion stops in Saxony (In the background: Topographic map Staatsbetrieb Geobasisinformation und
Vermessung Sachsen (GeoSN):
Saxony - Stop 1
Kaiserkrone point with a view to Schrammstein Massif. The Kaiserkrone is
situated NW of Schöna close to the Bahnhofstraße, that proceeds down to the
Elbe valley and left-elbian train stations of Schmilka-Hirschmühle and Schöna.
Turonian Postelwitz Formation (sandstones c1 – c3) and upper Turonian to
lower Coniacian Schrammstein Formation (sandstones d and e); at
Kaiserkrone only up to sandstone d (lower part), at Schrammsteinblick up to
Fig. 11: Geomorphology and lithostratigraphy of the Saxonian Switzerland. a) view from the northern peak of the
Kaiserkrone towards the Schrammstein Massif with indication of sandstone units, marker beds and
formations. b) schematic cross-section from the Kaiserkrone to the Großer Winterberg.
γ3 horizon at
the Kaiserkrone. (From: WILMSEN & NIEBUHR 2014)
The Kaiserkrone is a typically small scaled table mountain of the Elbsandstein mountains
that is strongly eroded. Its peak is subdivided into three single peaks by NNW/SSE striking
joint sets, giving the peak a crown-like shape from a distance. The Kaiserkrone has an
elevation of 354 m. It is easier to climb than the directly southward Zirkelstein (384 m).
Further, the northern peak provides a remarkable view to the Schrammstein-Winterberg area
where Lamprecht (1928, 1934) elaborated the classical formation of the rear Saxonian
Switzerland and the subdivision into the sandstones a to e (Fig. 11 a). Besides, the wood
covered hillside of the Kaiserkrone consist of the Upper Postelwitz Formation (sandstone
c1 – c3), where the top (“crown”) comprises thick bedded, coarse-grained sandstones of the
sandstone d of the Lower Schrammstein Formation, which also contain portions of fine
gravel (Fig. 11 b). Note the distinctive marker horizon γ3 that is situated between sandstone
c3 of the Upper Postelwitz Formation and the sandstone d of the Lower Schrammstein
Formation (Fig. 11 c), composed of a fine-grained matrix which is less cemented and forms
distinctive gaps or caves due to the erosive propagation (note the granular material
Fig. 12: Distal–proximal correlation of the Strehlen Limestone (lower Strehlen Formation, mid-Upper Turonian)
with the Zeichen Clay (facies transition zone) and the γ3 horizon (Saxonian Switzerland) at the base of
the Schrammstein Formation as a result of a maximum flooding zone; TST = transgressive systems
tract, HST = highstand systems tract. Strehlen section after Tröger & Wolf (1960). From: WILMSEN &
Many places exhibit alum weathering with its characteristic "Eating wounds", which are
recognizable by the fresh, yellowish color of the sandstones. At the level of the γ3 horizon, a
circular path leads around the three peaks of the Kaiserkrone. From the northern summit, the
Postelwitz formation can be recognized very nicely at the remaining “Postelwitz quarries” in
the geological profile at the slope of the Elbe river (especially sandstone a1 – a3, that were
excavated as „Postaer Sandstein“; Fig. 11 a). The Schrammstein Massif is formed by
approximately 50 - 60 m high, perpendicular rock walls of the sandstone d of the Lower
Schrammstein Formation above the γ3 horizon. About 20 m below the peaks occurs another
gap (δ2 horizon), which delineates the sandstone e of the Schrammstein Formation
(Fig. 11 a), more often visible through the overgrown parts. The δ2 horizon comprises an
approximately 4 m thick interval of thin-bedded, bioturbate fine-grained sandstones. The
sandstone e reaches at least a thickness of 80 m at the Great Winterberg, while
approximately 20 m are remaining at the “Schrammsteine” that form the top of the summit
range. Only a few mountain tops of the Elbsandsteingebirge such as the Lilienstein and the
Pfaffenstein have kept remains of the sandstone e.
The stratigraphic boundary between the Postelwitz and the Schrammstein Formation
constitutes a significant Upper Turonian marker horizon: The γ3 horizon represents a major
transgressive event (well sorted, fine-grained marine quartz arenites) that correlates with the
Strehlen and Weinböhlaer Limestone of the basin profiles of the Dresden area, and in
addition with the Hyphantoceras event and the Zeichen Clay in the facies transition area
(SEIFERT 1955, VOIGT 1994, TRÖGER & WEJDA 1997, JANETSCHKE & WILMSEN 2014, Fig. 12).
The coarse-grained sandstones of the lower Schrammstein Formation mainly consist of
quartz (with partly reddish color) but exhibit a poorly textural maturity (poorly sorting and
roundness). Regarding the depositional environment, a coastal facies together with short
transport of the detritus from the Lusatian Block can be observed. High sedimentation rates
and therefore fast burial inhibited any further marine maturation of the coastal sand deposits.
