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State Chancellery
Freistaat
Sachsen

 
Message and Greeting
.................................................................................................................................................
2
State and People
Delightful Saxony:
Landscapes/Rivers and Lakes/Climate .........................................................................................
5
The Saxons – A people unto themselves:
Spatial distribution/Population structure/Religion ..........................
7
The Sorbs – Much more than folklore
............................................................................................................
11
Then and Now
Saxony makes history:
From early days to the modern era .....................................................................................
13
Tabular Overview
........................................................................................................................................................
17
Constitution and Legislature
Saxony in fine constitutional shape:
Saxony as Free State/Constitution/Coat of arms/Flag/Anthem .......................
21
Saxony’s strong forces:
State assembly/Political parties/Associations/Civic commitment .....................................
23
Administrations and Politics
Saxony’s lean administration:
Prime minister, ministries/State administration/
State budget/Local government/E-government/Simplification of the law ...............................................................................
29
Saxony in Europe and in the world:
Federalism/Europe/International relations .............................................
34
Law and Order
The judiciary – The third force in Saxony:
System of justice/Judicial officers ............................................
37
For a safe Saxony:
Police/Crimes/Prison service .......................................................................................................
38
Saxons are well protected:
Emergency services/The 2002 floods/Flood protection ............................................
39
Economy and Employment
Saxony powers ahead:
Economic structure/Foreign trade/Trade fairs/
Economic development/Labour market/Income and prices ...................................................................................................
43
Making a living from nature in Saxony:
Farming and forestry/Animal husbandry/Wine-growing/ Mining ..
50
Infrastructure and Communications
Saxony in motion:
Highways and transport networks ................................................................................................
55
Saxony’s cities
..............................................................................................................................................................
58
Saxony has energy:
Power industry/Energy exchange/Drinking water/Waste disposal ............................................
58
Saxony thinks for itself:
Press/TV and radio/Private broadcasters .......................................................................
61
Saxony’s international links:
Telephone and new media .....................................................................................
63
Education and Research
Saxony educates itself:
Education/Universities, colleges and professional academies/Libraries and archives.......
65
Saxony thinks ahead:
Inventions/Research and development/ Technology transfer ................................................
70
Welfare and Sports
We Saxons take care:
Cosmopolitan Saxony/Healthcare/Families/People with disabilities/
Social security/Senior citizens ................................................................................................................................................
75
Sporting Saxony
...........................................................................................................................................................
78
Art and culture
Experiencing culture:
Castles, palaces and gardens/Architecture/ The fine arts/ Music and the performing arts/
Popular art/ Fairs and festivals/Cultural promotion .................................................................................................................
81
Saxony treasures memories:
Museums/Memorials ...............................................................................................
88
Typically Saxon:
Dialect(s)/ Saxon cooking ................................................................................................................
90
Countryside and Leisure
Countryside and environment in Saxony:
Flora/Nature reserves/Environmental conservation ..................
93
Saxony welcomes visitors:
Tourisms/Leisure facilities/Recreation areas .............................................................
96

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2
Message of Greeting
Prof. Dr.
Georg Milbradt,
Prime Minister
of the Free
State of Saxony
The Free State of Saxony has a varied history rich in traditions; moreover,
it has a fascinating present and a promising future. The foundation of
the margravate of Meissen in 929 is considered the birth date of Saxony.
As a consequence of the beginning of silver mining in the Erzgebirge
the state flourished during the 12th century, towns emerged; Leipzig
University was founded as early as in 1409 and in 1497 the city was
granted the privilege to hold fairs.
Numerous inventions were made in Saxony; artists and scientists of in-
ternational reputation worked here, most notably Johann Sebastian Bach,
Bernardo Belotto (“Canaletto”), Caspar David Friedrich, Wilhelm Ost-
wald or Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. It was also the Saxons who started
the peaceful revolution in autumn 1989 with their demonstrations in
Leipzig, Plauen, Dresden and other towns and cities, hence paving the
way for German reunification.
The cultural treasures in the state attract people from near and far. The
treasures in the Green Vault in the Dresden Palace, the picture galleries
and the many historical jewels also outside the state capital testify to the
rich cultural heritage. The rebuilt Dresden Church of Our Lady is a symbol
which is famous far beyond the borders of Saxony. After almost 15 years
of reconstruction, with the help of donations from all over the world, it
was consecrated again on 30 October 2005–271 years after the first
consecration. Approx. 250,000 people showed their interest in this event.
The people in Saxony, among them people from the Vogtland region, from
the mountains of the Erzgebirge, Sorbians and Lower Silesians, are very

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Message of Greeting
3
aware of their history as well as their traditions. And they still provide
impulses for the development of the Free State with their down-to-earth
approach, cosmopolitan attitude, their joie de vivre, their entrepreneurial
spirit as well as their industriousness and scientific drive. This is also why
Saxony is called the land of engineers. Dresden is also one of the biggest
centres of research in Germany and was the “city of sciences” in 2006.
The successful settlement of large international corporations and centres
of research since 1990 points the way into the future. One of the
buzzwords today is “Silicon Saxony”, which refers to the microelectronics
site between Dresden and Freiberg which is the leading site of this kind
in Europe; another buzzword is “Car Country Saxony” with VW, BMW
and Porsche locations or “biosaxony”, the biotechnology initiative by
the government of the state.
As the most dynamic federal state, Saxony is once again the winner of the
ranking of the federal states by Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft
(INSM) and Wirtschaftswoche after 2004. This indicates that the positive
economic development is continuing with unabated dynamic strength.
Let me invite you to get to know Saxony. Visit the Saxon Switzerland
National Park or the two most recent sites on the world heritage list, the
Dresden Elbe Valley and Fürst Pückler Park in Bad Muskau. Or perhaps
you would like to enjoy a concert by Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden
or St. Thomas’ Boys Choir from Leipzig.
Take part in one of the many fairs, in events in the cultural scene or
experience the Sorbian traditions when riders in festive costume announce
the resurrection of Christ in one of the traditional Easter rides.
The international pub festival “Honky Tonk” and Europe’s biggest Wave
and Gothic meeting in Leipzig, the International Dixieland Festival in
Dresden, Europe’s biggest splash festival in Chemnitz, the international
meeting of Trabant drivers in Zwickau as well as the “Day of the Saxons”,
the biggest fair and festival in the state, all extend a warm invitation.
The possibilities are as diverse as the Free State is varied. Allow yourself
to be surprised about what is in store for you! Saxony has more to offer
than can be presented in this short volume.
Georg Milbradt

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4
State and People
STATE AND
PEOPLE

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State and People
5
Delightful Saxony
Location and area
Saxony lies in the east of the Federal Republic of Germany and extends
from the lowlands of Leipzig and Lower Lusatia highlands to the ridge
of the Erzgebirge and the Vogtland hills in the south. Its south-eastern
perimeter is the Elbsandsteingebirge and the Zittau mountains.
Saxony shares borders with the German federal states of Brandenburg,
Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Bavaria and has a 454 km border with
the Czech Republic as well as a 123 km border with Poland.
The state has an area of 18,415 sq. km. This makes the Free State of Saxony
the fourth smallest among the federal states of Germany excluding city
states. Saxony’s highest-altitude town is Oberwiesenthal, an Erzgebirge
spa 920 metres above sea level, and its lowest point is Greudnitz, a district
in the town of Dommitzsch, Torgau-Oschatz rural district, that is 73 metres
above the sea level. Saxony’s state capital is Dresden.
Lowland Saxony
The main lowland area is the north Saxon lowlands, with altitudes of
around 100 metres above sea level rising to around 160 metres above
sea level to the south. Open-cast brown coal workings have wrought
considerable changes on some parts of the countryside over time.
The Leipzig lowlands extend like an ocean bay far into the Saxon hills
and are excellent farming country. The eastern lowlands are characterised
mainly by the Oberlausitz heath and pond region. To the north is another
area where open-cast mining of brown coal has made its marks.
Saxony’s hill country
Saxony’s hill country reaches altitudes of 120 to around 280 metres. It
stretches from the Leipzig region across the Mulde loess hills and the
loess hills of central Saxony to the hills and mountains of western Lusatia.
In eastern Upper Lusatia, it extends as far as the Polish border.
The loess stratum, which is very dense in some places, provides fertile
soil for agriculture, for which the area called Lommatzscher Pflege is
known far and wide.
Saxony’s central mountains
Saxony’s central mountains include the Vogtland, the Erzgebirge, the
Elbsandsteingebirge, the Oberlausitz highlands and Germany’s smallest
central mountain range, the Zittau mountains. Saxony’s highest elevation is
the 1,215 metre Fichtelberg in the Erzgebirge. While sandstone is the
predominant rock in the Elbsandsteingebirge and the Zittau mountains, the
Restored old city centre
of Görlitz
Lommatzscher Pflege

