image
State Ministry for the Environment and Agriculture
Summary
Environmental Report of the Free State of Saxony 2007

image
image
Dear Sir, dear Madam,
This concise sum-
mary of the 2007
Environmental Report
outlines the results
of the environmen-
tal policy in Saxony
between 2002 and
2006 on the basis of
detailed values and
concrete facts.
Now that the greater
rehabilitation projects
are largely complete,
Saxon environmental
policy is increasingly focused on the sustained control
of the human environment, for example climate protec-
tion and sustained management of diminishing resour-
ces. There is limited scope for action due to the drastic
changes in the world’s energy markets, the increasing
electricity, oil and gas prices, and the dependency on
gas and oil supplies from just a few exporting coun-
tries. Our goal is to use energy even more effi ciently
and to fi nd an energy mix with renewable energies for
increased independence. Saxony’s climate protection
scheme set up in 2001 faces the political challenges
of the changing climate and energy landscape. That
scheme has been benefi cial to the Saxony-based
manufacturers of installations for energy production
from renewable sources, as well as to their suppliers.
The environmental industries in Saxony have high
innovation and growth potentials. The achievements
made in environmental protection and pollution control
since 1991 are impressive: 87 % of the sewage treat -
ment plants have been newly constructed or refurbis-
hed, involving investments of EUR 6.2 billion. EUR 400
million were invested in waste management infra-
structures, EUR 250 million in the closure of landfi lls.
Saxony had 1 500 landfi ll sites in 1991, of which just
seven are in operation today. Much has been done and
achieved also in terms of nature preservation; almost
16 % of Saxon territory is protected under EU standards.
Last but not least, the return of the wolves to Saxony
is a special development.
The full 2007 Environmental Report and a wealth of
useful information can be downloaded from the web
site of the Saxon State Ministry for the Environment
and Agriculture:
www.umwelt.sachsen.de.
Frank Kupfer
Saxon State Minister for
Environment and Agriculture
Preface

3
2007 ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT
Contents
1 Introduction
...............................................................................................................................................
4
2 Climate
.........................................................................................................................................................
5
3
Energy effi ciency and renewable energies
.............................................................................
7
4 Air
...............................................................................................................................................................
10
5 Water
............................................................................................................................................................
11
6 Flood control
............................................................................................................................................
13
7 Soil
...............................................................................................................................................................
15
8
Nature and the countryside
............................................................................................................
16
9
Waste management/Recycling
.....................................................................................................
18
10
Other environmental issues
............................................................................................................
19
10.1 Noise protection ..................................................................................................................................... 19
10.2 Radiation protection ...............................................................................................................................19
10.3 Electromagnetic fi elds ...........................................................................................................................20
10.4 Biotechnology and genetic engineering ................................................................................................ 21
10.5 Chemicals ...............................................................................................................................................22
10.6 Accident provisions and plant security ..................................................................................................22
10.7 Earthquake risks .....................................................................................................................................23

image
image
4
| INTRODUCTION
1
View from Scheibenmountain towards the Erz Mountains
The Free State of Saxony has achieved a great deal
in the fi eld of environmental protection since 1990.
The air quality has radically improved. The greatest
pro gress made has been in reducing sulphur dioxid:
emissions, which dropped by 94 % between 1996 and
2004. The development of the water system and
waste management systems has been similarly
positive. The major reha bilitation tasks have largely
been completed. This abridged version of the 2007
Environmental Report is an impressive record of what
has been achieved. For more detailed and extensive
information, please see the full version of the 2007
Environmental Report and the Saxon State Ministry
for the Environment and Agriculture website at
www.umwelt.sachsen.de
.
1. Introduction

image
5
The speed and scale of global climate change at the
end of the 20
th
and beginning of the 21
st
century are
without precedent in the history of mankind. During
the 20
th
century, the temperature rose by 0.6°C world-
wide; in Germany this fi gure was as high as 0.9°C.
The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
has predicted a further temperature increase in Europe
of between 2.0° and 6.3°C by 2100.
Climate change will probably intensify many of
humankind’s problems, such as food availability,
health, and water supply. Limiting climate change
is therefore one of the major political and technological
challenges of the 21
st
century.
Important climate parameters in Saxony have also
undergone signifi cant changes in recent decades.
Observable trends reveal that adjustment measures
based on climate projections and the estimated impact
of climate change are necessary alongside strong and
targeted climate protection measures. Together with
climate protection, adjustment measures are therefore
a key part of Saxony’s “Integrated Climate Protection
Plan”.
|| CLIMATE
2
Overview of Integrated Climate Protection in Saxony
Integrated climate protection in Saxony
Global climate
change
Science
Climate change
How is the climate
in Saxony changing?
> Diagnosis
Climate trends
> Projection
Climate simulation
Impact of climate change
What is the impact of climate change
on Saxony?
> Impact scenarios
> Adjustment measures
Climate protection
How can greenhouse gas emissi-
ons in Saxony be reduced?
> Recording greenhouse gas
emissions
> Saxon Climate Protection
Programme
Energy effi ciency
Renewable energies
International/
National climate
protection targets
Politics
Greenhouse gas emissions
in Saxony decreased
63 % between 1990 and 1999; this was due largely to
the closure of outdated power stations and industrial
plants, as well as to modernisation and the switch to
other energy sources. Since then, the start-up of new
power plants as replacements for those closed has
caused emissions to rise again slightly. In 2004, the
emissions reduction was 54 % relative to 1990 levels
and 9 % relative to 1996 levels.
Climate change
research was carried out in Saxony
at a very early stage and a regional climate change
projection through 2100 was drawn up. The results
show that the dynamics of atmospheric circulation in
Central Europe will probably change fundamentally
during the 21
st
century.
The heavy precipitation and fl ooding in August 2002
in Saxony or the drought in the summer of 2003 were
once in a lifetime events. They were a result of a
combination of various meteorological factors and in
themselves cannot be considered a sign of climate
change. However, the characteristics of these extreme
events substantiate the results of the latest regional
climate projections from now until 2100.
A considerable increase in periods of heat and drought
is expected. The average annual precipitation in Saxony
will drop, mainly as a result of the forecast increase
in the number of summer droughts. North and East
Saxony in particular should be prepared for far more
frequent sustained periods of drought with signifi cant
water shortages during the growing season.
2. Climate