That led to the assumption of high subsidence in the area of the Lusatian Thrust and
corresponding syn-sedimentary tectonics.
Further, the δ2 horizon shows an additional transgressional event affecting the coarse-
grained coastal facies of the Schrammstein Formation. This is presumably an event of the
Lowermost Coniacian, in particular when the correlation of the δ2 horizon with the Zatschke
Marl is taken into account.
The presence of inoceramids of the Cremnoceramus-Waltersdorfensis and Cremnoceramus-
deformis groups of the Lower Coniacian in the Zatzschke Marl near Pirna-Zatzschke is
assured. However, sandstones c, d and e of the Schrammstein-Winterberg area only contain
minor amounts of biostratigraphically useful fossils. All the important index fossils of the
Upper Postelwitz Formation and the Schrammstein Formation, with the Lower Coniacian
index-inoceramid Cremnoceramus inconstans from the borehole Rathewalde (TRÖGER
2008), derived from the transition area of the sandy to the marly lithofacies between Pirna -
Wehlen - Rosenthal - Bielatal (see TRÖGER & VOIGT IN NIEBUHR et al. 2007, TRÖGER &
Saxony - Stop 2
Hockstein lookout point near Hohnstein. The Hockstein lookout is a cliff
situated on the western slope of the Polenz valley. From the parking lot below
the “Hocksteinschänke” a signposted hiking trail heading southeast to the
Polenz valley. Across the Devil´s Bridge you can reach the Hockstein lookout
point on top of a bluff.
Upper Turonian to Lower Coniacian Schrammstein Formation
Fig. 13: View from the Hockstein to the village of Hohnstein (Foto: ResiBil project).
The Hockstein consists of an articulated platform, whose almost vertical walls reign 100 m
above the Polenz valley (Fig. 14). On the other side of the valley dominates the castle of
Hohnstein surrounded by the village of Hohnstein to the NE (Fig. 13). From there, the
Mühlbergstraße runs down in narrow bends to the Polenz valley and climbs up as
Wartenbergstraße to the Hocksteinschänke. In 1958, the Lusatian Thrust was excavated
during road works on the western side of the valley (Rast 1959). The Lusatian granodiorite
was encountered in shallow NE-dipping tectonic contact with strongly jointed and silicified
Turonian sandstones. Moreover, RAST (1959: 114) described a 20 to 30 cm thick zone of a
"gray, silty, smeary substance" as product of "strongest pressing and grinding of the granite".
In addition to this presumed mylonite, slickensides are also very frequent in the sandstones
of the immediate surrounding, indicating the enormous stresses in a reverse fault.
Unfortunately, the outcrop conditions and the accessibility of the profile at the
Wartenbergstraße are severely restricted at the moment. Repeatedly, the sandstones of the
Postelwitz and Schrammstein Formations near the Lusatian Thrust, are comprising
intercalated matrix-rich breccia and conglomerates with gravel-sized components. Hence,
indicating an increased topography in the vicinity and the availability of coarse clasts. The
components are Jurassic limestones, limonite concretions, quartz, red siltstones and limonitic
sandstone (HÄNTZSCHEL 1928, SEIFERT 1937, VOIGT 2009). Further, those elements pinch out
to the west and therefore indicating an origin from the Lusatian block. Geomorphologically,
the lithological change at the Lusatian Thrust is impressively demonstrated by the shape of
the Polenz valley. In the northern part, the "Granitic Polenz valley" shows gentle slopes and
an extended, meadow covered valley floor. Downstream to the south, the character changes
rapidly to a canyon with steeply dipping walls. In the process, this narrow "Sandstone Polenz
valley" carved out the sandstones d and e of the Schrammstein Formation (Upper Turonian
to Lower Coniacian).
Fig. 14: Simplified geological map of the Hohnstein area (after RAST 1959) with position of the Hocksteinaussicht.
From: WILMSEN & NIEBUHR 2014.
VOIGT (2009) mentioned, that the Lusatian Thrust as north-east limiting structural element of
the Saxonian Cretaceous Basin has been active since the late Cenomanian. Debris flow
deposits in the sandstone rocks of the Postelwitz and Schrammstein Formations show,
however, that the elevation and erosion of the Lusatian Block and the flexural subsistence of
the edged trough is supposed to be intensified in the mid-Turonian stage. Until the early
Coniacian mostly sedimentary cover was eroded in Lusatia (VOIGT 2009, HOFMANN et al.
2013). Also, the absence of layers which are younger than Coniacian age imply only
speculative statements over the further course of the basin evolution. But it is assumed that
recent 1000 m thick cover of the Cretaceous was substantially larger (VOIGT 2009), further
expecting a similar chronological sequence for the Lusatian Thrust as like the “Harznordrand
Fault” with an apex in the Santonian and Campanian (see: VOIGT et al. 2006).