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6
State and People
Distance over which the
rivers run through
Saxony as of 2003
Data: State Statistical
Office of Saxony
Elbe
180 km
Zwickauer Mulde
167 km
Lusatian Neisse
125 km
Freiberger Mulde
120 km
Weisse Elster
117 km
Spree
111 km
Vereinigte Mulde
83 km
Erzgebirge is distinguished by prominent basalt peaks. Mineral resources
made the Erzgebirge an important mining region, especially for silver ore
and tin, which were extracted here from the twelfth century onward.
Rivers and lakes
Saxony has a total of 15,389 kilometres of rivers and streams. The main
river, the Elbe, flows through the free state for 180 kilometres. Other major
rivers are the Mulde and its source rivers, the Freiberger Mulde and the
Zwickauer Mulde, the Lausitz Neisse, the Spree and the Weisse Elster.
All the larger bodies of standing water in Saxony are man-made. They
were either created by damming rivers (reservoirs) or by flooding
abandoned open-cast mines. With an area of 7.5 sq. km the Quitzdorf
reservoir in eastern Saxony currently forms the biggest Saxon lake in
terms of the water surface. At 75 million cubic metres the Eibenstock
reservoir, which also has the highest dam structure with a 51,3-high
wall, has the biggest reservoir capacity. With an area of approx. 13 sq. km,
Bärwalder Lake in Lusatia, a former open-cast mine, will be the biggest
lake in Saxony once flooding has been completed in 2007. With a total
volume of 387 million m³, Berzdorfer Lake, which is also located in
eastern Saxony, will hold the biggest volume.
The Müglitztal flood control reservoir, which is currently the second
biggest water construction site in Europe, will be completed in 2006
with a storage capacity of more than 5 million cubic metres. The lands
which were devastated by surface mining over decades are now being
given a new perspective in particular for the development of the regions
for tourism by flooding the abandoned open-cast mines.
Climate
Saxony is located in the transitional zone between the maritime climate
of western Europe and the continental climate of eastern Europe. The
climate largely depends on the respective geographical locations on site.
Vines flourish in the valley of the Elbe river between Pirna and Meissen
Winter in the Erzgebirge

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State and People
7
Magnificent weather
in the Saxon Switzerland
region
Population density of the
districts and
incorporated cities
Inhabitants per sq. km
as of: 31 Dec. 2004
Data: State Statistical
Office of Saxony
(long-term annual average temperature from 1971 until 2000 in Dres-
den-Klotzsche: 9.2°C). The Leipzig lowland area also enjoys favourable
climatic conditions. In the highland regions, in particular towards the
Erzgebirge, there is predominantly harsher weather with higher quantities
of precipitation (long-term annual average temperature on the Fichtelberg
from 1971 to 2000: 3.2°C). These climatic conditions ensure that snow
is almost guaranteed on the ski-runs during the winter. However, the
annual average of the temperatures from 1951 to 1980 only amounted to
8.5°C in Dresden-Klotzsche and to 2.8°C on the Fichtelberg.
Of the 15 state-registered health resorts three are registered as fresh-air
health resorts on account of their favourable climatic conditions.
The Saxons – A people unto themselves
Spatial distribution
Not everyone who lives in Saxony is a “Saxon”. There are also Vogtlanders,
Sorbs, Erzgebirgers, Meisseners, Upper Lusatians, Lower Silesians and
many more besides. Many have their own traditions and dialects, but all
are at home in Saxony.
With a population of 4,296,284 people and a population density of 233
inhabitants per square kilometre the Free State of Saxony has the highest
population and the highest population density among the new federal
states – except Berlin.

8
State and People
Selected population
data as of
31 Dec. 2004
Data: State Statistical
Office of Saxony
Total population
4,296,248
of which women
2,204,463
of which men
2,091,821
of which foreign nationals
118,480
of which persons aged under
18 14.3 %
of which persons aged between 18 and under 65
64.2 %
of which 65 years and older
21.5 %
Total births 2004
33,044
of which girls
16,920
of which boys
16,124
Total deaths 2004
48,254
Number of persons moving to Saxony 2004
126,240
Number of persons leaving Saxony 2004
136,384
Compared with the rest of Germany, Saxony occupies one of the middle
ranks among the federal states which are not city states in terms of
population and population density. With the upper valley of the river
Elbe between Pirna and Meissen, the city of Leipzig and the south-
western Saxon area between Chemnitz and Zwickau Saxony has three
conurbation areas. However, Lusatia, the region between Grimma, Tor-
gau and Döbeln and the Erzgebirge on the other hand which is located in
the north-eastern part of the state is relatively sparsely populated.
On 30 June 2006 almost one third (28.7 %) of the state’s population
lived in the three big cities of Dresden (489,259 inhabitants), Leipzig
(499,232) and Chemnitz (247,589). However, only Dresden and Leipzig
managed to achieve minor increases in the number of inhabitants over
the last years. On the other hand, a continuous decline in the number of
inhabitants has been registered in all districts and incorporated cities.
More than two thirds of all Saxon municipalities have less than 5,000
inhabitants.
Population Structure
As in most federal states, the age pyramid of Saxony is very irregular in
structure. It displays major ruptures for those who are approximately
60 years old today (2nd World War), for the 30-year-olds (drop in the
birth rate on account of the impact of the contraceptive pill) and 0-to15-
year-olds (drop in the birth rate on account of the opening of the Wall).
The effect of the reduction in the number of inhabitants caused by World
War II would have been even bigger if 997,798 displaced persons from

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State and People
9
Population structure
by age and sex
As of: 31 Dec. 2004
Data: State Statistical
Office of Saxony
Silesia, Pomerania and the Sudetenland had not settled in Saxony. In
1949 this corresponded to a share of 17.2 % of the population (source:
German Federal Archives).
Only 14.3 % of Saxons are younger than 18 years, while 21.5 % of the
population are aged 65 years and over. Roughly one half of the adult
Saxons (46.8 %) is married, more than one third (38.1 %) is single, the
remaining part of the population is either widowed (8.3 %) or divorced
(6.9 %). Compared with the other federal states there are fewer foreigners
in Saxony; in 2004 they accounted for a share in the population of only
roughly 3 %. The Vietnamese formed the biggest group of foreign
nationals, with a total of 11.7 %.

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State and People
Members of the
Protestant and Roman
Catholic Churches
31 Dec. 2004
Data: State Statistical
Office of Saxony
Protestant churches
924,533
of which Lutheran Protestant Church of Saxony
843,296
of which Protestant Church of Silesian Upper Lusatia,
Saxon part
51,893
of which Protestant Church of the Church Province of Saxony,
Saxon part
29,344
Roman Catholic Church
156,280
of which Diocese of Dresden-Meissen, Saxon part
134,818
of which Diocese of Görlitz, Saxon part
15,513
of which Diocese of Magdeburg, Saxon part
5,949
Saxon Family Day
in Görlitz
on 17 June 2006
Demographic change
The demographic trends in Saxony are declining just like those for
Germany and for many industrialized countries. Whereas there was a
total of approx. 4.9 million inhabitants in the Free State of Saxony on
1 January 1990, this number only amounted to 4.3 million inhabitants at
the end of the year 2004. This reduction in the number of inhabitants by
11 % is attributable to the low birth rate to approx. three fifths. In addition,
there have been losses on account of migration, in particular into the old
federal states. A further reduction to 3.8 million inhabitants is forecast
until the year 2020. This decline in the number of inhabitants will be
accompanied by an ageing of the population.
With 44.4 years Saxony already has the highest average age of all the
German federal states today. This average age will increase to up to
49 years by the year 2020. At that time, every third Saxon will be older
than 65 years of age.
The effects of demographic change will have an impact on almost all spheres
of life. In particular, the Free State of Saxony is faced with the problem of
providing an adequate infrastructure for the inhabitants despite the fact that
earnings will decline by approx. 25 % until the year 2020.
In order to establish new and efficient structures, the Saxon state
government is developing new strategies for coping with the demographic
change with the help of various experts from research and business. A
comprehensive reorganisation of the administration is provided for as a
first important step to ensure more efficiency as of the year 2007. The
strategies for an active management of this shrinking process are being
developed together with the citizens. Model projects have been initiated
in two different regions in which adjustment strategies are being
developed for coping with demographic change.

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State and People
11
Traditional Easter riders
in Lusatia
New synagogue in
Chemnitz
Religion
Approximately one fourth of the Saxon population (25.1 %) belongs to
one of the two big Christian churches. In this context the protestant
denomination is the predominant one in the motherland of the Reforma-
tion. At the end of 2004 approx. 17.9 % of the population were members
of the Protestant churches in Saxony.
In addition to the Protestant Lutheran Church of the State of Saxony,
Saxony comprises parts of the Protestant Church of Berlin-Branden-
burg-Silesian Upper Lusatia
1)
and the Protestant Church of Central
Germany (EKM) Ecclesiastical Province of Magdeburg.
In Saxony, 3.6 % of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church.
The church is divided into the dioceses of Dresden-Meissen, Görlitz and
Magdeburg which extend beyond the borders of the state. Moreover,
there are three fast-growing Jewish communities in Saxony, with 2,314
members.
Furthermore, there are several free churches and other religious
communities.
The Sorbs – Much more than folklore
Saxony and the neighbouring state of Brandenburg are home to the nati-
onal minority of the Sorbs, a western Slavic people. Visitors to the Lau-
sitz region first become aware of this when they see road signs, place
names and names above shops written in two languages.
Occasionally, you still see people in national costume and especially
around Easter time you can see at first hand local festivities and customs
such as during the Easter rides in many communities or beautifully
decorated Easter eggs. Around two thirds of the roughly 60,000 Sorbs
live in Oberlausitz, eastern Saxony. Their cultural centre is Bautzen and
Saxony’s constitution expressly grants their culture state protection.
The Domowina with headquarters at the House of the Sorbs in Bautzen
forms the umbrella organization of Sorbian clubs and associations. The
Sorbian language is the most important feature of Sorbian identity. It is
spoken in parts of the settlement area of the Sorbs in daily life and within
the families. The Sorbian language, art and culture are preserved in
particular in Sorbian kindergartens, schools as well as associations.
1)
With effect as of 1st January 2004 the Protestant Church in Berlin-Brandenburg and the Protestant Church of
Silesian Upper Lusatia merged to form the Protestant Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia.