image
image
image
6
|| CLIMATE
Investigations into the possible impact of regional
climate change on the water supply, vegetation deve-
lopment (phenology), forestry, agriculture and environ-
mental protection will be coordinated in the Sächsische
Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft
[Saxon State Ministry for the Environment and Agri-
culture] by the
“Climate Change Impact”
working
group. The aim is to use regional climate projections
to identify the impact of climate change in individual
sectors and develop necessary adjustment strategies.
Current projects and investigations dealing with
climate change in Saxony and its impact include
>
The Saxon climate database,
>
The Saxon climate model WETTREG,
>
Various projects on the effects on agriculture and
forestry, on dam management, on the water
balance of various types of landscapes and on
ecosystems and species.
Further information can be found at:
www.klima.sachsen.de
The following climatic water balance prognoses
illustrate the effects of climate change.
2
Climatic Water Balance of Saxony, Comparison of Condition 1981 – 2000; Prognosis 2050
Climatic water balance, 1981 – 2000 (series of measurements)
Climatic water balance, 2050 prognosis
CO
2
emissions in Saxony in kt
Agriculture (Diesel)
Landfill + Disused disposal sites
Traffic
Households
80 000
70 000
60 000
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000
0
[kt CO
2
-Äquiv./a]
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Heating of homes and small businesses
Large Combustion Plants
Industry
2005

image
image
7
With its 2001
Climate Protection Programme
,
Saxony is taking account of the changing conditions
governing climate and energy policy. Energy effi ciency
and the use of renewable energies will largely deter-
mine future energy policy.
The establishment in 2002 of the Energy Effi ciency
Centre and its transfer on 7 January, 2007 to the
Sächsische Energieagentur [Saxon Energy Agency]
created an organisational basis and brought together
the necessary professional expertise.
Various studies indicate that halving our energy con-
sumption within a few decades is a realistic prospect.
Renovation and redevelopment of buildings alone can
currently reduce their energy consumption to a tenth of
previous levels. Potential energy savings of up to 50 %
are also seen in industry and business. The Saxon
Regional Government aims to increase the percen-
tage of renewable energy sources used in generating
power.
The increase in energy effi ciency and the use of renew-
able energies is not least an economic chance to promo-
te the export of know-how and technological equipment.
As can be seen from the following diagram, electricity
consumption in 2006 was around 20 825 GWh/year.
9.9 % of this was generated using renewable energy.
In 2007, the percentage of electricity generated from
renewable sources has once more risen considerably.
Prognoses indicate there is a realistic prospect of incre-
asing this share to as much as 25 % by the year 2020.
3
||| ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES
3. Energy efficiency and renewable energies
Wind Turbine
Electricity consumption and the percentage of renewable energy in Saxony (1991 – 2007)
24 000
20 000
16 000
12 000
8 000
4 000
0
1996
1997
1998
1999 2000 2001
2002
2003
2004
14 %
12 %
10 %
8 %
6 %
4 %
2 %
0 %
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
2005
2006
2007*: Electricity consumption and EE data rounded up
Source: Statistisches Landesamt [Regional Office of Statistics], LfUG/EEZ
electricity
consumption
renewable
energy
Electricity consumption in GWh
Percentage of renewable energy
2007*
14 660
14 383
14 788
14 319
14 550
17 272
16 810
17 237
17 792
18 385
18 560
18 895
19 260
19 821
20 306
20 825
21 000

image
8
Renewable energies
already accounted for 4.6 % of
total energy consumption (electricity + heat) by the
end of 2006. The Climate Protection Programme had
already reached its target of increasing the percentage
of renewable energy in fi nal energy consumption to
5 % in 2007.
According to a 2006 study, 5 443 workers were
employed directly and indirectly in this branch of
industry in Saxony and generated a total revenue
of around EUR 1.45 billion As many as 6 100 were
already employed in this sector in 2007.
As before, the most important renewable source of
energy for the generation of electricity in Saxony is
wind power
(6.7 %). At the end of December 2007,
770 wind power plants were running in Saxony with a
combined electrical power output of 826 MW
el
. There
are both objective and subjective limitations on the
expansion of wind power; however, the Saxon wind
power plants could provide up to 20 % of electricity
in the medium to long-term thanks to technological
improvements and targeted repowering (replacing
plants at existing sites).
308
hydroelectric plants
were in operation at the end
of 2006; these had a total installed electrical power
capacity of 78.1 MW
el
Expansion to a total output of
100 MW
el
in Saxony would be ecologically acceptable.
There is currently a sharp increase in the
use of bio-
mass in energy production
. 276 biomass plants
were in operation in Saxony in December 2007; these
had a total electrical output of around 80.5 MW
el
and
a total thermal output of around 262 MW
th
. 148 biogas
plants combined heat and power units with an electri-
cal power of around 59.6 MW
el
also supply electricity
to the grid. Their thermal power is around 71.9 MW
th
.
55 more biogas plants were connected in 2007 alone.
925 GWh of electricity from biomass/biogas was sup-
plied to the national grid. This is only a fraction of the
potential amount. The same applies to the generation
of heat from biomass.
Relatively high global radiation means that the con-
ditions in Saxony are well suited to the
use of solar
energy
(photovoltaic and solar thermal energy).
Around 5 400 photovoltaic plants are currently opera-
ted in Saxony. These supplied the national grid with
around 83 000 MWh in 2007. More photovoltaic power
plants have already been approved. The largest power
plant of this type is being constructed in Brandis-Wald-
polenz and will have a peak output of 40 MW
p
.
The start-up of new geothermal energy plants and the
positive developments in near-surface
geothermal
power
in the last few years is proof of its ever-growing
3
||| ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES
Developments in PV roof, facade and ground installations in Saxony 1990 – 2007
Number of plants
installed capacity in kWp
Electricity supplied in MWh
100 000
90 000
80 000
70 000
60 000
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000
0
100 000
90 000
80 000
70 000
60 000
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000
0
1990 1991 1992
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
1
1
0
223
632
182
263
897
299
392
1 180
369
769
2 180
561
1 650
3 340
800
955
4 089
2 785
14 670
6 704
1 461
1993 1994
Source: Stadtwerke [Town Utilities Department], ENSO Strom AG, enviaM, LfUG-EEZ
2 394
15 630
29 087
2007
83 000
5 400
94 000
22 000
2 600
36 000