HÄNTZSCHEL, W. (1928): Neue Aufschlüsse an der Lausitzer Hauptverwerfung bei Hohnstein
(Sächs. Schweiz). – N. Jb. Mineral. Geol. Paläont., Beil.-Bd. 59, Abt. B: 80–116.
HOFMANN, M., LINNEMANN, U. & VOIGT, T. (2013): The Upper Cretaceous section at Schmilka
in Saxony (Elbsandsteingebirge, Germany) – syntectonic sedimentation and inverted
zircon age populations revealed by LA-ICP-MS U/Pb data. – Geol. Sax., 59: 101–130,
JANETSCHKE, N. & WILMSEN, M. (2014): Sequence stratigraphy of the lower Upper
Cretaceous Elbtal Group (Cenomanian – Turonian of Saxony, Germany). – Z. dt.
Ges. Geowiss., 165: 179–208, Stuttgart.
LAMPRECHT, F. (1928): Schichtenfolge und Oberflächenformen im Winterberggebiete des
Elbsandsteingebirges. – Mitt. Ver. Erdkunde, Jg. 1927: 1 – 48, Dresden.
LAMPRECHT, F. (1934): Die Schichtlagerung des Turons im sächsisch-böhmischen
Elbsandsteingebirge. – Ber. mathem. phys. Kl. sächs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig, 86: 155–
RAST, H. (1959): Geologischer Führer durch das Elbsandsteingebirge. – Bergakademie
Freiberg Fernstudium: 1–224, Berlin (Dt. Verl. Wiss.).
SEIFERT, A. (1937): Die Gerölle im Turon-Sandstein entlang der Lausitzer Überschiebung im
Elbsandsteingebirge. – Z. dt. geol. Ges., 89: 629–647, Berlin.
SEIFERT, A. (1955): Stratigraphie und Paläogeographie des Cenoman und Turons im
sächsischen Elbtalgebiet. – Freiberger Forsch.-H., C 14: 1–218, Freiberg.
TRÖGER, K.-A. & WEJDA, M. (1997): Biostratigraphie der Strehlener Formation (Ob. Turon bis
Unt.-Coniac) im Gebiet von Dresden. – Freiberger Forsch.-H., C 466: 1–17, Freiberg.
TRÖGER, K.-A. & VOIGT, T. (2007): Elbtal-Gruppe. – In: NIEBUHR, B., HISS, M., KAPLAN, U.,
TRÖGER, K.-A., VOIGT, S., VOIGT, T., WIESE, F. & WILMSEN, M. (Eds.),
Lithostratigraphie der norddeutschen Oberkreide. Schrift-R. dt. Ges. Geowiss., 55:
TRÖGER, K.-A. (2008): Kreide – Oberkreide. – In: PÄLCHEN, W. & WALTER, H. (Eds.): Geologie
von Sachsen. 311–358; Stuttgart.
TRÖGER, K.A. & NIEBUHR, B. (2014): Inoceramide Muscheln. – In: NIEBUHR, B. & WILMSEN, M.
(Eds.): Kreide-Fossilien in Sachsen, Teil 1. Geol. Sax, 60(1): 169–199, Dresden.
VOIGT, T. (1995): Faziesentwicklung und Ablagerungssequenzen am Rand eines
Epikontinentalmeeres – die Sedimentationsgeschichte der Sächsischen Kreide. –
Diss., TU Bergakademie Freiberg: 1–130, Freiberg.
VOIGT, S., GALE, A.S. & VOIGT, T. (2006): Sea-level changes, carbon cycling and
palaeoclimate during the Late Cenomanian of northwest Europe; an integrated
palaeoenvironmental analysis. – Cret. Res., 27: 836–858, Amsterdam.
VOIGT, T. (2007): Die geologische Entwicklung der Elbtalkreide. - In: SIEDEL, H., FRANZEN, C.
& WEISE, S. (Eds.): Elbsandstein – Beiträge zur Tagung des Arbeitskreises zur
Erhaltung von Kulturgütern aus Stein (ARKUS) am 14./15. Juni 2007 in Dresden: 3–
Inversionsstruktur: Geologische Hinweise aus den umgebenden Kreidebecken. – Z.
geol. Wiss., 37: 15–39, Berlin.
VOIGT, T., FRANKE, J. & FRANKE, S. (2012): Kenntnisstandsanalyse zur Stratigraphie und
Lithologie der Hinteren Sächsischen Schweiz. Erste Korrelations- und Messdaten. –
GRACE Zwischenbericht, Jena.
VOIGT, T., FRANKE, J. & FRANKE, S. (2012): Excursion Materials. Saxonian Cretaceous Basin.
Stratigraphy of the Elbsandsteingebirge. – EU-Project GRACE Excursion 27-11-2012.
