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Circular Flow Land Use Management (CircUse)
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF
Terms of reference and land ty-
pologies for Circular Flow Land
Use Management
Output Nr. 3.1.1 (update)
Freiberg, Dresden, Date 04/2011
Prepared by:
René Otparlik, Bernd Siemer, Dr.-Ing. Uwe Ferber
Saxon state office for environment, agriculture and geology

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 2
www.circuse.eu
Table of contents
1.
Circular Flow Land Use Management...................................................3
1.1. Terms: Phases and status.................................................................3
2.
Land categories for Circular Land Management.....................................4
Greenfield.......................................................................................5
Gaps in build up areas......................................................................5
Vacant or underused land .................................................................5
2.1. Brownfield sites...............................................................................6
Industrial Brownfield........................................................................6
Military Brownfield...........................................................................6
Commercial (real estate) Brownfield/ ”Greyfield”..................................6
Brownfield from infrastructure and traffic............................................7
Residential Brownfield......................................................................7
Cultural and social Brownfield............................................................7
Agricultural Brownfield .....................................................................7
2.2. Brownfield development types...........................................................8
3.
Land register/terminology of the common record sheet .......................10
4.
Literature......................................................................................11
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 3
www.circuse.eu
1. Circular Flow Land Use Management
In the concept of Circular Flow Land Use Management represents an integrative
policy and governance approach which presupposes a changed land use philoso-
phy with regard to land utilization. This modified land use philosophy can be ex-
pressed with the slogan “avoid – recycle – compensate”. Similarly to the recy-
cling-based principles which have become common place in recent years in area
such as waste and water management, “circular land use management” should
become an established policy in sustainable land utilization. Materials cycles
serve as a model for circular land use management:
The constructed city is understood as a system with a structural makeup
which is subject to various usage phases and where, in certain instances, en-
tire districts and industrial areas are dismantled and made suitable for sub-
sequent use, whereby the total area of land used should remain unchanged.
Structures no longer fit for reuse are demolished or renaturalised.
The idea of a “circular” use thus seizes upon the notion of a use cycle of the
allocation of building land, development, use, abandonment and reuse [Fed-
eral Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR) 2006)]
1.1. Terms: Phases and status
Planning
Including all formal and informal activities on planning deci-
sions for future land use.
Use
Phase of stable use and maintenance of land and buildings
Cessation of Use
Phase of underuse, neglected maintenance and closure of
activities
Abandonement
Phase of dereliction without use
Interim Use
Non permanent use based on a step-by-step approach for
the revitalization of land. Interim uses can provide a smooth
continuation from the traditional use into the future use of
the area. (Green uses, culture..)
Reintroduction
Transition phase of land before being available for new uses
and planning
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 4
www.circuse.eu
a. Zoning new “greenfields”
b. Rejection of land not suitable for
subsequent use
c. Activating land potentials
brownfields (settlement, in-
dustrial, commercial, military)
gaps between buildings in in-
ternal areas
urban renewal sites
sites under going planning
Figure 1: Strategic approach: Circular Flow Land Use Management
2. Land categories for Circular Land Man-
agement
Principal
categories and types to include into a Circular Land Management are
green fields with development perspectives,
vacant and underused land,
gaps in build up areas and
brownfields.
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 5
www.circuse.eu
Greenfield
Land without former development and natural soils
e.g. areas with perspectives for development on greenfields
Def
: Greenfield is a “green” site in a planned spatial area. In
future perspective this site (or mostly sites, more than one)
are new building zones for settlement, industrial or commer-
cial development. The speciality is, that they are not previ-
ously developed that means actually not connected to infra-
structure and have natural soils.
Gaps in build up areas
e.g. gaps in housing areas
Def
: Gaps are mostly smaller sites, under or unused sites,
with building rights in an existing urban structure (location in
an inner zone or applicability of a development plan). Often
they exist in residential areas or small areas directly in the
city centre. The difference to Greenfield is that this site is
mostly fully developed and it’s only one site and not more
connected sites. Other gaps are often found in industrial
parks with infrastructure.
Vacant or underused land
e.g. from not commercialised development
e.g. from declining former uses, stocking areas
Def
: Vacant or underused lands are sites which were com-
mercially used before and after usage demolished. But these
are also sites which have been developed and after that they
are underused up to now. The differences to Greenfields are
that they are fully developed and they may also be used be-
fore as commercial or industrial sites. But also fully devel-
oped and not or underused commercial sites at the city pe-
riphery have to be mentioned in this category.
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 6
www.circuse.eu
2.1. Brownfield sites
have been affected by the former uses and surrounding of the site,
are derelict or underused, but not mentioned as a gap,
have real or perceived contamination problems,
are mainly in developed urban areas and
require intervention to bring them back to beneficial use. [CABERNET
1
, 2005]
Industrial Brownfield
e.g. mining, textile or steel industries
Def
: Because of development of industrial processes during
the last centuries the demand on area of industrial used sites
are decreasing. Mostly relocation of the production to other
countries led to a breakdown and so to an abandoned site.
The site is fully developed, often not up to date, and most
buildings of the former usage still exits.