image
image
image
9
importance. Geothermal probes with heat pumps are
increasingly being used to provide heat for detached
houses. The number of geothermal facilities doubled
in 2006 to 4 100 and thermal plant capacity doubled
to around 56 MW
th
. In the fi eld of deep geothermal
energy, on the other hand, there are still many issues
to be dealt with before it can be used to any economic
advantage. One such issue is the development of eco-
nomic drilling techniques.
One focus of work in the fi eld of
energy effi ciency
is
the buildings sector. An Energieausweis [energy cer-
tifi cate] has been legally required in Germany since
2008 when selling or letting buildings and fl ats. Saxony
introduced the Sächsischer Energiepass [Saxon energy
certifi cate] in 2001 and was thus at the forefront of deve-
lopments in Germany. To date, over 14 000 Sächsische
Energiepässe have been issued; most of these
received a grant. Saxon has been helping fund model
projects implementing measures recommended in the
Energiepässe since 2006. These measures have since
been implemented in around 120 projects, mainly
during the renovation and redevelopment of detached
and two family houses.
Since 2002, Saxony has been providing funding for
new buildings to achieve the passive house standard
as model projects. These buildings consume around
75 % less heat energy than buildings constructed in
accordance with the current Energieeinsparverord-
nung [Energy Saving Ordinance]. The passive house
standard can be used both for residential buildings
and commercial properties. Events are organised for
architects and planners during the construction phase
as part of the funded projects. The model scheme is
aimed at demonstrating the effi ciency of the passive
house form and how it can work in practice. The pas-
sive house form can be constructed with a wide range
of materials. It is suitable for detached and multiple
dwellings, schools, nurseries and many commercial
buildings. In 2005, the funding program was expanded
to include building renovations. Existing buildings usu-
ally do not completely meet the passive house stan-
dard; however, using elements of the passive house
such as regulated air conditioning and heat recovery
can lead to a reduction in heat energy consumption of
up to 90 %.
3
||| ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES
High Voltage Power Line
Solar Panels

image
image
10
The Staatliche Umweltbetriebsgesellschaft [Saxon
Environmental Association] runs a Saxony-wide
monitoring network with 31 (status as of 2007) air
sampling stations in continuous operation to monitor
atmospheric pollution
in Saxony. These stations are
able to detect the following pollutents: sulphur dioxide
(SO
2
), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO),
nitrogen dioxide (NO
2
), benzol, toluene and xylene
(BTX), ozone (O
3
), PM
10
and PM
2,5
1
fi ne dust particles,
as well as certain components of PM
10
. The technical
equipment in the local air sampling stations is suited
to local conditions. Only the necessary parameters are
measured.
The environmental departments of the various Regie-
rungspräsidien [regional authorities] are responsible
for monitoring the
emissions
from industrial plants in
Saxony. Emissions from point sources and from diffuse
sources (e.g. traffi c, households) are all recorded in the
Emissionskataster [emissions register] and regularly
updated. Emissions from diffuse sources are estab-
lished, calculated or estimated on the basis of samples.
Emission dropped by the following amounts between
1996 and 2004:
>
Nitrogen oxide (NO
x
) by 41 %
>
Carbon monoxide (CO) by 51 %
>
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)
by 56 %
>
Dust by 40 %
>
Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
) by 94 % and
>
Ammonia (NH
3
) by 7 %.
The reduction in emissions of SO
2
, NO
x
and dust is
a result of the closure of and construction of new
buildings for large combustion plants. The switch to
different energy sources in industry, for domestic fuel
and by small consumers contributed more or less in
equal part to the reduction in CO emissions. The drop
in NMVOC emissions was largely achieved through
the withdrawal of motor vehicles with 2-stroke internal
combustion engines and the introduction and deve-
lopment of catalytic converters. NMVOC emissions
from private households, on the other hand, rose due
to the use of solvent-based products such as cleaning
agents, paint and cosmetics.
Traffi c is a major emitter group. Traffi c emissions in
2004 contributed as follows to total emissions:
>
NO
x
emissions 54 %
>
CO emissions 74 %
>
NMVOC emissions 46 %
>
Dust emissions 26 %.
4. Air
4
|||| AIR
Further information can be found at
www.luft.sachsen.de
.
Air Quality Measuring Network in Saxony 2006
Ozone
SO
2
PM
10
Benzene
NO
X
CO
1
Particles which pass through an air inlet with fi
lter in accordance with the reference
method for sampling and measuring PM
10
or PM
2,5
, which filters out at least 50 % at an
aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or 2,5 μm.

image
image
11
The protection of ground and surface waters is largely
regulated by the
European Water Framework Direc-
tive
(Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament
and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a
framework for community action in the fi eld of water
policy). This directive requires the sustainable use of
water resources without signifi cant adverse effects on
the waters’ ecological function. “Good water status”
should be achieved for all water resources by 2015.
The fi rst step in the practical implementation of the
directive was to record and report the water situation
in 2004. 15 % of the 730 fl owing and stagnant water
bodies assessed in Saxony will probably achieve
“good” status by 2015 without additional measures.
For 54 % of the surface waters, however, it seems unli-
kely that the Water Framework Directive targets can
be reached. A lack of data or insuffi cient data makes
the situation for 31 % of the surface waters unclear.
An assessment of the bodies of ground water indica-
ted that c. three fi fths of the 64 bodies of ground water
assessed will probably achieve “good” status.
A further milestone in the implementation of the Water
Framework Directive was the establishment of monito-
ring programmes by the end of 2006. To this end, the
sampling networks for ground and surface water were
brought into line with the requirements of the Water
Framework Directive in 2005 and 2006.
In 2003, the
Gewässergütekarten
[water quality
cards] process was completed. Until then these cards
had been drawn up and published in 3 year cycles by
the Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie
[Saxon State Offi ce for the Environment and Geology]
(as of August 1, 2008 Sächsisches Landesamt für
Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie [Saxon State
Offi ce for the Environment, Agriculture and Geology]).
The 2003 Gewässergütekarte documents the biolo-
gical quality of the fl owing waters using the saprobic
system and thus also progress in sewage treatment.
Continuous improvements in water quality have been
recorded since 1994. The table below shows the
percentage of the classifi ed water network in Saxony
belonging to the various categories of water quality.
5
||||| WATER
5. Water
Forellenbach in Vogtland, Saxony, Creek under near-natural Conditions
Year
Percentage per quality category
I
I – II
II
II – III
III
III – IV
IV
1994
1.2
4.1
26.4
38.8
21.0
6.2
2.2
1997
1.7
5.2
38.8
40.3
9.8
1.4
2.8
2000
2.2
8.1
60.9
23.8
4.4
0.5
0.1
2003
2.6
9.3
61.8
23.9
1.8
0.4
0.2
Surface Water Quality Classification (%)