VOIGT, T., FRANKE, J. & FRANKE, S. (2013): Grundlagen für ein geologisch-tektonisches
Modell der Kreideablagerungen im Sächsisch-Böhmischen Grenzbereich im Rahmen
des Ziel 3 – Projektes GRACE. – Abschlussbericht, Jena.
WILMSEN, M. & NIEBUHR, B. (2014): Stratigraphy and depositional setting of the Cretaceous in
Saxony (Elbtal Group, Cenomanian – Lower Coniacian) - Geologica Saxonia., 60 (2):
Česká geologická služba
Czech Republic – Stop 1
Belveder. It is a panoramatic viewpoint at the top of sandstone plateau on the
eastern bank of Elbe river. The viewpoint is situated near the Hotel Belveder,
west of Labská Stráň village.
Bílá Hora (power part) and Jizera (upper part of the section) Formations of
presumably middle Turonian age. Boundary surface covering pavement of the
Belveder locality is located north of Děčín, in the upper part of a canyon-like Elbe River
valley, on its right bank near the village of Labská stráň (Elbleiten). The valley is lined in its
upper part by continuous, up to 75 m high rock walls, made up mainly of sandstones
belonging to the Bílá Hora Formation or Schmilka Formation, respectively, the uppermost
level of the valley being represented by sandstones of the Jizera Formation/Postelwitz
Formation. The Belveder locality lies in the vicinity of a scenic terrace viewpoint situated on a
flat top of a high rock block, at 160 m above the Elbe River level. The construction of the
terrace was ordered by the prince Francis Charles Clary-Aldringen in the 18
terrace could be accessed by a straight lane-lined road leading from a nearby castle in the
Bynovec/Binsdorf village. Adjacent to the terrace is a small sala terrena (garden pavilion)
hewn in a several-meters high rock wall, overtopping the viewpoint terrace. The latter served
not only as a viewpoint but also as a gathering place for prince´s guests listening to the
performing orchestra, sitting in the sala terrena.
Fig. 15: A surface in the top wall of coarse-grained Bílá Hora sandstone with numerous Thalassinoides-type
bioturbation structures. The Belveder scenic terrace viewpoint.
The visitors of the locality can study the boundary between the Bílá Hora and Jizera
Formations. The boundary is sharp and morphologically marked in the field by a rock step.
The surface of the Belveder viewpoint plateau coincides with an uneven sedimentary surface
representing the top of the Bílá Hora Formation, marked by a ferricrete and burrows of
Thalassinoides type (Fig. 15). The middle and upper parts of the Formation are made up by
hard, silicified medium to coarse quartz sandstones with an admixture of fine-conglomerate
fraction locally concentrated into sharp, up to several decimeters thick interlayers. The Bílá
Hora sandstones typically exhibit mainly tabular cross bedding. The sets of these sandstones
are about 1 m thick and commonly form co-sets. The dip of the laminae in the cross bedded
units trends mostly WNW, occasionally SE or even E. This development can be well-
observed along a steep path leading from the viewpoint terrace down to the Elbe River. The
coarse sandstones of the Bílá Hora Formation are sharply overlain by yellowish grey, well-
sorted, fine- to medium-grained sandstones of the basal section of the Jizera Formation.
They crop out along with sala terrena near the east margin of the viewpoint plateau. They are
intensely bioturbated and thoroughly lack any current structures. The network of cylindrical,
branching bioturbation structures classified as ichnogenus Thalassinoides is so conspicuous
in forming a dominant fabric so that it can be described as “Thalassinoides event” (Fig. 16).
Fig. 16: Fine- to medium-grained, well sorted sandstones of lowermost part of the Jizera Formation. They exhibit
a dense burrow system of the Thalassinoides-type ichnogenus. The wall of sala terrena near the
Belveder scenic terrace viewpoint.
The boundary between the Bílá Hora and Jizera Formations indicates a short depositional
break, a termination of a dynamic sedimentation influenced by activity of strong bottom
currents and by onset of relatively calm, fine sandy material sedimentation accompanied by
intense bioturbation activity of decapods. The development of lithological boundary at
Belveder is typical and easy to correlate both in outcrops and in borehole logs in the
Bohemian-Saxon Switzerland west, as well as east of the Elbe canyon.
Czech Republic – Stop 2 and 3 - Introduction and geological framework
Fig. 17: Overview map showing location of stops 2 and 3 within Sloup rock city, located to the SE from Nový Bor.
Blue line indicate correlation cross-section presented in Fig. 19.