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12
Then and Now
THEN
AND NOW

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Then and Now
13
A section of the mural
"Fürstenzug" at the Dresden
Stallhof.
Saxony makes history
History until 929
Between the fourth and sixth centuries AD the German tribes who had
settled in the region convered by the present Free State of Saxony emigrated.
From approximately 600 AD the region was settled by Sorbs, a Slavic
people from the region of present-day Poland and the Czech Republic.
Margravate of Meissen 929–1423
After subjugating the Daleminzers, a Sorbian tribe, the German King
Heinrich I in 929 founded the march of Meissen. To convert the heathen
population to Christianity, the dioceses of Merseburg, Zeitz and Meissen
were established in 968. In 1089, the Wettins were enfeoffed of the
margravate. During the course of eastward expansion, migrant farmers
and townpeople reinforced the German upper class of nobles and
churchmen.
The region had its first economic heyday during the rule of Margrave
Otto the Rich, 1156–1190. Land was cleared to make way for many new
villages, mainly the characteristic linear villages that stretched out along
a road. Behind each farmstead was a narrow strip of farmland bordered
by rows of trees and hedges. In the Erzgebirge, mining developed.
Initially, small deposits of tin, copper and iron ore were found. In 1268,
the discovery of a large deposit of silver ore in Freiberg triggered the
first “Berggeschrey”, comparable with the nineteenth-century gold rush
in America. From mid-twelfth century, numerous towns were established.
Heinrich the Illustrious, 1221–1288, succeeded in adding handsomely to
the Wettin possessions. He acquired the Pleissenland region, the landgravate
of Thuringia, and Lower Lusatia, and established the march of Lands-
berg as a new principality. In the following period, family quarrels and
disputes over inheritance diminished the power of the sovereign princes.
After losing the march of Meissen to King Adolf of Nassau and King
Albrecht of Austria, Margrave Friedrich the Joyful won it back at the
Battle of Lucka in 1307, thereby laying the foundation for the house of
Wettin to rise again. His successors succeeded in acquiring important
territories, among others in the Pleissenland and Vogtland regions and in
Thuringia. In 1382, the Wettin possessions were divided between
Meissen, Osterland and Thuringia. However, the Meissen branch of the
family died out in 1407 and the Thuringian line in 1440, so the Wettin
possessions were reunited again. In 1409, a new university was
established in Leipzig for German masters and students who had
emigrated from Prague.

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14
Then and Now
Deed dating back to
1497 granting Leipzig
the privilege to hold fairs
Emil Eugen Sachse:
Elector Moritz of
Saxony, Kupferstich-
Kabinett Dresden
(Copperplate engraving
gallery, Dresden)
2)
The term “vacant” is used to signify that the previous incumbent died and there was no legitimate heir.
3)
In the Middle Ages, the “Stapelrecht” was a privilege granted by the ruler to certain towns. It permitted them to
require merchants passing through to offer their wares for sale in the town for a specified period.
Electorate of Saxony 1423–1485
As a mark of gratitude for the battle against the Hussites, in 1423 Emperor
Sigismund awarded Friedrich the Valiant the vacant
2)
Duchy of Saxony-
Wittenberg in fee. Wettin rulers thereby acquired the rank of Elector and
the name “Saxony” passed to the Wettin territories. In 1464, Dresden
became the elector’s capital.
Albertine Duchy of Saxony 1485–1547
In 1485, the Leipzig Partition divided the Wettin possessions between
brothers Ernst (founder of the Ernestine line) and Albrecht the Valiant
(founder of the Albertine line) in the long run.
Ernst was awarded central and south Thuringia, Vogtland, most of Oster-
land and the Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg along with the rank of Elector
and Torgau and/or Wittenberg as his capital. Albrecht’s territory covered
the old March of Meissen, eastern Pleissenland, the Leipzig region and
northern Thuringia. His seat of government was Dresden. Unlike the
Ernestine Friedrich the Wise, who gave protection to Martin Luther, the
Albertine Georg the Bearded opposed the Protestant doctrine. Only after
his death in 1539 did the Reformation come to his territories.
From the mid-fifteenth century, large finds of ore in the Erzgebirge led
to the emergence of more mining centers (Schneeberg, Annaberg). In
1491, miner Kaspar Nitzel of Frohnau discovered a rich vein of silver,
thereby triggering the “great Berggeschrey” in the upper Erzgebirge and
a massive influx of people. Saxony’s trades and crafts flourished. Emperor
Maximilian I in 1497 granted Leipzig the right to hold trade fairs and in
1507 a further privilege known as the “Stapelrecht”. The city rose to
become
3)
central Germany’s leading trade fair and trading centre.
Albertine Electorate 1547–1806
Duke Moritz, who with Emperor Charles V defeated the Ernestine Elector
Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, secured
the status of elector and parts of the Ernestine territories for the Albertines.
Elector August succeeded in acquiring the secularised dioceses of Merseburg,
Naumburg and Meissen, along with the Vogtland. The Electorate of Saxony
made its last major territorial gains during the Thirty Years’ War, when the
1635 Peace of Prague assigned to Saxony the margravates of Oberlausitz
and Niederlausitz, which had been pledged in 1623.
Nonetheless, the Thirty Years’ War left Saxony severely devastated and
after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 its status in the Empire declined. In

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Then and Now
15
Heinrich Paul Groskurt:
Medal portraying
Augustus the Strong,
Münzkabinett, Dresden
Historic view of Meissen
1656 the three collateral lines of Zeitz, Merseburg and Weissenfels were
made independent principalities and separated from Electoral Saxony.
However, by 1746 their ruling families had died out and returned to the
main House of Wettin. During the rule of Elector Friedrich August I
(Augustus the Strong), Electoral Saxony steadily increased its political
weight. The Elector converted to Catholicism and in 1697 he was crowned
King of Poland. In Saxony, a Catholic Elector was now governing over a
mainly Protestant population. His son and heir Friedrich August II
continued the union between Saxony and Poland, where he was King
August III. August the Strong and his successors were passionate collectors,
and the Saxon capital owes them gratitude for numerous splendid buildings
and treasures, as well as its reputation as “Florence on the Elbe”.
In 1710, Augustus the Strong established the Meissen porcelain factory.
From that time on, he made official gifts of porcelain to diplomatically
important families. In 1763, Saxony lost the Seven Years’ War and
relinquished the Polish crown as a result. The state recovered swiftly from
the consequences of war and manufacturing, especially of textiles in
Chemnitz and the surrounding area, flourished. In the eighteenth century,
Leipzig evolved into the centre of the German book trade and publishing.
Kingdom of Saxony 1806/15–1918
After Napoleon’s defeat of Prussia, Saxony signed in 1806 a treaty with
the French in Posen (now Poznan), joined the Federation of the Rhine
and was rewarded with the status of a kingdom. During the Continental
Blockade numerous mechanical spinning workshops were set up,
marking the start of industrialisation. After the Battle of the Nations at
Leipzig in 1813, King Friedrich August I, who had stood by his alliance
with Napoleon to the last, was taken prisoner by the opposing Allies and
forced to cede more than half his territory to Prussia. Eastern Upper
Lusatia was incorporated into Silesia, Lower Lusatia into the province
of Brandenburg, and the remaining territories into the province of Saxony.
Other areas of Electoral Saxony fell to Saxony-Weimar.
After revolutionary disturbances in September 1830, Saxony was given
a constitution in 1831. During the period of constitutional monarchy,
reforms brought change to public administration, municipal and
agricultural affairs and elementary schools. As railways were built and
steam engines put to use, industrialisation marched on.
When the 1848 March Revolution took place, the King initially gave in to
the democratic forces. However, he had the Dresden revolt of May 1849
brutally quashed with the help of Prussia. After its defeat in the war of
1866, Saxony was forced to join the North German Federation. In 1871 it
merged with the German Empire. The empire, however, had a federal

image
16
Then and Now
structure that guaranteed a certain measure of independence. In the
nineteenth century Saxony developed into a highly industrialised state. It
was the most densely populated region in Europe. When Ferdinand Lass-
alle founded the General German Workers’ Association (ADAV) in 1863
in Leipzig, it also became the cradle of the German labour movement.
Free State of Saxony 1918–1945; State of Saxony 1945–1989
During the 1918 November Revolution, King Friedrich August III
abdicated. Saxony became a free state and in 1920 adopted a democratic
constitution. The Social Democratic Party was the leading force in the
state assembly and in difficult economic and political circumstances
Saxony had a Social Democratic state premier until 1929. From 1929 to
1933, conservative governments ruled the state.
After the National Socialists came to power in 1933, Saxony was brought
into line with the Reich. In other words, it ceased to exist as an
independent free state and was placed under a Reich governor. That was
the end of parliamentary democracy. During World War II Saxony
suffered heavy loss of life and cultural assets. In particular, the destruction
of Dresden along with the Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) between
13 and 15 February 1945 came to symbolise war. After 1945 new borders
were drawn along the Oder and Neisse rivers and the territories around
Görlitz and Hoyerswerda that had been ceded in 1815 again became
part of Saxony, which was under the control of the Soviet occupying
forces. In 1949, Saxony became a state in the German Democratic Republic
(GDR). To strengthen centralist structures, in 1952 the GDR states were
dissolved and Saxony was divided into three administrative regions:
Chemnitz (renamed Karl-Marx-Stadt in 1953), Dresden and Leipzig, apart
from a few areas that were incorporated into the Cottbus and Gera regions.
Görlitz and Niesky were Saxon centres of the popular uprising of 17 June
1953, which was quashed as brutally in Saxony as elsewhere. In the early
1980s, campaigns like Swords into Ploughshares, the Sozialer Friedens-
dienst (a peaceful alternative to military service) and the Dresden Peace
Forum made Saxony an important source of inspiration to the peace
movement and the emerging opposition in the GDR.
Free State of Saxony from 1990
The peaceful revolution of 1989 that spread from Leipzig, Plauen and
Dresden throughout the GDR (Monday Demonstrations) ended the rule
of the SED, the East German communist party. The Free State of Saxony
was re-established on 3 October 1990, comprising the administrative
regions of Leipzig (less Altenburg and Schmölln districts), Chemnitz
and Dresden and the districts of Hoyerswerda and Weisswasser that had
Chemnitz Museum
of Industry