image
image
image
12
The Water Framework Directive changes the system
for assessing waters. Since the directive came into
effect, it requires that the ecological and chemical
status of the waters be established as defi ned in the
Water Framework Directive.
Since 1990 the percentage of Saxony’s population
connected to the
public water supply
has increased
from 93.8 % to 99.1 %. Around 38 000 inhabitants are
not yet connected to the public water supply. In 2005,
58 % of the public water supply came from ground-
water (including bank fi ltration) and 42 % came from
surface waters, mainly from reservoirs. The reduction
in the proportion of ground water compared to 1990
(then 68 %) is a result of the closure of a large number
of mostly small local waterworks. Since 1990, the per
capita water consumption of Saxons has dropped from
160 l/In..d (litre per inhabitant per day) to 86 l/In..d. and
is thus far below the national average.
Sewage
in Saxony is currently dealt with in 768 muni-
cipal sewage treatment works with a capacity of at
least 50 population equivalents. Plants built, redeve-
loped or expanded between 1990 and 2006 make up
85 % of the total treatment capacity. Around 83 % of
the Saxon population was connected to public sewage
treatment plants in 2006. In total, over EUR 6 billion
have been invested in expanding the sewage systems
since 1990.
As part of the implementation of the EU Directive on
municipal sewage, proper public sewage disposal
systems will be put in place for a total of 3.7 million
inhabitants of Saxony by 2008. Sewage disposal for
c.600 000 inhabitants living mostly in rural areas must
be dealt with in the following years. In view of the pro-
jected decrease in population, small-scale solutions are
also a possible economic alternative. Further informa-
tion can be found at
www.wasser.sachsen.de
.
||||| WATER
5
Johanngeorgenstadt Water Gauge; photo: UBG
View of the Mulde River Valley

image
image
image
13
The period under review was marked above all by the
hundred year fl ood
in August 2002. This was sparked
off by extreme and sustained precipitation in large
areas of Central Europe. On 11 August, 2002 between
50 and 200 mm of precipitation were recorded across
all of Saxony. On 12 August, 2002, the Zinnwald-Geor-
genfeld station recorded 312 mm, the highest level
of precipitation in one day in Germany since records
began.
On 17 August, 2002, the Elbe peaked in Dresden at
9.40 metres. At this point, the Elbe was fl owing at
4 580 cubic metres per second, more than 20 times
its normal fl ow rate of 200 to 250 cubic metres per
second. This peak had been preceded by extreme
fl ooding in large parts of the Erzgebirge Mountains and
elsewhere, for example in the river catchment areas
of the Freiberger and Zwickauer Mulde. The resulting
damage was of unprecedented proportions.
The fl oods in August 2002 claimed 21 lives and two
thirds of the region was affected. Material damages for
Saxony alone are estimated at EUR 8.6 billion.
The amendment to the
Sächsisches Wassergesetz
[Saxon Water Act]
of 2004 was the fi nal stage in
the legislative response to the 2002 fl oods, bringing
together fl ood regulations in one section of the Act.
New aspects include regulations establishing potential
sources of fl ooding and fl ood plains and the creation
of a regional fl ood protection action plan and fl ood
contingency plans for river basins.
6. Flood protection
6
|||||| FLOOD PROTECTION
2002 Flood in Flöha
Ice Floes on the Elbe River at Dresden

image
image
image
14
New regulations entirely reorganised the
Hochwasser-
nachrichten- und -alarmdienst [fl ood reporting
and warning service]
Reporting procedures and
times were signifi cantly shortened, above all as a
result of direct information at the community level.
One lesson of the August 2002 fl oods was that war-
nings and forecasts based on an overall assessment
must be provided by the same body.
The Landes-
hochwasserzentrum [Regional Flood Centre]
in the
Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie (as
of 01/08/2008 Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt,
Landwirtschaft und Geologie) was formed from the
four former regional fl ood centres. The new centre’s
main role is to constantly analyse the meteorological
and hydrological situation, issuing fl ood warnings and
fl ood forecasts as necessary.
More information can be found at:
www.hochwasserzentrum.sachsen.de
The Landeshochwasserzentrum is working in collabo-
ration with the Deutscher Wetterdienst [German Me-
teorological Offi ce], the Bundesanstalt für Gewässer-
kunde [Federal Institute of Hydrology], neighbouring
countries and various research institutions to further
improve forecasting. Advance warnings from Usti n.
L./Aussig in the Czech Republic up to 60 hours earlier
than before mean the forecast for the Elbe fl ow in
Dresden can be made 48 hours earlier.
In Saxony 47
fl ood protection plans
were drawn
up for the Elbe and a further 3 000 km of Categroy
I waters [waters of primary hydrological importance
according to German water law]. These were deve-
loped over the course of 2003 and 2004. The Landes-
talsperrenverwaltung [State Dam Administration] is
now planning and implementing fl ood protection and
diversion measures on the basis of these plans.
On the basis of the fl ood protection plans, an atlas
of fl ood risk in Saxony with a scale of 1:100 000 was
drawn up for the Elbe and Category I waters. This sets
out the risks posed in cases of extreme high water.
Two separate maps (see illustration) show the areas
fl ooded (left-hand map) and the potential damage
(right-hand map) together with endangered and
dangerous sites in the fl ooded area.
Portion of Flood Map and Damage Potential Map in the Saxon Flood Risk Atlas
6
|||||| FLOOD PROTECTION
Flood protection plans are also to be drawn up for
Category II waters [waters of regional hydrological
importance] should towns and cities deem them
necessary for fl ood protection purposes. Since 2005,
the Sächsische Staatsministerium für Umwelt und
Landwirtschaft has been providing funding for the
creation of
municipal fl ood protection plans
and
the resulting fl ood protection measures. By 2006, this
funding programme was supporting 14 municipal fl ood
protection plans and 31 municipal fl ood protection
measures.