Sloup rock city, located in the NE-part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, in the N-part of
the hydrogeological region 4650. Most of the area is covered by deposits of Březno and
Teplice Fms., Coniacian by age, except for the SE- part of the Fig. 17, where Upper Turonian
deposits of the Jizera Fm. crop out. Stratigraphic position of the area of interest is illustrated
by Fig. 18. The present-day structure of the BCB has been significantly affected by post-
depositional tectonism, especially in the area of interest. As evidenced by well log-based
genetic-stratigraphic correlation (Fig. 17), an array of normal fault is expected to be present
on the NW-margin of the Sloup rock city, dividing two structural units, Lasvice Horst in the
SE, and Nový Bor Graben in the NW, respectively. The latest significant deformation of the
basin infill was caused by several phases of Oligo-Miocene extensional faulting due to
formation of the Eger Graben (cf. RAJCHL et al. 2009, ULIČNÝ et al. 2011).
Fig. 18: Stratigraphy and lithofacies development of the NW-part of the BCB with indication of stratigraphic
interval recorded by boreholes commented in the text. Explanations to stratigraphy: 1) regional
lithostratigraphy after ČECH et al. (1980); 2) informal litostratigraphy after SOUKUP (1955); 3) genetic
stratigraphy (ULIČNÝ et al. 2009, 2015); 4) chronostratigraphy
Nový Bor Graben represents a marginal part of more extensive subsided structure,
traditionally termed Benešov “syncline”. The Upper Cretaceous deposits in this structural low
reach up to 1000 m, forming the thickest sequence within the entire BCB.
Most of the Březno Fm. is formed by coarse clastic deposits of the Březno Fm. (Coniacian),
attributed to lithofacies group traditionally labelled as „quader“ sandstone (
1850). Coarse-grained deposits of the Březno Fm. overlie several tens of meters (180 m as
evidenced by borehole 4650_A Skalice, to the W from the area of interest) thick fine-grained
sequence composed of calcareous claystones and siltstones or marlstones. This sequence
comprise, in places, few tens of meters thick alteration of fine-grained quartzose and
argillaceous sandstones with mudstones/siltstones, termed „flyschoid“, or heterolithic facies,
VALEČKA (1979a) claimed that (“quader-“) sandstones and coeval fine-grained facies were
deposited in a shallow-water environment of an epicontinental sea with minimum seabed
topography. VALEČKA (1979b) discussed a possible barrier island formation as a result of
high clastic supply, presence of favourable current regime and a higher subsidence. On the
basis of analysis of sedimentary structures, outcrop- and basin-scale depositional
architecture, ULIČNÝ (2001) and ULIČNÝ et al. (2009) interpreted most of the Turonian and
early Coniacian sandstone bodies in the northern and NW-part of the BCB as the deposits of
coarse-grained deltas. However, origin of (“quader-“) sandstones bodies in the area of
interest was not discussed in this work.
Fig. 19: Cross-section illustrating tectonic deformation of area in the vicinity of Nový Bor. Nový Bor and Tlustec
Graben comprising young, Coniacian fill, are divided by NE‒SW-oriented Lasvice Horst. Presence of an
array of normal faults crossing the area of Sloup (NW margin of Sloup rock city) has been verified by
borehole 4650_F. Modified after NÁDASKAY & ULIČNÝ (2014) and ULIČNÝ et al. (2015).
As for the so-called „flyschoid“ facies, VALEČKA & REJCHRT (1973) and ČECH et al. (1987)
assumed that its deposition resulted from periodical changes of current velocity during the
basinward transport of the clastic material, although they conceded a marginal possibility of
turbidity current action as well. VALEČKA (1984) supposed that transport of sand into areas of
dominantly fine-grained deposition required the activity of occasional extreme storm events,
although he considered amalgamated sets of sandstone as possible turbidites. In the
depositional models of ULIČNÝ (2001) and ULIČNÝ et al. (2003a, 2009a), the heterolithic
facies occupies the bottomset area of coarse-grained deltas and is interpreted as prodelta
deposits with a significant influence of gravity flows caused by floods in the fluvio-deltaic
According to Nádaskay & Uličný (2014) relatively coarse-grained quartzose (“quader”)
sandstones, are interpreted as foreset packages deposited by progradation of deltaic
depositional systems, seaward from the faulted edge of the basin. The thickness of the
foreset package was used by ULIČNÝ (2001) to estimate minimum water depth available for
progradation, with steep, high-angle foresets (H-type) typically associated with deep-water,
Gilbert-type deltas, and the low-angle foresets (L-type) with shallow-water deltas. Correlation
of outcrops to subsurface data in the Sloup v Čechách and Svojkov areas indicate a
maximum thickness of a contiguous foreset package as much as 90 m, suggesting a depth
of at least 90 m at the topset edge, most probably increasing downdip. The deposition on the
prograding delta fronts was dominated by an interplay of two processes: (1) the primary
deposition by gravity flows and (2) their subsequent reworking by ambient currents. Whereas
the gravity-current deposits (represented by chute-channel fills) within foresets contain the
coarsest part of the load carried by the sandy gravity flows, finer-grained parts stayed
suspended longer and were deposited beyond the delta toes, forming the heterolithic
Fig. 20: Summary chart of the facies assemblages of individual geometric types of deltas and their depositional
environments with respect to the proposed depositional model (Fig. 7). Inset sketches illustrate the
principal features of the type-H and type-L foreset packages, with numbers of individual lithofacies
shown in cross-sections. The box at the bottom shows simplified examples of mutual relationships of H-
and L-type foreset packages in dip-parallel cross-sections, and a schematic well-log response (GR –
Czech Republic – Stop 2
Exposures of Coniacian sandstones in Sloup v Čechách village. Section Sloup
rock castle is located in the western part of Sloup rock city in Sloup village.