Military Brownfield
Brownfield from military conversion including housing main-
tenance areas and training camps
Def
: The political situation in Europe changed in the last
decades a lot. So former military sites were not needed any
more, and had been left, mostly without any demolition. This
category includes all kinds of military usage like housing,
training camps and also technical equipment.
Commercial (real estate) Brownfield/ ”Greyfield”
Def
: For most investors it seems to be easier to develop
shopping or other commercial malls on green fields. But for
example of financial aspects some of these sites are not in
use anymore. Greyfield in general describe an economically
obsolescent or underused real estate or site mostly also with
parking spaces. Also an investment ruin (Brownfields) can be
called as greyfield. The positive aspect of this site is that in
comparison to an old industrial Brownfield sites here the in-
frastructure in mostly new and usable.
1
Concerted Action on Brownfield and Economic Regeneration Network,
www.cabernet.org
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 7
www.circuse.eu
Brownfield from infrastructure
and traffic
Def
: Reorganisation and outsourcing, financial decisions of
mostly public owned bodies led to infrastructure and traffic
Brownfields. This kind of Brownfield means closed down rail-
way tracks or station and yards which have been before in-
frastructural used.
Residential Brownfield
e.g. historic housing, prefabricated housing areas
Def
: Partly demolished or still standing not remediated un-
used houses with historic or wilhelminian architecture. But
also prefabricated housing areas which are not in use any-
more.
Cultural and social Brownfield
e.g. schools, leisure areas
Def
: Because of demography and migration movement’s
cultural and social institutions, were not used anymore and
decline. In addition to the named institutions also unused
schools, churches and leisure areas have to be mentioned.
Agricultural Brownfield
e.g., abandoned farms
Def
: In similarity to industrial Brownfields also a change in
agricultural conditions and farming methods took place in
the last decades. This type means not agricultural Brown-
fields in terms of unused acres or fields. Here unused agri-
cultural buildings have to be mentioned.
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 8
www.circuse.eu
2.2. Brownfield development types
Using a conceptual model to characterise different types of sites in terms of their
economic viability and highlighting how status can change based on variation in
location standing, site treatment costs and other economic conditions, can help
policy makers identify strategies that can improve the economic viability and
status of sites. One of the major drivers of brownfield regeneration is the eco-
nomic viability of individual sites. This can be affected by many different factors
which can alter quite considerably over time. The economic status of a site can
be affected by indirect as well as direct costs of the regeneration and by pre-
dicted revenues / return from the site.
The A/B/C model on strategic brownfield policies refers to the costs and predicted
revenues.
This model identifies three types of sites according to their economic
status (due to the cost of regeneration, the value of the land, etc). Sites are clas-
sified as:
A Sites
are highly economically viable and the development projects are
driven by private funding Sites. The redevelopment causes a clear increase in
site value. There is no demand for special public interference. The regular
planning and administration system could give a general framework to the
development.
B Sites
are sites of local and regional importance with development potential
but also significant risks due to the final balance of the investment and the
need of advice, assistance in planning and funding. These typical brownfield
projects are situated in the border zone of profit and loss. In these cases the
strategies of public-private-partnership are most effective. Risk-division, co-
ordinated planning and financing of projects by public/private companies are
ingenious milestone for public interference.
C Sites
are not in a condition where regeneration can be profitable. Their
regeneration relies on mainly public sector or municipality driven projects.
Public funding or specific legislative instruments (e.g. tax incentives) are re-
quired to stimulate regeneration of these sites
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 9
www.circuse.eu
Figure 2: ABC-model [Ferber 1997]
The A-B-C model highlights the funding drivers for brownfield regeneration (so-
called
CABERNET A-B-C model). The conceptual model can be used to assist in-
stitutions that are responsible for regional development and investment by allow-
ing then to characterise strategies for dealing with different types of brownfield
land. By identifying the type of site and considering the factors that are affecting
a site’s category, i.e. if it is an A, B, or C site, both public and private bodies can
examine intervention options and regeneration strategies. Using this conceptual
approach to examine the factors that affect re-categorisation of a site, for exam-
ple from a B Site to an A site, can result in the development of sites specific
strategies which can also be useful. A number of municipalities are currently us-
ing these categories to review their local brownfield strategies and to produce
informal inventories of regional brownfield sites.
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 10
www.circuse.eu
3. Land register/terminology of the com-
mon record sheet
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF

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Terms of reference and land typologies for CircUse | page 11
www.circuse.eu
4. Literature
Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR) (published by), Per-
spektive Flächenkreislaufwirtschaft special publications series for the ExWoSt
research field Fläche im Kreis, Vol. 1. “Theoretische Grundlagen und Plan-
spielkonzeption“, revised by Thomas Preuß et al. (German Institute of Urban
Affairs et al.) and Fabian Dosch et al. (BBR), Bonn 2006.
Ferber, Uwe, Brachflächen-Revitalisierung. Internationale Erfahrungen und
mögliche Lösungsoptionen, hrsg. vom Sächsisches Staatsministerium für
Umwelt und Landesentwicklung, Dresden 1997.
http://www.aboutremediation.com/techdir/tech_definitions_full.asp?technam
eid=194
http://www.brownfieldscenter.org/big/glossary.shtml
http://www.umwelt.sachsen.de/umwelt/boden/12215.htm
This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the ERDF