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Then and Now
17
Middle Ages 900 to 1500
German Prehistoric era 1000 BC to 900 AD
Date
Development in Germany
Time
Development in Saxony
5th BC
Start of Germanic immigration
c. 600
Settlement by Slavs begins
800
Charlemagne crowned Emperor
of the Holy Roman Empire
919
First reference to the
929
German King Henry I establishes
“Empire of the Germans”
the Margravate of Meissen
962
Otto I The Great has himself
crowned Roman Emperor
1089
The Margravate of Meissen falls
to the Wettin dynasty
c. 1160
Leipzig granted city charter
1168
Commencement of silver
mining near Freiberg
c.1170
Foundation of the city of Chemnitz
1206
First reference to Dresden
in a document
1307
Battle of Lucka
1347–1351
The Black Death rages in Europe
1348
Foundation of the first German
university in Prague
1409
Establishment of Leipzig University
1423
The title of the Elector of Saxony de-
volves upon the Margrave of Meissen
c. 1440
Invention of typography by Gutenberg
1485
The Leipzig Partition
1495
Diet of Worms – General peace
in the land is announced
by Emperor Maximilian
1497
Leipzig is granted the privilege
to hold fairs by the emperor
Prof. Dr. Georg
Milbradt, prime minister
previously been part of Cottbus. When the GDR acceded to the West
German constitution, Saxony became a state of the Federal Republic of
Germany. On 27 October 1990, the state assembly elected Prof. Dr. Kurt
Biedenkopf as Saxony’s first post-reunification prime minister. In 1992,
the state adopted a new constitution. Since 18 April 2002 Prof. Dr. Georg
Milbradt has been the prime minister of the Free State of Saxony. In
2004 and 2005 he was awarded the title “Prime Minister of the Year” by
the “WirtschaftsWoche” journal and “Initiative Neue Soziale
Marktwirtschaft” for the successes which Saxony has achieved.
Tabular Overview

18
Then and Now
1517
Martin Luther nails his Ninety-five
Theses on the door of the Schloss-
kirche (Castle Church) in Wittenberg
1522
Luther's translation of the bible is
1525
Battle of Frankenhausen – the army
published – forms the basis of
of peasants under Thomas Müntzer
standard German
suffers a devastating defeat
1539
Beginning of the Reformation
in Albertine Saxony
1547
Battle of Mühlberg; the title of the
elector devolves upon
Albertine Saxony
1618
Outbreak of the Thirty Years' War
1635
Peace of Prague and assignment of
Upper and Lower Lusatia to the
Electorate of Saxony
1648
Peace of Westphalia
1697
Elector Friedrich August I (“Augustus
the Strong”) converts to Catholicism
and receives the Polish crown
1710
Establishment of the Meissen Porcelain
Factory by Augustus the Strong
1756–1763
Seven Years’ War (Prussia and
1763
The Treaty of Hubertusburg; as a
England against Austria, France,
result of the war Saxony relinquishes
Sweden and Russia)
the Polish crown in 1765
1769
James Watt invents the steam engine –
beginning of industrialization
1789
French Revolution
Date
Development in Germany
Time
Development in Saxony
Early Modern Age 1500–1800
Modern Age from 1800
1806
Establishment of the Confederation of
1806
Saxony becomes a kingdom and a
the Rhine, Emperor Franz II abdicates
member of the Confederation
of the Rhine
1814
End of the wars of liberation
1813
Battle of Nations at Leipzig – victory
against Napoleon
for the allied forces (Austria, Prussia,
Russia and Sweden) in the war
1814/15
Congress of Vienna – Creation
of liberation against Napoleon
of the German confederation
1815
Saxon partition
1831
Saxony becomes a constitutional
monarchy
1835
The first German railway runs
1839
Opening of the first long–distance
between Nuremberg and Fürth
railway line between Leipzig and
Dresden with the Saxonia, a
locomotive built in Saxony
1849
Adoption of a constitution
1849
Rejection of the constitution for the
for the empire
empire by Friedrich August II, May
revolt in Dresden (Richard Wagner
and Gottfried Semper emigrate)
1850
Dissolution of the state parliament,
restoration of the old order

Then and Now
19
Date
Development in Germany
Time
Development in Saxony
Date
Development in Germany
Time
Development in Saxony
Development after German re-unification
1862
Prince Otto von Bismarck becomes
Prussian prime minister
1863
Establishment of the General German
Workers' Association in Leipzig
1866
Establishment of the North
1866
Saxony joins the North
German Confederation
German Confederation
1870/71
Franco-Prussian War
1871
Saxony becomes one of the states
forming the newly established
German empire
1883–1889
Introduction of welfare
legislation by Bismarck
1914–1918
World War I
1918/19
November Revolution and the end
of the monarchy; Saxony becomes
a free state
1919
Treaty of Versailles
1922/23
Great depression, high inflation
1933
Hitler's rise to power
1933
Elimination of all opposition; the
Free State of Saxony is brought
into line with the Third Reich
1938
November Pogroms
1939–1945
World War II
1943
Most severe air raid on Leipzig
1945
Heavy bombing of Chemnitz
and Dresden
1945
Potsdam Conference
1945
Saxony becomes part of the Soviet
zone of occupation
1949
Saxony becomes part of the
German Democratic Republic
1952
The state of Saxony is dissolved;
formation of the three administrative
districts of Chemnitz (as of 1953:
Karl-Marx-Stadt), Dresden and Leipzig
1953
Uprising of 17 June against increased
1953
Görlitz and Niesky are centres
production quotas and for free elections
of the popular uprising
1961
Building of the Berlin Wall
1968
The “Prague Spring”
1989
Beginning of the peaceful revolution
October 1989
Leipzig, Plauen and Dresden are
centres of the demonstrations
3.10.1990
Accession of the five new federal
3. Oct. 1990
Re-establishment of the
states to the Federal Republic
Free State of Saxony
of Germany
1992
Adoption of a new Saxon constitution
2002
A flood disaster hits Saxony
1. May 2004
Festivities celebrating EU expansion
in Zittau

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20
Constitution and Legislature
CONSTITUTION
AND
LEGISLATURE

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image
Constitution and Legislature
21
Saxon State Assembly
Building in Dresden
The principle of the
separation of powers
Saxony in fine constitutional shape
Saxony as a Free State
In November 1918, when the monarchy was collapsed, the Republic of
Saxony was proclaimed (10 November) and the King abdicated (13 No-
vember). The newly elected Saxon People’s Chamber adopted on
28 February 1919 the Preliminary Basic Law for the Free State of Saxony
and retained the designation “free state” in its final constitution, making
Saxony the oldest free state in Germany.
“Freistaat” (free state) is a German term that corresponds to the French
“république” and underscores the idea that the state is governed by free
citizens and not by a sovereign. Coining German words for foreign terms
was very much in keeping with the spirit of the times, and that is why
the term “Freistaat” prevailed over “Republik.” The term “free state”
and above all parliamentary democracy as the system of government on
which it was based were retained until the law which brought the indivi-
dual German states into Line with the Third Reich came into force on
31 March 1933.
When states were reintroduced in the territory of the German Democratic
Republic in 1990 the aim was to institute a return to democratic traditions.
The “free state” enjoys no privileges or special legal characteristics in
relation to a “Land” or (federal) state, but its traditions of statehood are
very much older.

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22
Constitution and Legislature
Coat of arms of the
Free State of Saxony
Coat of arms of the
Saxon state assembly
Saxon state flag
4)
rosette, national emblem on uniforms
5)
ribbon worn as a badge, usually of a knightly or honorary order
Constitution
In drafting a constitution for the Free State of Saxony, the State
Assembly’s constitutional and legal affairs committee, which was in
charge of the procedure, was able to fall back on a number of
constitutional drafts drawn up in 1990 in the wake of the citizens’
movement (the Gohrisch Draft, the Leipzig University Teachers’ Draft).
The free state’s constitution was finally approved on 26 May 1992 by
the Saxon state assembly and came into effect on 6 June 1992.
Coat of arms
The escutcheon of the Saxon coat of arms is divided into nine black and
gold horizontal stripes on which, from top left to bottom right, a green
ornamental band is superimposed. The ornamental design is taken from
the Gothic style of architecture that flourished in Saxony. The Free State
of Saxony founded in 1918 took over the old Saxon coat of arms with its
stripes and Rautenkranz, or crancelin. From 1990 the free of state of
Saxony resumed this heraldic tradition. While the state administration
uses the coat of arms in a plain version, the state assembly uses the
baroque version. The official state flag uses the plain version.
Flag
Historically speaking, the Saxon flag is a relative newcomer. Its
colours date back to instructions issued by King Friedrich August I
on 22 May 1815 to Lt-Gen. von Lecoq to take over command of the
Saxon forces on the Rhine. Item 7 of these instructions specified that
a wide green trim was to be added to the Saxon troops’ previously
white cockade
4)
to prevent them from being mistaken for other
contingents. News of this instruction preceded the King on his return
to Saxony after a peace treaty that was less than glorious for the
kingdom. Dresden awaited him bedecked in white and green flags.
Students from Leipzig wore white and green ribbons on their lapels,
soldiers wore white and green cockades
4)
and civil servants wore white
and green cordons
5)
on their hats. These new colours symbolised a
fresh start after the Wars of Liberation (from Napoleon) in which
Saxony had sustained heavy losses. The Free State of Saxony founded
in 1918 adopted the white and green flag of the former monarchy. It
has since twice had to make way for totalitarian government. The
National Socialists replaced it by the swastika flag, and after the state
of Saxony had been abolished and replaced by three administrative