Březno Formation in sandstone development of early to middle Coniacian age.
The solitary rock under the Sloup Castle represents a typical exposure of H-type delta slope
foresets. As evident from the photomosaic (Fig. 21), the section consists of southwest (220°)
dipping foresets in a relatively steep inclination (15-20°), with large erosive chute channels
incised in them at several places. In some cases, only backsets were deposited, without the
underlying foresets being eroded. The middle part of the section exhibits a largest one
among the slope troughs running across the whole section and besides the foresets, it cuts
in its upper part the underlying, smaller erosional trough as well. The original backset
lamination is absent, in some cases the slope trough being filled then with massive coarse
sandstone having a sizeable admixture of a material coarser than 2 mm, including labile
clasts. Unlike the foresets made up of fine- to medium sandstones, they are considerably
As shown by the correlation cross-section (Fig. 19) the exposure below the Sloup castle
belongs to a huge, ca. 90 m thick complex of deltaic bodies, reached in the nearby Chotovice
borehole 480751. Presence of both the foresets marked by sub-parallel lamination (and by
subordinate occurrence of trough cross-bedding), plus the backsets and genetically akin
erosional troughs indicates this deltaic body having been deposited in an upper-flow regime.
The exposures spread all over the nearby Sloup rock city show a very similar character as
those occurring below the rock castle. The Dědovy kameny locality serves as a good
example (Fig. 21).
Fig. 21: Photomosaic of H-type foreset package (locality Rock Castle, Sloup v Čechách) interpreted as a part of
the Sloup Rock City delta, sequence CON 2/3. The inclination of foresets (~15°) in the oblique cross-
section is lower than the real dip angle. Black arrow: dip direction (220°), gray arrow: orientation of the
outcrop wall (275°). Parallel-bedded foreset strata are cut by an irregularly eroded floor of the chute
channel that was modified during filling by a succession of cyclic steps (backset strata). Note the
transition from sharply onlapping backsets into aggrading, sub-parallel bedding conformable with the
slope. Scale varies laterally due to perspective.
Czech Republic – Stop 3
Exposures of Coniacian sandstones around the Slavíček hill (near Svojkov
village). Section Dědovy kameny (Old man' rocks) is located in the eastern
part of the Sloup rock city near Svojkov village.
Březno Formation in sandstone development of early to middle Coniacian age.
Section Dědovy kameny (“Old man's rocks”) in the vicinity of Svojkov village represents a
typical development of the quartzose sandstones of the Březno Fm. in the Sloup rock city.
These are interpreted by NÁDASKAY & ULIČNÝ (2014) as a thick H-type foreset package,
representing younger part of the stratigraphy, namely unit CON 2/3, presumably Middle
Coniacian. Within Lužické hory Mts., H-type foresets of the Coniacian deltas typically crop
out in large exposures in the Sloup area, near Radvanec, or in the Cvikov region, further to
The section can be divided in two parts, with lower part strongly dominated by deposits of
gravity currents. Several “homogenite” bed can be recognized within the section (Fig. 22).
They are formed by massive medium- to coarse-grained sandstone and are interpreted as
chute channel fills. This facies contains a variety of soft-sediment structures related to
thorough liquefaction and fluidization of the sediment. Convoluted relicts of stratification are
indicated by white lines. The fluidization may be attributed to collapse of sediment fabric after
rapid deposition, or to passage of seismic waves. In places, block of sandstones of
contrasting lithology (often burrowed) are interpreted in the channel fill massive sandstone as
a kind of “rip-up” clasts. Although upper part of the section is dominated by reworking of
foreset strata by tidal currents, as evidenced by abundant trough-cross beds, backset
lamination is preserved in places. This indicate that foresets in the upper part of the section
were deposited in the upper flow regine from downslope transported sand-laden suspension.
Fig 22: Section Svojkov ‒ Dědovy kameny
1) Subparallel bedding deformed
by soft-sediment liquefaction
2) View to the outcrop from
Svojkov village. Note relatively
steeply inclined delta-slope
3) „Olistoliths“ of burrowed
sandstones in the chute-channel fill
Azure-colored beds are described
as „homogenite“ bed in the field, and
are interpreted as chute-channel fills
4) Soft-sediment deformed
layer within chute-channel fill
Czech Republic – Stop 4
Jurassic limestones at Doubice – Vápenka (Vápenný vrch)
Doubice Formation of presumed late Jurassic age (Oxfordian to Kimmeridgian
according to Eliáš 1981).