image
15
Soil is a non-renewable resource. It is a basic necessity
and source of life for humans, animals and plants as
well as a natural element and as such must be preser-
ved and protected.
The following issues must be considered in soil con-
servation:
>
Land use,
>
Soil sealing,
>
Soil erosion, soil compaction,
>
Continuous soil monitoring,
>
Increases in wide-scale concentration of harmful
substances,
>
Pollution,
>
Contaminated sites,
>
Mining residue.
Extremely important aspects of soil conservation
include reducing the area of land used for construc-
tions and traffi c routes. Construction work causes
damage to the natural function of the soil through,
amoung other things, sealing, digging, infi lling, and
fragmentation.
In 2006, the settlement and traffi c area (SVF) in
Saxony reached 217 568 ha, or 11.81 % of the land,
an increase of 7 328 ha. from 2001. The traffi c area
alone grew to cover 4.03 % of the region.
The diagram below shows the average daily increase
in areas used for settlement and traffi c purposes in the
period under review. This shows a drop in the growth
of settlement and traffi c land, particularly in rural areas
of Saxony. Overall, land use has, however, once more
risen considerably after a signifi cant drop between
2001 and 2004.
This increasing use of land leads to a reduction in
ground water regeneration, a change in the micro-
climate and regional climate, an increase in the fl ood
risk and greater fragmentation of the land.
In ecological terms, and also from an economic and
social perspective, sustainable land use and a reduc-
tion in land use are necessary. Inner city areas remain
unused while suburbanisation and settlement dispersal
consume valuable greenbelt areas.
The issue of
contamination
is closely connected with
soil conservation.
In accordance with the Bundesbodenschutzgesetz
[Federal Soil Conservation Act] and the Saxon Abfall-
wirtschaft- und Bodenschutzgesetz [Waste Manage-
ment and Soil Conservation Act] all suspected and
confi rmed contaminated sites are listed in the “Säch-
sisches Altlastenkataster” (SALKA) [Saxon Register of
Contaminated Sites]. The register contains the location
and designation of sites, the reasons contamination
is suspected and describes the dangers this poses.
The process of documenting such sites in Saxony has
largely been completed.
The diagram gives an overview of contaminated sites
(AL), rehabilitated contaminated sites (san. AL) and
suspected contaminated sites (ALVF) in the period of
2002 – 2006.
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
ha/d
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1,56
1,96
1,65
1,12
1,23
0,60
8,08
5,77
3,96
2,80
3,03
4,54
traffic
settlement and traffic area
Increase in Settlement and Transportation Surfaces (hectares/day)
7
||||||| SOIL
7. Soil
Ratio of Brownfi elds (B) and Cleaned Up Brownfi elds (CUB)
to Suspected Brownfi elds (SB)
Number of Sites
35 000
30 000
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
CUB
SB
B
30 312
30 308
29 805
29 222
28 888
2 598
2 682
3 044
3 207
3 731
1 612
1 616
1 610
1 583
1 579

image
image
16
The signifi cant increase in completed risk assessments
is clear proof of the progress made in dealing with
contaminated sites. The number of completed clean-
up operations is also increasing but appears stagnant
as a result of of the small number of cases and the
sometimes extremely long clean-up process. A large
number of other areas are currently being cleaned up.
As part of site decontamination, companies who invest
in these locations are granted funding for part or all of
the clean-up costs. Most clean-ups in Saxony are done
so that a company can set up business on the site.
Over the period 2002 – 2006, the federal government
and the government of Saxony invested c. EUR 185.5
million in Saxony for this purpose. At the same time,
the companies invested c. EUR 15.3 million in cleaning
up the contaminated sites. The rehabilitation of conta-
minated sites is important if investors are to be found
for inner city areas and former industrial land. Further
information can be found at
www.boden.sachsen.de
.
The most important
protected areas
as defi ned in the
Sächsisches Naturschutzgesetz [Saxon Conservation
Law] are the Sächsische Schweiz National Park
(9 350 ha = 0.51 % of the area of the region), the
bio sphere reserve Oberlausitzer Heide- und Teichland-
schaft [Oberlausitz moor and ponds] (30 000 ha =
1.63 % of the area of the region), the two nature reser-
ves Erzgebirge/Vogtland and Dübener Heide (in total
185 000 ha = 10.07 % of the area of the region) and
a large number of nature reserves. The number of
nature reserves rose from 209 in 2001 to 214 in 2006
and their combined area increased from 47 246 ha
to 49 721 ha (2.7 % of the area of the region).
The European protected areas system, NATURA 2000,
covers both the protected areas of local importance as
set out in the Habitats Directive (Council Directive
92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of na -
tural habitats and of wild fl ora and fauna) and the bird
sanctuaries in accordance with the Birds Directive
(Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the
conservation of wild birds). In Saxony, the ecological net-
work of protected areas Natura 2000 covers has an area
of 292 777 ha, or 15.9 % of the area of the region.
The process of registering areas in Saxony under the
Habitats Directive was completed in 2004. The 270 sites
have specific conservation targets and a combined area
of 168 661 ha (9.16 % of the area of the region).
The assisted areas as defi ned in the Birds Directive
were expanded in 2005 and 2006. There are now
77 European bird areas in Saxony which cover
248 965 ha, 13.5 % of the area of the region.
Work has been underway since 2002 on management
planning, implementation of protection measures,
setting up a monitoring system and fulfi lling the duty
of reporting to the EU. 94 management plans have
been completed and 75 of these have been approved.
Roughly 67 400 sites consisting of around 124 000
sections were recorded in the second round (1996 –
2002) of national
selective habitat mapping
of
forestry and open land. The diagram below shows the
percentages of the main habitat groups in the area
mapped. Around 77 900 of the sections mapped are
protected under Article 26 of the Sächsisches Natur-
schutzgesetz (Saxon Nature Protection Act). 7 470 sites
with a total area of c. 9 600 ha (0.52 % of the area of the
region) have been classified as potentially important.
During the period under review, a scientifi c basis was
developed for the national
habitat corridor.
This was
integrated into the “Gebietskulisse für die Ausweisung
eines ökologischen Verbundsystems” [“Assisted areas
8. Nature and the landscape
8
|||||||| NATURE AND THE LANDSCAPE