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Constitution and Legislature
23
Plenary chamber in
the Saxon state
assembly building
regions in the German Democratic Republic, it was again replaced
after a brief post-WWII renaissance by the GDR flag. The tradition
of the Saxon flag was resumed after 1990.
Anthem
There is no official Saxon anthem. When interest in one was expressed
after 1990, the state assembly and state government decided to find
out how strong this interest was. The findings of a 1997 opinion poll
conducted by the Emnid market research organisation were clear. A
mere 27 % of Saxon respondents wanted the free state to have an
anthem and 72 % were opposed to the idea. A popular unofficial
“anthem” is “Sing, mei Sachse, sing” by Jürgen Hart, while the
traditional “Gott sei mit Dir, mein Sachsenland” (Hallbauer/Otto) is
more formal and anthem-like.
Saxony’s strong forces
State assembly (Legislature)
Immediately after the German Democratic Republic acceded to Basic
Law on 3 October 1990, Saxony became a federal state of the Federal
Republic of Germany. State assembly elections were held on 14 October
1990. From the elections held on 11 September 1994 the legislative
period was extended from four years to five, with the result that
subsequent elections were held on 19 September 1999 and 19 Septem-
ber 2004. The Saxon state assembly, or parliament, is the supreme
representation of the people. The constitution describes the state
assembly as the “place where the political will is formed”. Its powers
are both legislative – the passing of legislation – and the exercise of
control over the executive. Elected for a five-year term, the state
assembly can only dissolve itself if two thirds of its members choose
to do so. A three-stage process of direct democracy complements the
state assembly’s legislative process. Forty thousand signatures are
required for a Volksantrag, or referendum petition, to kick-start the
process of direct democracy. If the state assembly rejects the petition,
450,000 voters can then initiate a petition that must be followed by a
referendum. The referendum decides on the issue by a simple majority.
The state premier, elected by the state assembly, and cabinet ministers
constitute the state government as the state’s supreme executive

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24
Constitution and Legislature
Distribution of seats
in the Saxon
state assembly after
the elections
of 19 Sep. 2004
Data:
State statistical
office of Saxony
6)
Further information is available at
www.landtag.sachsen.de
authority. The government can only be voted out of office by a vote of
constructive no-confidence that names and elects a new state premier.
In the fourth legislative period, 2004–09, the state assembly has 124
members. Its speaker is Erich Iltgen. His first, second and third deputy
speakers are Regina Schulz, Andrea Dombois and Gunther Hatzsch.
6)
Political parties
The predominant role of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in
Saxony is not based on historic roots or on any particular part of society.
Initially, the party’s former federal chairman, Federal Chancellor Hel-
mut Kohl, earned the CDU its popularity as the foremost advocate of
German reunification. This role was later taken over by the first state
premier, Kurt Biedenkopf, CDU. The CDU also took over from its East
German predecessor in 1990 a largely functioning statewide
organisational structure. In spite of a sharp fall in membership since
reunification (1990: 37,200; 31 December 2003: 15,407 members), the
CDU not only won all directly elected seats in the 1994 and 1999 state
assembly elections but also the absolute majority in 50 and 49 of the 60
constituencies respectively. In 2004 it lost its absolute majority for the

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Constitution and Legislature
25
Election results of the
elections for the Saxon
state assembly
Data:
State Statistical
Office of Saxony
first time and formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Party (SPD).
The SPD only founded a state association in May 1990 and had to set up
its organisational structure in Saxony from scratch. Its membership has
been largely unchanged for years, totalling 4,453 at the end of 2004.
It also lacks an established voter base. Its historic roots and strong Social
Democratic traditions in the Weimar Republic and the immediate post-
WWII period in Saxony have evidently failed to exercise any effect. The
SPD, which emerged from the 1994 state assembly elections just ahead
of the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) as the second-strongest
political force in Saxony, lost its leadership of the Opposition in the
state assembly in 1999 to the PDS, the successor to the communist SED.
In 2004 it again polled the poorest SPD result in any German state. The
PDS is the party with the largest membership in Saxony (15,280 at the
end of 2004), but its membership is very much lower than it was in 1990
(72,000). Saxony’s PDS emerged in August 1990 from a merger of the
SED organisations in the three administrative regions into which Saxony
was divided in communist East Germany. In the 2004 state assembly
elections it improved on its 1999 performance by 1.4 % and now has
more than twice as many state assemblymen as the SPD. In 1990, the
Saxon Greens, Democracy Today and the New Forum contested the state
assembly elections on a joint slate, winning 10 seats. Alliance ’90/The
Greens was not set up in Saxony as a merger of these three organisations
until September 1991, joining the federal party in spring 1992. In the
1994 state assembly elections, divisions in the civil rights and

26
Constitution and Legislature
environmental conservation movement were instrumental in the party’s
narrow failure to poll the 5 % needed for representation in the state
parliament. It failed again in 1999 but succeeded in 2004 by polling
5.1 %. Membership of Alliance ’90/The Greens in Saxony has marked
time for several years at around 900 (907 at the end of 2004). The Free
Democratic Party (FDP) in Saxony was formed in 1990 as a merger of
the League of Free Democrats (the former LDPD and NDPD), the East
German FDP founded early in 1990, and the New Forum. In this
constellation it secured representation in the state assembly in 1990,
which it failed by a wide margin to do in later elections. In 2004 the Free
Democrats returned to the state assembly by polling 5.9 %. With 2,550
members at the end of 2004, the FDP had the third-smallest membership
base. Only the Greens and the NPD had fewer members in the state.
The National Democrats (NPD) were elected to the Saxon state assembly
for the first time in 2004. In 2004 the NPD was the second smallest
party in Saxony with 942 members. Founded in 1990 in Saxony, it gained
initial support but has lost nearly half its members since 1998. The Of-
fice for the Protection of the Constitution says the NPD rejects
parliamentary democracy, yet it was elected democratically. It continues
to be under observation by the Saxon Office for the Protection of the
Constitution.
Associations/Trade unions
The structures of the Confederation of German Trade Unions (DGB) in
Saxony are based mainly on the six regional units in the state. Their
organisation, along with that of individual affiliated unions, was
completed toward the end of 1991. In recent years DGB (without ver.di,
the trade union for the service sector) membership has declined heavily.
In 1991 it still had around 1.34 million members in Saxony. At the end
of 2004, numbers were down to a mere 147,958. At the end of 2004
Ver.di, the largest trade union in Saxony, still had 127,794 members.
Business associations
The organization of bussiness associations in Saxony is also based on
the structure of the administrative districts of Dresden, Leipzig and
Chemnitz. As a result of this, there are three chambers of industry and
commerce as well as three chambers of trade. Vereinigung der Sächsi-
schen Wirtschaft e. V. (VSW), the Association of Saxon Business,
registered association, which was founded in 1998 as the umbrella
organization of the Saxon employers’ and business association, safeguards
the interests of the employers in Saxony.

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Constitution and Legislature
27
Verein Sonnenstrahl e. V.
Dresden – Association
supporting children and
adolescents suffering
from cancer
Medal “Annen-Medaille“
VSW works as the state representation of the Federal Association of
German Employers’ Associations (BDA) and of the Confederation of
German Industry, registered association (BDI). Since 1991 the
Employers’ Association of Saxony, registered association, has represented
the interests of its members, in particular of small and medium-sized
companies, across different industries since 1990.
Civic commitment
Our society benefits from solidarity, a sense of civic responsibility, and
courage to stand up for one’s beliefs. Societies and people working in a
voluntary and unpaid capacity look after large parts of Saxony’s cultural,
social, religious and sporting activities. Whether it is in the voluntary fire
service or the technical relief agency, whether it is in tenants’ associations
or tax advice co-operatives, voluntary workers in kindergartens, homes and
hospitals, in sports clubs or aid projects, in church institutions, in cultural
projects or even fields of activities in music, arts or history – volunteers
contribute financially, through cash, ideas or physical activity. They form
an important foundation for social life within Saxony. For this reason,
the free state supports civic commitment with awards, grants benefits or
expenses allowances.
Once a year the state government awards the “Voluntary Joker” to
members of the public for service to the community. Since 1995 the
state has also awarded the Annen-Medaille to up to 20 Saxon citizens
per year with a longstanding record of selfless service to the community
and to society at large. In addition, the free state of Saxony awards the
Saxon Order of Merit, founded by Kurt Biedenkopf. It is awarded to
men and women who have been of special service to the state of Saxony,
for services to business, sport, society, the humanities, science and
technology or for outstanding voluntary service. The number of holders
is limited to 500. Each of them can nominate candidates for membership
to the State Chancellery. The award decision is made by the state premier.