The Jurassic limestones crop out at several small localities near Doubice (Daubitz), Kyjov
(Khaa) and Brtníky (Zeidler). They occur nowhere else in Bohemia. There are a number of
abandoned shelf quarries and pit quarries in this locality. Abandoned and partly backfilled
galleries occur in some of them. All the quarries are situated in a forest near the Doubice and
Krásná Lípa (Schönlinde) road (Fig. 23).
Fig. 23: The detail map with a number of abandoned shelf quarries and pit quarries on Vápenný vrch.
The area lies near the Lusatian Fault, an important Saxonian discontinuous tectonic
structure. In this area, the Fault separates the Late Cretaceous sediments from granitic rocks
of Lusatian Massif. The geological setting is complicated, as there are Jurassic sediments
and Permian rocks represented by volcanic rocks and sediments sandwiched between the
Cretaceous and the granitic rocks (Fig. 24).
The Jurassic and Permian occur in several minor tectonic blocks dragged upwards along the
Lusatian Fault (FEDIUK et al. 1958, DVOŘÁK in SVOBODA et al. 1964, KLEIN et al. 1971,
VALEČKA et al. 1997). The blocks are confined by a system of strike-slip- and cross faults.
The exposures in the abandoned shelf and pit quarries are the most extensive and significant
outcrops of Jurassic platform sediments on Czech Massif´s territory. In the past, these
Jurassic rocks were quarried as construction materials. Their exposures are discontinuous
and are up to 130 m thick. ELIÁŠ (in KLEIN et al. 1971) subdivided them into three lithological
units, the oldest unit being the Brtnice Formation. It consists of basal, siliciclastic, mottled,
greenish light grey, medium-grained sandstones. The younger unit, the ca. 100 m thick
Doubice dolomite is a sequence of bluish grey to brown-grey dolomitic limestones and
dolomites. The series of Jurassic deposits ends up with dark grey bituminous limestones,
about 20 m thick. The dolomites and limestones are massive or thick-bedded, fragmented
and contain marly interlayers at places (Fig. 25).
Fig. 24: The Geological map near Doubice – Vápenný vrch.
The sequence of the carbonate rocks often exhibits crushed zones. Only a stratigraphically
unimportant fauna was found in the Doubice dolomites (CHRT 1957, FEDIUK et al. 1958).
ELIÁŠ (in KLEIN et al. 1971) describes finds of ammonite
described by BRUDER (1886, 1887) near the Lusatian Fault.
The Pb-Zn and Cu mineralization found in the Jurassic sediments has no practical value
(CHRT 1957). Chalcopyrite, chalcocite, pyrite, psilomelane and silver-bearing galena were
found among the minerals, malachite and azurite being also abundant. In the northwestern
and southeastern vicinity of the quarries, fragments and small outcrops of granitic rocks of
the Lusatian massif and Permian quartz porphyries or even arkoses and sandstones with
mudstone interlayers were found. They belong to the Vrchlabí and Prosečná Formations.
The northwestern, western and southeastern surroundings of the quarries are known for the
occurrence of fine-grained, slightly silty sandstones of the Březno Formation (the Upper
Cretaceous, Coniacian). Two thin dykes of neo-volcanic rocks were found to occur in
fragments and blocky outcrops in the close vicinity of the quarries. They are represented by
nepheline basanite, and/or nepheline tephrite with olivine admixture (SHRBENÝ in KLEIN et al.
Fig. 25: The bluish grey to brown-grey dolomitic limestones and dolomites
Czech Republic – Stop 5
Milířka - Lusatian Fault
Cadomian granodiorites of the Lusatian Massif and sedimentary rocks along
the Lusatian fault of Permian and Late Cretaceous age (presumably
Cenomanian and Turonian)
Fig. 26: The tourist map of the valley Milířka.
The Milířka stream bed forms a deeply incised valley, about 2 km south of Dolní Podluží
village (Fig. 26). Its name reminds us of the charcoal piles (“die Meiler”), where charcoal was
burned for foundries, ore dressing plants and glassworks. The middle portion of the valley is
associated with an important geological linear structure, the Lusatian Fault that separates the
Lusatian granitic massif lying in the north from the sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous
Basin in the south (Fig. 27).
The granodiorites of the Lusatian Massif in the mid part of the valley protrude towards the
valley´s southern part substantiating the existence of granodiorites being thrust over the
Cretaceous sandstones (Fig. 28). Old mines are associated with the fault and they have
been made accessible by “a miner´s educational trail” that runs through the whole valley from
Dolní Podluží to the mountain saddle below the Ptačinec hill.
Fig. 27: The geological map around the Milířka stream.