image
17
for the recognition of an ecological corridor”] which
was added as a descriptive map to the 2003 regional
development plan of the Free State of Saxony.
The
development of fauna and fl ora
is subject to
constant change. However, it has been clear for some
time now that adaptable and relatively insensitive spe -
cies are increasingly benefi ting whilst there is an overall
drop in the number of species. Dry areas low in nutrients
on the one hand and wet or damp habitats on the other
are particularly endangered. The role of nature conser-
vation is to implement suitable measures to preserve
bio-diversity and to halt the decline of native species.
The wide range of efforts in species protection has
contributed to positive developments in various popula-
tions, including White-tailed Eagles (Halieetus albicilla),
Ospreys (Pandion halietus) and endangered bats.
These positive developments are in large part thanks
to the work of volunteers.
Much attention is being paid to the natural
return of
wolves
in parts of Saxony. There have been confi rmed
reports of wolves from Poland coming into military trai-
ning areas in Oberlausitz since 1996. Three wolf packs
have formed in eastern Saxony since 2000 and these
have already raised more than 30 cubs.
Main habitat groups in the area mapped in %
15% Copses, hedgerows and woods
4% Flowing waters
14% Standing waters
4% Fens and marshes
12% Grassland
2% Open fields and verges
9% Moor and dry grassland
33% Forestry
3% Cliff, rock and rough soil habitats
4% Other habitats
8
|||||||| NATURE AND THE LANDSCAPE
Between 2000 and 2006
nature conservation
measures in Saxony were largely funded
using
the following three instruments:
The most important source of funding for nature conser-
vation measures was the “Naturschutz und Erhalt der
Kulturlandschaft” [“Nature conservation and preserva-
tion of the cultural landscape”] scheme, a part of the
“Umweltgerechte Landwirtschaft Programm” [“Envi-
ronmentally friendly agriculture programme”] and partly
funded by the European Union. By the end of 2006, the
scheme had funded environmentally responsible culti-
vation of 32 334 ha of grassland, arable land and ponds.
In addition, the Saxon administration fi nanced the
“Richtlinie zur Förderung von Maßnahmen des Natur-
schutzes (Naturschutzrichtlinie bzw. Landschaftspfl e-
gerichtlinie)” [“Funding guidelines for nature conser-
vation measures (Nature Conservation Guidelines or
Countryside Protection Guidelines)”], which con-
centrated on measures aimed at creating and main-
taining habitats, public relations work, planning and
management of conservation measures, and the care
of protected areas. By 2006, this had made it possible
to preserve around 6 000 ha of habitat. In 2006 alone,
intensive conservation measures were implemented in
16 protected areas of European importance.
Finally, the “Richtlinie zur Förderung der Ökologischen
Landschaftsgestaltung” [Directive on the Promotion of
an Ecological Landscape], partly funded by the Euro-
pean Union, made it possible to replant c. 490 000 m²
of hedges and regenerate and expand a further
1 200 000 m² between 2000 and 2006. Aproximately
2 700 fruit trees were also planted and 180 dry stone
dykes and vineyards walls were renovated between
2002 and 2006. Further information can be found at
www.natur.sachsen.de
.

image
image
18
The districts and independent towns responsible
for disposal have a legal obligation to draw up yearly
breakdowns of the type, amount and residue of
muni-
cipal waste.
In 2005, these bodies received around
2.44 million tonnes of municipal waste. Around 23 %
of this was non-recyclable waste from households and
small commercial concerns. 77 % of the total waste
was reprocessed. Only 23 % of the waste had to be
disposed of directly.
Waste avoidance and waste separation between 1995
and 2005 resulted in the reduction of non-recyclable
waste from 264 to 134 kg/inhabitant.
The Abfallablagerungsverordnung [Ordinance on
Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from
Human Settlements and on Biological Waste-Treat-
ment Facilities] came into effect in June, 2005. Under
this regulation, non-recyclable waste must be treated
before being placed in landfi lls.
The 11 public waste disposal bodies are responsible for
the
treatment of non-recyclable waste
in Saxony.
(8 Abfallzweckverbände [refuse organizations], and the
3 verbandsfreie kommunale Gebietskörperschaften
[independent municipal authorities] of Dresden,
Hoyers werda, and the district of Delitzsch). The waste
disposal bodies were responsible for the construction
of 4 treatment plants for non-recyclable and bulk waste
which have an annual capacity of 870 000 tons.
The pre-treatment of waste required under the
Abfallablagerungsverordnung means that now only the
residue remaining after treatment is stored in
landfi ll
sites.
Saxony currently has fi ve landfi ll sites for the
storage of waste from human settlements. Two of
these landfi lls meet the requirements for a Class I
landfi ll and three the stricter requirements for a Class II
landfi ll. Only the latter are authorised for long-term
operation after 2009. The landfi lls have an authorised
capacity of c. 6 million cubic metres. 2 million cubic
metres of landfi ll capacity have already been prepared
for storage.
Hazardous waste
is waste which, as a result of its
nature, characteristics or quantity poses a particular
risk to health, air or water, or of explosion or fi re.
Waste which carries or could cause infectious diseases
is also classifi ed as hazardous waste. Such waste may
come from industrial of other commercial enterprises
or public institutions. Hazardous waste must be treated
separately in accordance with the nature of the risk.
The amount of such waste rose in recent years to
1.67 million tons in 2004. A slight decrease of 152 000
tons was recorded in 2005. Around 500 000 tons of
hazardous waste was disposed of in other federal
states in 2005.
Over 2 million tons of hazardous waste has been
reprocessed or disposed of in Saxon treatment and
disposal plants each year since 2004. Half of the
hazardous waste came from other federal states
or from abroad. Further information can be found
at
www.abfall.sachsen.de
.
9. Waste management/Recycling
9
||||||||| WASTE MANAGEMENT/RECYCLING
Receiving Municipal Waste in a Mechanical-Biological Waste
Treatment Plant
Development of Household Waste per Capita 1995 – 2005
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1995
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
264
237
201
184
170
160
150
145
137
136
134
kg (E.a)