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28
Administration and Politics
ADMINISTRATION
AND
POLITICS

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Administration and Politics
29
The Saxon State
Chancellery, view from
the new Ministry Building
Saxony’s lean administration
Prime minister, ministries
The State Chancellery and eight ministries head the administration of the
free state as its supreme state authorities. The departmental principle means
that each member of the state government is separately and personally
responsible for his or her portfolio. The prime minister, or state premier,
is in overall charge, with responsibility for deciding the fundamental
direction of policy. The prime minister’s tasks include deciding on the
number of ministries and appointing and dismissing ministers, under-
secretaries, civil servants and judges. He represents the free state
externally and can exercise the right of pardon or reprieve. The Saxon
state chancellery works for and reports directly to the state premier. As
the supreme state authority it takes on a headquarter staff role in
relations with the ministries. The head of the state chancellery presides
over the preliminary conference of undersecretaries that prepares for cabinet
meetings. He assists the state premier in laying down policy guidelines
and checks approved legislation for conformity with the constitution before
the prime minister signs it. The government spokeswoman is in charge of
explaining state government policy to the media and the general public.
State administration
For the most part, Saxony’s state administration operates on three levels.
They are the state government (state chancellery and ministries as supreme
state authorities), the “middle level” (three regional commissioner’s offices
and other supreme state authorities), and the “lower level” (towns that
constitute an administrative district in their own right and rural adminis-
trative district offices insofar as they undertake state activities, and other,
lower-level special state agencies). In the course of administrative
simplification departments with a two-level administrative organisation
such as the Saxon police now exist.
State budget
The Saxon state budget for 2006 provided for total expenditure of around
EUR 15.5 billion
7)
. Compared with West German non-city states, Saxony’s
per capita spending
7)
is around 28 % higher, the aim being to make good,
especially in the long term, the state’s large backlog of public-sector
infrastructure investment. As at the end of 2005, indebtedness totalled
EUR 12.2 billion, or EUR 2,849 per head of the state’s population. The per
capita indebtedness of German states in the former East Germany except
7)
The information provided does not include any receipts and disbursements for overcoming the damage caused
by the flooding in August of 2002

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30
Administration and Politics
Administrative
regions in Saxony
Saxony averaged EUR 6,818 on 31 December 2004. Annual net public
borrowing has been scaled down steadily since 1994 apart from 2002
and 2003, when tax revenues were much lower than expected and it
was not possible to offset the shortfall by budget economies and curbs
on expenditure.
In 2006 the planned new debt (net borrowing) amounts to EUR 250 million.
This means 1.6 % of the budget is financed through loans. In the budget
for 2006
7)
the Saxon fiscal coverage ratio amounts to 49.0 %, whereas it
totals approx. 71 % on average in the old non-city states in western
Germany. This means that the state finance of the Free State is largely
dependent on allocations under the fiscal equalization scheme among the
federal states as well as on allocations by the federal government and the
European Union (2006: EUR 7.01 billion)
7)
.
Approximately one third of the total expenses was earmarked for human
resources expenses (27.8 %) and interest (4.1 %). A total of EUR 3.49 billion
7)
was available for investment (excluding the expenses
7)
for the removal of
the damage caused by the 2002 flooding). The high share of investment
expenditure (investment ratio: 22.5 %) characterizes the Saxon budget
compared with the old federal states (average: 9.7 %) as well as with the
other new federal states (average of the new federal states excluding Saxony:
18.8 %). This serves to show how strongly the Federal State of Saxony
focuses on the development of the state. The medium-term financial planning
for the years 2005 to 2009 adopted by the Saxon state government continues
Chemnitz
Dresden
Leipzig
7)
The information provided does not include any receipts and disbursements for overcoming the damage caused
by the flooding in August of 2002

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Administration and Politics
31
Tasks of the
municipalities as per the
Saxon local statutes
Nature
of the
Task
Whether
How
Examples
Compulsory tasks
Whether the task
How the task is
Registration by the
as instructed
(
subject
is to be fulfilled
is
performed is de-
terms of the Registra-
to directives
)
determined by law
termined by law
tion Act, protection of
law and order by the
terms of the Police Act
Compulsory tasks
Whether the task
How the task is
Setting up piblic
(
not subject to
is to be fulfilled
is
performed can be
schools by the terms
directives
)
determined by law
decided by the lo-
of the Education Act
cal authority itself
running a fire service
by the terms of the
Firefighting Act
Voluntary tasks
Whether the task
How the task is
Cultural affairs and
is to be fulfilled is
performed can be
welfare matters,
decided by the lo-
decided by the
sports and recreation
cal authority
local authority
facilities, promotion of
itself
clubs and societies
New town hall in Leipzig
to consistently pursue the guideline of high investment expenditure which is
incorporated in the annual budgets in a binding manner.
Local government
In an endeavour to make the administration leaner, the formerly 48 districts
were reduced to 22 districts and seven autonomous towns and cities
(Dresden, Chemnitz, Leipzig, Görlitz, Plauen, Zwickau, Hoyerswerda)
in the framework of a reform of the administrative districts of Saxony.
This was followed by a reform of local government in the framework of
which the number of the Saxon municipalities was reduced from 1,626
to currently 511 municipalities through mergers and incorporations. On
application, municipalities which form part of a district can be classified
as large district towns provided they have more than 20,000 inhabitants
or used to be district towns. In addition to their “normal” tasks large
district towns also carry out a part of the tasks of the district administration
office for their area.
The local statutes for the Free State of Saxony were last amended with
effect as of 11 June 2005. According to these the local council which is
elected for a five-year term of office is the most important authority within
the municipality and takes decisions in all important matters concerning
the municipality. The mayor, who is simultaneously the chair of the local
council and is elected directly by the citizens for a term of seven years, is
responsible for discharging the tasks of the day-to-day administration, the
tasks entrusted to him/ her by the local council as well as the compulsory

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32
Administration and Politics
ELSTER
The program for
electronic tax returns
tasks. On the level of the municipalities, the formation of the political will
is supplemented with procedures of direct democracy (residents’
applications, petitions for citizens’ referendums and citizens’ referendums).
The regulations for the administrative districts of 19 July 1993 provide for
corresponding stipulations also with regard to the level of the administra-
tive districts. Local authorities are entitled to perform their tasks jointly
with other local authorities. To do so they may set up ad-hoc administrati-
ve consortiums and administrative or special-purpose associations and
conclude special-purpose agreements.
E-Government
E-government is generally taken to mean administration and government
with the aid of modern communication technologies, especially the
Internet. The advantage is that the administration can offer companies
and the general public services such as information and data
interchange online, saving time and money on both sides and thereby
making public services much more user-friendly. The free state and
local government are collaborating closely to make efficient use of
the facilities in place. The long-term E-government schedule of the
Saxon state government comprises more than 130 projects within
the part of the state and approx. 70 projects within the part of the
municipality. In the year 2005, the Saxon E-government platform
was commissioned with a form service, an editing service for internet
sites and a joint state portal. With the help of this platform all state
and municipal authorities can offer both citizens and companies easy
access to electronic services. In the state government’s InfoHighway
the free state of Saxony already has a data network via which all
officials of the Saxon state administration can exchange data as if
they were all sitting in a single building. The InfoHighway network
consists of more than 840 km of fibre optic cable and is capable in its
core ring of transmitting 2.5 gigabits per second.The municipalities
of the Free State communicate with each other as well as with the
state government via the Municipal Data Network (KDN). In autumn
of 2005 all autonomous towns, all district administrations and the
predominant share of the municipalities of Saxony which belong to
one of the districts – in total 285 locations – were connected with
each other via KDN. This means all the municipal and state authorities
connected to the system have a secure network platform with a high
degree of availability. The InfoHighway and the municipal data

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Administration and Politics
33
Amt24
network are connected to the TESTA system (Trans-European Ser-
vices for Telematics between Administrations) of the federal
government. This ensures a smooth exchange of data with the federal
administration, the other federal states as well as the European
administration. The Saxon authorities offer an increasing number of
services electronically. For example citizens and companies can
inspect essential legal provisions of the Free State of Saxony via the
internet or they can obtain information on the current water levels
within the Free State of Saxony on-line at all times.
Amt 24
E-government is available for the citizens of the Free State at
http://amt24.sachsen.de.
Amt24 is Saxony’s on-line citizens’ advice
bureau, which already makes working with the authorities easier today
and which will permit the execution of administration procedures on-
line from the PC at home in the near future. The structure of Amt24 is
based on so-called “life events”, which we all experience at some stage
of our lives. Amt24 went on-line with a total of eight specific subjects,
which have been supplemented and expanded continuously since that
time. Connected with these “life events”, the user can find descriptions
of the administrative procedures, a guide to the authorities which helps
you to find the competent authority for every procedure as well as a
form service for providing the required forms. Amt24 is a project of the
Free State and its municipalities – a project with a future!
Simplification of legislation
In the development of new laws and regulations the state government
checks, amongst other aspects, the necessity and feasibility of the planned
regulation as well as the possibility of a simplification of legislation as
well as administration. In addition, a campaign entitled “Regulation
pillory” (“Paragraphenpranger”) was initiated in February 2003 in order
to give the citizens the possibility of submitting proposals for the abolition
or simplification of Saxon laws, regulations or administrative rules.
The state government has set up a committee for the reduction of rules
and regulations evaluating more than 1,800 proposals received so far
and prepares recommendations regarding these. The total of the admi-
nistrative rules in Saxony has already been reduced by more than one
half. Further information on this project is provided on the internet at
www.paragraphen-pranger.de.