Fig. 28: The a
bandoned quarry of Čertova
stráň, the subhorizontal striations on the Lusatian Fault.
The oldest document bringing information about mining is a chart from 1474 giving permit to
placer mining in the Tolštejn dominion. Adits were driven probably later, in the 16th century
under the noble family von Schleinitz. Large amounts of quartz rubble occurring on some
dumps indicate the exploitation of quartz for glassworks operating in this area since the
second half of the 13th century. The mining activity here probably came to a close many
years ago, since documents from the year 1800 only mention 200 to 300 years old shafts
and galleries in the area.
At present, four galleries are known to occur in the valley, out of which two are backfilled.
Besides galleries, one can find remains of overgrown spoil pits and mine shafts almost
everywhere. In the lower section of the valley an adit mouth occurs at the foot of the Kozí
hřbet ridge (Ziegenrücken) at the site Knížecí studánka (Prince´s fountain), equipped with
new brickwork in 2004.
The adit mouth is mentioned in a document dated to the end of the 18
century and is called
Anthony gallery (Antonsstollen). It is thought to have drained the diggings occurring higher-
up in the hanging wall. Most traces of mining activity may be found in the midst of the valley
that follows the Lusatian fault. The gallery, called nowadays
is driven approximately
northeastwards, following a granite and green-schist boundary. It is noted as a winter habitat
of several bat species. The mouth entrance has been enclosed with bars since 1993.
Big spoil heap cut nowadays by the stream bed belonged to the
mine, which is
believed to be the biggest silver and base-metal mine in the Milířka valley. To the right of the
Uhlířská cesta/Collier´s path, there is a shallow side valley called
in the past.
The valley is actually a quarry for quartz extraction, and it follows a quartz vein for a distance
of about 240 m. The quartz might have been quarried as a raw material for glass production
in small glassworks that existed in the area as early as in the second half of the 13
Czech Republic – Stop 6
Dutý kámen near Cvikov (Hohlstein near Zwickau in Bohemia, Cretaceous
Sandstone of Březno Formation of early Coniacian age. Polzenite intrusion of
Tertiary (presumalby Oligicene–Miocene) age.
Dutý kámen (379 m a.s.l.) is a c. 600 m long forest-covered ridge, running southwards off the
road from Cvikov to Kunratice, about 0.5 km from Drnovec. The ridge juts out 20-30 m above
the surrounding area and consists of a silicified Cretaceous sandstone of the Březno
Formation, intruded lengthwise by a 3-4 m thick Tertiary volcanic dyke called polzenite. That
dyke occurs nowhere on the surface, its existence being corroborated by a road-cut digging
in the nineteen seventies. The Dutý kámen is particularly notable by the columnar jointing of
the above mentioned sandstone (Fig. 29).
Fig. 29: The columnar jointing of sandstone.
The sandstone joints (“pillars”) on the Dutý kámen hill were brought about by the polzenite
dyke, which, even though not protruding towards the surface, was accompanied by hot gas
and steam. These ascended along the joints towards the surface heating the sandstone to a
high temperature. This was not enough to melt the rock, but had caused its consolidation by
silicification. The cooling that followed afterwards resulted in decrease in the sandstone´s
volume and subsequently, its platy jointing or breaking into thin vertical slabs originated. In
the nearest vicinity of the joints struck by the highest temperatures, transversal cracks
formed breaking the sandstone into small fragments giving rise to tetra- to hexagonal
columns. Away from the highest temperature loci, these columns first take the form of panel-
shaped bodies, transiting into non-deformed blocky sandstone. On the Dutý kámen hill the
columnar jointing of the sandstone is visible at several places, being best-developed on a
2.5 m high monadnock (protruding hillock) standing out approximately in hill´s central part.
Sandstone quarrying on Dutý kámen (Hohlstein) started since the beginning of the 19
century. Pits left after sandstone columns quarrying are still visible around the road in ridge´s
northern part. Large sandstone blocks used to be extracted particularly in the surroundings of
a viewpoint at the south end of the ridge. Sandstone was also extracted in a large quarry on
the east slope, its main wall highlighting the relation of the sandstone columns to a long
horizontal rock joint. In the southern part of the ridge there are numerous sandstone rock
grounds that served to the Alpine Club Kunnersdorfer “Gebirgsverein für Nordböhmen”
between 1913 and 1914 as a building site for the Körnerova výšina/Körnerhöhe scenic
viewpoint with a rock-cut relief of the German poet Theodor Körner (1791-1813). A narrow
staircase was hewn in the rock behind the relief leading to the flat top of the Široký kámen
hill. There was an astronomic-geographical display board and a sundial here but only small
vestiges of them are left. In the vicinity of the viewpoint there are several rock walls, the
highest one being relatively narrow at its foot broadening higher-up and having a cavity
(Höhle) near the top. This cavity gave its name to the ridge Dutý kámen/Hohlstein/Hollow
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