image
19
There has been a considerable increase in
noise pollu-
tion
in Saxony since the early 1990s, largely as a result
of the sharp increase in traffi c. In recent years, how-
ever, it has remained almost constant. The situation in
Saxony is thus in line with the national trend.
Telephone forums for noise complaints
have been
being organised across Saxony since 2000 as part
of the April campaign “Tag gegen Lärm” [“Anti-noise
day”] (see illustration). These have revealed the
following key issues and trends over recent years:
>
The percentage of complaints about street noise
has dropped slightly in recent years, but is still by far
the greatest subject of complaints each year.
>
Noise pollution from sport and leisure facilities,
events, restaurants and air traffi c is constantly
increasing.
>
Complaints concerning the industrial and commer-
cial sector have remained relatively stable.
Thanks to targeted and successful work by the
Immis sions schutzbehörden [pollution protection
authorities] in noise prevention in
industrial and
commercial plants,
a high level of protection has
already been achieved in these sites in recent years.
These plants no longer present a signifi cant source of
noise pollution.
The percentage of the population exposed to an ave-
rage sound level of over 65 dB(A) during the day or
55 dB(A) at night as a result of road traffi c, on the other
hand, amounts to c. 11 % and c. 14 % respectively.
10
|||||||||| OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
10.1
Noise protection
10. Other environmental issues
The radiation protection system is based on the
following principles:
>
Work with radioactive substances and the use of
ionising radiation must be justifi ed, i.e. the advan-
tages of such applications must be weighed against
the associated risks.
>
All unavoidable exposure of people, objects or the
environment to radiation is to be kept as low as
possible and all unnecessary exposure to radiation
is to be avoided.
>
The set limits on radiation exposure must be
adhered to.
Radiation protection in the fi eld of machine-generated
ionising radiation, in other words
plant radiation pro-
tection
, focuses on the medical and industrial sectors
(nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, radioactive measuring,
controlling and regulating techniques, mobile materi-
als testing in chemical, biological or pharmacological
research and in environmental analysis). 151 permits
and alteration permits were issued in the 2006 calen-
dar year.
There were 390 authorised or approved applications in
Saxony at the end of December 2006 which involved
the use of radioactive substances or the use of equip-
ment for generating ionising radiation:
10.2
Radiation protection
Noise complaints by noise source
Results of the “Anti-noise day”
100 %
80 %
60 %
40 %
20 %
0 %
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Road traffic
Building sites/Road works
Air traffic
Industry/Business
Rail traffic
Sport and leisure facilities
Events/Restaurants
Neighbours
Other
2007

image
20
The total number remained more or less constant in
the period under review.
Radioactive substances which are no longer in use
must be handed in to a
Landessammelstelle
[regional
collection point]. The Landessammelstelle operated
by the Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analy-
tik e. V. (VKTA) [organisation for decommissioning and
dismantling disused nuclear sites] is responsible for
collecting radioactive waste from Saxony, Thuringia
and Saxony-Anhalt for intermediate storage. At the end
of 2006, the site contained waste with a total activity
of 68 terrabecquerel.
Regarding pollution by
natural radiation,
signifi cant
progress has been made in reducing exposure to radi-
ation, largely progress in the rehabilitation of disused
uranium mines. The federal government is providing
EUR 6.2 billion for rehabilitation work in the Wismut
mine area in Saxony and Thuringia. Half of this goes to
Saxony, which had used about 75 % of the estimated
funding at the end of 2006.
Over the period 2002 to 2005, 196 permits were
issued for the rehabilitation of Wismut sites and
disused uranium mining sites and around 220 offi cial
checks were carried out. 125 ha of spoil heaps and
34 ha of operating area were rehabilitated in this period
from Wismut sites alone.
There was a reduction in
radon pollution
from resi-
dential and work premises thanks to funding for rehabi-
litation and public awareness measures. 374 individual
consultancy sessions, 742 indoor air measurements,
278 soil air measurements and 491 measurements of
gamma radiation were carried out in the period under
review as part of the radon consultation programme.
Further information can be found
www.strahlenschutz.
sachsen.de
.
10
|||||||||| OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Use of Radioactivity according to the German Radioactivity Regulation
Agency in Saxony
Use in industry
Use in research and training
Other uses and work in other
institutions
Use in medicine
Indicators
Status: 31/12/2006
Total Number: 930
12 %
16 %
20 %
23 %
29 %
10.3
Electromagnetic fi elds
New technologies are exposing people to an increasing
amount of low and high-frequency radiation from elec-
tromagnetic fi elds in their daily lives. Many people are
worried as they cannot judge the effect of these fi elds
on their health. The rapidly growing mobile phone net-
work in particular is surrounded by such uncertainty.
We differentiate between low and high frequency
fi elds, as they have different effects on the human
body. Low-frequency fi elds occur around power lines,
for example, while mobile phone facilities generate
high-frequency fi elds. According to the most recent
scientifi c fi ndings, if legal exposure limits are adhered
to, there is no risk of adverse health effects.
At the end of 2006, the environment departments of
the Regierungspräsidien in Saxony recorded 6373 low-
frequency and 5 361 high-frequency facilities. Over
1 000 facilities are currently being added to this list
each year; most of these (c. 60 %) generate high-
frequency fi elds.
All comprehensive measurement programmes carried
out in recent years by the Bundesnetzagentur [Federal
Network Agency] (in Saxony at around 130 sites each
year) and other measurements by the environment
de partments of the Regierungspräsidien show that the
appli cable limits for high-frequency facilities are not
being exceeded.

image
21
Since 2004, the website of the Bundesnetzagentur has
provided access to information on transmitters and to
the results of the national measurement programme.
This database also records all transmitters in Saxony
and the Bundesnetzagentur sampling/measurement
sites.
10
|||||||||| OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
10.4
Biotechnology and genetic engineering
Year
Type of grain
Total No. of samples
negative
positive
2001
Corn
53
52
1
Rapeseed
32
32
0
Soybean
220
2002
Corn
35
33
2
Rapeseed
29
29
0
2003
Corn
53
52
1
Rapeseed
19
19
0
2004
Corn
40
40
0
Rapeseed
37
33
4
2005
Corn
28
27
1
Rapeseed
36
36
0
2006
Corn
37
35
2
Rapeseed
110
Examination of Seeds for Genetically Modifi ed Seeds in Saxony
Test results
There is a wide range of applications for biotechnology
and genetic engineering, above all in medicine, agri-
culture and environmental protection. In order to take
full account of the principle of protection set out in the
Gentechnikgesetz [Genetic Engineering Act] (GenTG),
genetic engineering work and facilities
are regularly
monitored. Particular attention is paid to the protection
of workers dealing with genetically modifi ed organisms
(GMO) and the prevention of the unintentional release
of GMOs into the environment.
156 facilities using genetic engineering in research
were in operation in Saxony at the end of 2006. 115 of
these were classifi ed as security level 1 (no risk to man
or the environment), 40 as security level 2 (slight risk)
and one as security level 3 (moderately high risk). The
number of genetic engineering facilities had thus risen
by c. 30 % since 2002 (118 facilities).
Between 2002 and 2006, a total of 302 checks were
carried out in genetic engineering facilities. Offences
of the Gentechnikgesetz regulations were only dis-
covered in one case. This concerned a laboratory in
which security level 1 genetic engineering work (no
risk to man or the environment) was being carried out
but which was not registered in accordance with the
Gentechnikgesetz.
Deliberate releases
of genetically modifi ed plants are
monitored on site by the Sächsische Staatsministerium
für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft. This usually concerns
sowing, harvesting and/or the deactivation of the plants
as well as subsequent checks after the trials are com-
pleted. The checks monitor adherence to the regulati-
ons on which authorisation is based and the operator’s
records. There were no objections as a result of any of
the 45 checks between 2002 and 2006.