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34
Administration and Politics
The Free State of
Saxony is located at
the heart of Europe.
Saxony in Europe and in the world
Federalism
The Free State of Saxony is one of 16 German federal states. On principle,
these states are entitled to discharge the powers of the state and to fulfil
the tasks of the government. In order to make sure that certain powers and
tasks are enforced uniformly throughout the entire territory of the Federal
Republic of Germany, the Basic Law allocates the legislative powers to
the federal government in various fields. In these cases the federal states
co-operate in the legislative process of the federal government via the
Bundesrat. The Bundesrat has an outstanding position as a connecting
link between the federal states and the federal government and has also
developed such a position towards the European Union for some years.
This is also illustrated by its incorporation in the Basic Law as a
constitutional entity. Since the establishment of the Federal Republic of
Germany the number of laws of which the federal states have to approve
has increased continuously. However, the parliamentary procedure
connected with this has increasingly proved to be inefficient. For this
reason, the lower house of the German parliament, Bundestag, and the
upper house of the German parliament, Bundesrat, launched a legislati-
ve procedure for modernization of the federal structure in the year 2005.
This procedure aims at improving the capacity to act and to react on the
part of both the federal government and the federal states, at assigning
political responsibilities more clearly as well as at increasing the
efficiency of the performance of their respective tasks. This so-called
reform of federalism was passed by Bundestag and Bundesrat in 2006.
Saxony in Europe
Following the accession of ten states to the European Union on
1 May 2004 the Free State is not only located at the geographic heart
of Europe. This expansion and, in particular the accession of our
neighbours Poland and the Czech Republic, provide great opportunities
for the Saxon citizens and companies; however, they also entail
considerable risks arising from the increasing competition. For example,
one of the consequences of enlargement has been that the funds from
the European structural funds from which Saxony has benefited to a
considerable degree for more than one decade, are now increasingly
provided to the new member states, which are structurally weaker. This
means the administrative district of Leipzig will not be among the
districts classified as development areas with the highest priority within
the EU any more in the future. Nonetheless, measures for economic
development, for raising the level of employment, for co-operation

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Administration and Politics
35
across the different states as well as for the development of rural areas
will still be supported throughout Saxony. For the period from 2007 to
2013 total funds from the structural funds to the amount of approx.
EUR 4 billion will be available. The main aims of funding are support
for sustainable economic growth as well as the creation and protection
of jobs. On the one hand, an increasing effort is to be made in order to
ensure that young people acquire the skills necessary for finding a job
in this process. On the other hand, the problems resulting from the
demographic trends in the Free State of Saxony are to be taken into
account at an early stage.
In many cases, the interests of Saxony within the EU are represented by
the respective member state, i.e. by the federal government in this case.
According to art. 23 GG (German Basic Law) the state government
participates in the formation of political will in matters regarding the
EU via the Bundesrat. Currently, the main topics of Saxon European
politics are EU structural policy as well as the reform of the EU. The
Saxon liaison office in Brussels, a subsidiary of the state chancellery,
maintains contacts with the institutions of the EU.
International relations
Since 1990, the Free State of Saxony has maintained a broad range of
international relationships with approx. 30 countries. These diverse forms
range from regional partnerships with currently five regions (Polish
districts of Lower Silesia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bretagne/F., Alberta/
Can.) to the co-operation in individual projects (bilingual kindergartens,
binational schools) or in subject-specific networks.
The co-operation across the border with the neighbouring countries of
Poland and the Czech Republic is of special interest to Saxony. Working
groups meeting regularly and intensive contacts on the level of the experts
help to fill these partnership agreements with life. Furthermore, the tri-
national regional relationships between Saxony, Lower Silesia and the
northern and eastern Czech districts are to be intensified in the future.
In addition to the existing partnerships, Saxony is expanding its relations
with the central and eastern European region, e.g. Hungary, the Baltic
states and Ukraine, as well as with the region of the Far East, e.g. indivi-
dual Chinese provinces. In 2006, the trips by members of the state
government to China and the Russian Federation and, moreover, the
participation of President Putin together with Federal Chancellor Angela
Merkel in the Petersburg Dialogue in Dresden in October as well as the
presentation of Saxony in the US capital Washington, DC on the occasion
of the Day of German Re-Unification on 3 October form the highlights
of the international encounters.
Prime Minister Milbradt
during his trip to Russia
in May 2006
Bi-national grammar
school of
Friedrich-Schiller
Gymnasium Pirna,
education of German
and Czech pupils

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36
Law and Order
LAW AND
ORDER

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Law and Order
37
Federal Administrative
Court in Leipzig
The judiciary – The third force in Saxony
System of justice
Justice is administered in Saxony on the one hand by the regular courts
consisting of 30 local courts, six state courts and the supreme state court
in Dresden. On the other hand, there are special courts consisting of
three administrative courts, three social courts, five labour courts, the
supreme administrative court, the Saxon state labour court, the Saxon
state social court and the Saxon financial court. The state justice ministry
is in charge of all of these jurisdictions.
Six public prosecutors’ offices and the state’s director of public
prosecution handle criminal cases. In 2005, Saxon courts and public
prosecutors completed more than 500,000 proceedings.
In 1993 Saxony became the first new federal state to establish a
constitutional court and one of the six federal supreme courts, the Federal
Administrative Court in Leipzig, is located in Saxony.
Judicial officers
As of 1 January 2006 the Saxon judiciary employed a payroll of 8,016
employees in addition to the staff at the Ministry of Justice. They included
1,009 judges, 335 public prosecutors, 1,015 judicial clerks, 2,737 clerks

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Law and Order
RECHT UND SICHERHEIT
Police in Saxony
and typists, 2,048 prison service officers, 175 social workers, 223 bailiffs,
12 economic specialists and 392 guards and other personnel.
There were also 6,861 jurors and voluntary judges. Moreover, 161
notaries and 4,279 practising solicitors were licensed as professionals.
As of 1 January 2006, 961 articled clerks were undergoing judicial
training.
For a safe Saxony
Police organisation
Since 1 January 2005 Saxon police organisation has been based on a
two-level administrative structure (with seven police departments at the
level of rural administrative districts or municipalities). 79 police stations,
five autobahn police stations as well as 88 police offices report to the
police departments.
In addition to the seven police departments, the Saxon Department of
the Interior also holds responsibility for the Landeskriminalamt or state
CID, the state police department of Central Services, the presidium of
the Bereitschaftspolizei or riot police, the police training and in-service
training institute as well as the police academy of the Saxon Police as
central offices and institutions.
Police officers
As of 1 January 2006 the Saxon police employed 12,168 police officers,
363 administrative officers, 1,698 salaried and 591 wage-earning staff.
The police colleges in Chemnitz, Dresden and Leipzig which are attached
to the Police training and in-service training institute of the Saxon police
in terms of their organizational structure train middle-grade officers. In
addition, the police academy of the Saxon police also offers training
facilities to qualify for and gain promotion to senior grades within the
police service.
Crime statistics
Over the last years, the number of crimes committed in the Free State of
Saxony has declined steadily. In the year 2005 318,166 crimes were
reported. Compared to the year 2004 this means a decline by 5.2 %. This
corresponds to 7,406 cases per 100,000 head of population. This is 364
cases less than in 2004. This means crime has reached the lowest level
since 1993.

Law and Order
39
The overall percentage of cases solved increased by 0.7 percentage
points to 58.6 %. A total of 186,476 criminal cases were solved. In
cases of violent crime three out of every four cases were solved. The
police identified 119,328 suspects. Among these were 4,039 children
(3.4 %) and 15,107 juveniles (12.7 %). In particular among children
but also in other age groups fewer suspects were identified than during
the previous year.
The financial damage reported amounted to EUR 414 million in total in
the year 2005. White-collar crime alone caused damage to the amount
of EUR 261.
Prison service
The Free State of Saxony has 10 prisons of which one has a hospital. In
2005, an average of 4,265 people were in prison. As in previous years,
there were no escapes in 2005. Four prisoners who failed to return from
release on parole were taken back into custody or returned to prison
voluntarily. Average costs per prisoner per day were EUR 69.16
(excluding construction costs). The 37 companies owned and operated
by the prison services offer a wide range of goods and services.
Saxony are well protected
Emergency services
Dial 112 for the emergency services and you will be put through to one
of 20 control desks for the ambulance and fire services in Saxony. The
desk officer (member of staff at emergency service headquarters) will
decide from case to case which service to call out. 109 ambulance centres
with 32 branch offices are manned round the clock all over Saxony. The
desk officer can also call out the fire service to fight fire or provide
technical assistance at the scene of accident. Seven professional fire
services and 508 auxiliary fire services are on call in 2,056 fire stations.
Disaster protection
Disaster protection is the task of the individual federal states. It comprises
the preparation for fighting disaster, fighting disaster as well as the co-
operation in provisional removal of damage. In the free state of Saxony
disaster protection has a three-tier structure.
In disaster protection, all the authorities of the free state, the rural districts
and communes as well as the private relief organizations (Arbeiter-Sa-