image
image
22
In Saxony, conventional
seeds
have been checked
for genetically modifi ed organisms since 2001. The
number and results of the analyses can be seen on the
preceding page. Those values marked with a star were
in the non-quantifi able traces range below the limit of
quantifi cation of 0.1 %. No measures were taken as
the genetically modifi ed organisms were approved for
circulation and the results could not be reproduced.
10.5
Chemicals
The basic goals of the Chemikaliengesetz [Chemicals
Act] which came into effect in 1982 are to protect
human health, gaurentee a safe work environment,
and ensure environmental protection. The monitoring
carried out in Saxony during the period under review
concerned tar oil, chlorofl uorocarbons, classifi cation
and labelling regulations for hazardous preparations
and biocides.
Tar-oil based wood treatments
contain harmful
substances such as the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene.
Apart from a few exceptions, it has been illegal since
1992 to market or use products which are impregnated
with such wood treatment agents. The regulations
were tightened again in 2002. Monitoring procedures
continue to uncover breaches of the ban on the use
of sleepers and pylons impregnated with tar oil in the
private sphere. The number of breaches discovered is,
however, decreasing. For example, in 2005 the number
of cases uncovered was still around 40; in 2006 this
was down to 15.
Chlorofl uorocarbons
and
hydrochlorofl uorocar-
bons
are signifi cant contributors to the disintegration
of the ozone layer in the stratosphere and to the
greenhouse effect. Their use has thus been banned
other than for a few exceptions. Existing refrigeration
and air conditioning facilities with more than 3 kg of
such refrigerants must be checked every year for
leaks. A large number of facilities were checked for
adherence to the regulations. In 2003, 74 % of facilities
checked were adhering to regulations. In 2004, 95 %
of all those checked were in compliance with the
regulations.
10.6
Hazardous incident provisions and plant security
Plants in which hazardous substances are handled
or could be produced may only be constructed and
operated if suffi cient measures for preventing harmful
effects on the environment and avoiding other dangers
are put in place. Areas where particularly large quanti-
ties of hazardous substances are handled are subject
to the Störfallverordnung [Hazardous Incident Ordi-
nance]. This sets out specifi c responsibilities. Opera-
tors must draw up a comprehensive safety report and
an internal alarm and danger prevention plan.
The safe operation of a plant and the appropriate
documentation are the responsibility of the plant ope-
rator. The responsible supervisory authorities monitor
the implementation of the ordinance, for example by
checking the records and documentation (e.g. the
safety report) and regular site inspections.
In Saxony, the environment departments of the Re-
gierungspräsidien are responsible for
monitoring
the
66 plant areas with basic obligations (status end of
2005) and the Sächsische Landesamt für Umwelt
und Geologie is responsible for monitoring the 41 plant
areas with more extensive obligation (status end of
2005). As part of its monitoring work, the Sächsische
Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie carried out a
total of 69 site inspections between May 2005 and
December 2006. 30 safety reports and alarm and risk
prevention plans were also checked by experts.
10
|||||||||| OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

image
image
23
The relevant authorities must be notifi ed immediately
of all
incidents
affecting the legal operation of plants
which are covered by the Störfallverordnung. Incidents
are events involving hazardous substances which
lead to signifi cant damage to people, property or the
environment. Cases of lesser proportions are referred
to merely as “reportable events”.
A total of 23 incidents or reportable events occurred
in the facilities covered by the Störfallverordnung
between 2000 and 2006. In previous years, a dispro-
portionate number of such events had occurred in
chemical plants; in recent years, there have been a
larger number of accidents in facilities which handle
explosive substances and pyrotechnics and munitions
disposal plants.
10.7
Earthquake risks
Saxony has a notable amount of seismic activity.
Historically, seismic events measuring over 6.5 on the
EMS scale (M>4 on the Richter scale) were observed
in West Saxony on repeated occasions. An average of
around one quake a month is recorded. The last signi -
fi cant quake occurred in the Vogtland in autumn 2000,
when over 10 000 individual earthquakes were recor-
ded (magnitude of up to 3.6 on the Richter scale).
A measurement network was set up to record seismic
activity. This covers the entire area and is in continuous
operation. The role of seismic monitoring is not to pre-
dict earthquakes but to demarcate and defi ne seismi-
cally active areas and ensure the rapid provision of
information when earthquakes occur. The fi gure oppo-
site shows seismic activity in West Saxony since 1987
and the Seismologie-Verbund [Seismology Association]
gauging stations.
10
|||||||||| OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Seismic Activity in West Saxony since 1987
and Seismic Measuring Stations
Online network – LFUG
Online network – other
Offl ine network
Epicentres since 1987
Epicentres in 2000

Imprint
2007 Environmental Report
Publisher:
Saxon State Ministry for the Environment and Agriculture
PO Box 10 05 10, 01076 Dresden, Germany
Internet:
www.smul.sachsen.de
E-Mail: info@smul.sachsen.de (No electronically signed and encrypted documents accepted)
Copy Date:
September 2008
Photos:
Saxon State Ministry for the Environment and Agriculture (9, 12, 13, 16, 18); LfUG (11);
fotolia (4, 7, 9, 22)
Layout:
Heimrich & Hannot GmbH
Distribution
Information :
This information is distributed by the State Government of Saxony in accordance with
public information work. It may not be used by political parties or their volunteers for political
advertising purposes. This applies to all elections.