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40
Law and Order
Enormous piles of
rubbish everywhere like
this one in the city
centre of Grimma
mariter-Bund, Deutsche Lebensrettungsgesellschaft, German Red Cross,
Johanniter Unfallhilfe and Malteser Hilfsdienst) co-operate amongst
others. In case of need, the German Armed Forces as well as the Technical
Relief Agency also provide relief during a disaster.
For the provision of relief in the framework of disaster protection a large
number of units and facilities is available. In these units voluntary workers
and workers exempt from military service are available. All in all, the
Free State of Saxony currently has 6,514 relief workers at its disposal.
Flood disaster 2002
Im August 2002 Saxony was hit by an extraordinary flood disaster.
Heavy rainfall in the Erzgebirge first transformed the normally quiet
little rivers like the Weisseritz, the Zwickauer and the Freiberger Mulde,
the Triebisch and the Müglitz into torrential currents. Then the Elbe left
its riverbed and destroyed roads, bridges, railway tracks and buildings
throughout Saxony.
On 17 August the Elbe’s high water mark in Dresden reached 9.40 m
compared with a normal level of 1.26 metres. In Saxony, 16 rural admi-
nistrative districts and four municipalities were directly affected by the
flooding, which claimed 21 lives, left 110 people injured and caused
total damage to the amount of EUR 8.5 billion.
The wave of water was followed by an equally outstanding wave of
readiness to help which gave the people in the areas affected strength for
reconstruction.
Thanks to the many selfless people and assistance teams from Germany
and abroad, including the Bundeswehr, the disaster relief agencies (THW)
and the German Red cross, to name but a few, valuable works of art
from the Gemäldegalerie and the Albertinum in Dresden were saved.
Tireless helpers filled sandbags to build embankments and later helped
to clear away enormous piles of waste. Saxony is very grateful to everyone
who provided physical or financial assistance and thereby made possible
the reconstruction that was largely brought to a conclusion two years
after the flood.
157,000 people received the Saxon flood helpers’ award for their efforts.
Flood protection
After the August 2002 floods a large number of flood protection measures
were undertaken starting with the removal of damage on the Saxon rivers
and lakes (more than 18,000 cases of damage were reported). Until 2004
358 areas in Saxony covering a total of around 51,000 hectares were
classified as flood protection zones compared with a previous total of
just 23 areas. Saxony’s designation of flood water retention areas is unique

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Law and Order
41
Flood control basin
Lauenstein
in Germany with the aim of the preservation and improvement of water
retention.
Moreover, the flood water retention areas in Saxony’s reservoirs were
also expanded by approx. 26 million m³ to 150 million m³. In addition,
the flood warning service has also been reorganized completely with
reports being relayed uniformly by fax and e-mail down to rural district
level and passed on by SMS, fax and e-mail to local authorities from one
source. For a sustainable removal of damage and for preventative flood
protection a total of 47 flood protection concepts were drawn up to cover
the entire endangered area by March 2005. These contain approx. 1,600
proposals for flood protection measures on bodies of flowing water. The
investment programme regarding flood protection contains a total of
172 measures for the years 2005 to 2008 with a total volume of
EUR 310 million. By April 2006 preventative flood protection measures
with a volume of EUR 73.9 million were implemented. In addition to
the flood protection concept, a total of 545 newly prepared risk maps
were provided to the rural communes and rural districts which will
facilitate the avoidance of danger.
In further plans these can be taken into account in the rural communes
and, moreover, they are open for inspection by the public at any time.
Not least, the retention of water is also increased in the land area by
means of targeted cultivation of land, increasing of wood areas and wood
conversion as well as the renaturation of bodies of water.

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42
Economy and Employment
ECONOMY
AND
EMPLOYMENT

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Economy and Employment
43
Saxony powers ahead
Economic structure
Ever since silver was mined in the Erzgebirge in mediaeval times, Saxony
has been of the economically most developed regions of Germany. This
trend was sustained through industrialisation and two World Wars.
However, the changeover to a market economy that began in 1990 led to
a far-reaching collapse of traditional economic structures that had been
maintained for long periods in the GDR. It also led discontinuation of
many unprofitable jobs. Now, Saxony is again able to pick up on the
state’s industrial tradition and is developing into a competitive location
for industry. The state now has five distinguishable economic regions
with three urban centres that act as motors driving the economy.
The area between Dresden and Freiberg is a centre in particular of micro-
electronics and electrical engineering (“Silicon Saxony”) with companies
such as AMD, Infineon/Qimonda, Advanced Mask Technology Center,
Siltronic and SolarWorld AG. The North West Saxony economic region
surrounds the trading city of Leipzig which is developing into a media
and financial services location. The state’s mechanical engineering and
motor manufacturing industry has traditionally been concentrated in the
Central Saxon conurbation centred on Chemnitz and Zwickau.
Increasingly, regional networks are forming around these, as has already
happened in microelectronics with companies in Dresden/Freiberg, with
the vehicle manufacturing and mechanical engineering industry in
Chemnitz/Zwickau or with the media location Leipzig. The East Saxony
and Erzgebirge/Upper Vogtland regions, which in GDR days were
developed in a rather mono-structural way, are having much greater
problems in managing the economic transformation and in developing a
modern economic profile. Small and medium-sized businesses are an
important part of the Saxon economy. This sector is characterized mainly
by small business structures. More than two thirds (approx. 69 %) of the
118,800 companies and state institutions with employees subject to social
insurance contributions had up to five employees in 2004; 21 % employed
6 to 19 employees and less than 2 % had 100 and more employees. All in
all, roughly 96 % of all companies have fewer than 50 employees. Self-
employment increased again in 2004.
A total of 200,400 people or 11.3 % of the economically active population
were self-employed. The self-employment rate is the highest in any of
the states of former East Germany.
Siltronic AG’s new
300 mm wafer
production in Freiberg
Assembling vehicles at
Volkswagen works in
Zwickau/Mosel

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44
Economy and Employment
Self-employed persons
including assisting
family members
as a percentage of
the overall workforce
Date: State Statistical
Office of Saxony
8)
The gross domestic product (GDP) is the volume of newly available goods and services produced in a country
within one year by domestic and foreign business. GDP is measure of a country’s economic performance.
9)
Labour productivity shows the level of contribution made by each worker. A rise in labour productivity means
that the value created has risen in relation to the input of labour and/or that the production target was achieved
with fewer hours worked. Technical progress and labour intensity are the main factors influencing productivity.
Automotive supplier
Cloyes Europe GmbH,
Oberseifersdorf/Zittau
Economic power
Between 2000 and 2004 the economy in the Free State of Saxony grew
by 8.7 % (in real terms). This means Saxony achieved the highest growth
rates among all the federal states. In 2005, the Free State did not manage
to continue this trend towards growth. After price adjustment, the gross
domestic product (GDP)
8)
remained almost unchanged compared to the
previous year (+0.1 %).
With its GDP to the amount of EUR 85.8 billion (in respective prices),
Saxony contributed 33.3 % to the GDP of the new federal states (except
Berlin) and 3.8 % to the GDP in Germany as a whole.
Despite a further improvement in labour productivity economic output
per worker reached roughly 76 % of the productivity level
9)
in western
Germany (minus Berlin).
Nonetheless, the process of economic restructuring in Saxony is on the
right path. Between 1990 and the end of 2005 business registrations
outnumbered de-registrations by more than 277,000. This trend continues.
After a massive construction boom triggered by subsidies in the early
1990s manufacturing industry and services working closely with business
have now become the most dynamic economic segments: They now
account for roughly 47 % of gross value added, higher than in all other
new states of eastern Germany.

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Economy and Employment
45
Meissen® china marks
The Transparent VW
factory in Dresden
Industry
Manufacturing industry is the motor that propels the economy in the
Free State of Saxony. Between 2000 and 2005 gross value added by
manufacturing industry in Saxony increased by approximately 42 % in
real terms. In the new federal states (without Berlin) the increase during
this period of time amounted to 31 %, whereas it only amounted to 7 %
in the old federal states (without Berlin). In the companies within the
manufacturing industry with 20 and more employees turnover increased
by 9.7 % in 2005 compared to the previous year.
In 2005, the most important industries in Saxony in terms of the numbers
employed were metal production and metal working/metal products
manufacture, mechanical engineering and the production of office
machinery, electrical engineering, precision engineering and optics with
approx. 39,000 and 34,000 employees respectively. In addition, the motor
manufacturing industry has made above-average progress in recent years
and employs approx. 13 % of the workforce (approx. 28,800 persons) in
companies with 20 employees and more. With EUR 10.4 billion it
generates approx. 24 % of the total manufacturing industry sales.
Along with these traditional industries, new, forward-looking, high-tech
branches of industry are becoming increasingly important. Now, the
production of cutting edge technology plays as important a part in Saxony
as in Germany as whole. Investment in key technologies such as micro-
electronics, biological research and technology or new materials are furt-
her promoted by means of targeted networking of all actors along the
endogenous potentials Saxony commands. In this way networks like
“Silicon Saxony” and the Saxon group initiatives become trademarks of
a highly productive industrial region.
Saxony has highly specialised manufacturers, some of them rich in
tradition such as the watchmakers in Glashütte, the Meissen porcelain
factory and also the Volkswagen Transparent Factory in Dresden, which
manufactures the Phaeton.
Services and commerce
Overall, structural transformation in Saxony has been defined by a strong
trend towards the service sector.
Sectors such as banking, insurance, hotels and restaurants have developed
well, but in some areas of services close to businesses there is still a lot
of catching up to be done. In contrast, the development in science-based
segments of business services, such as consulting services or data
processing, has been positive. These make an important contribution
toward economic growth and employ highly qualified workers. Overall,
the tertiary sector in Saxony employed approx. 71 % of the economically

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46
Economy and Employment
The Mädler-Passage
shopping arcade in the
centre of Leipzig
A lathe operator turns
blanks for wooden toys
active population which is more than 1.3 million people in 2005. The
majority of those employed in healthcare, banking and insurance, the
hotel and restaurant industry, home economics and public administration
as well as education and teaching are women, who account for more
than 60 % of employees subject to social insurance contributions in the
service sector.
In 2004, 178,353 people or around 13 % of the employees subject to
social insurance contributions in Saxony worked in commerce and the
car trade. The retail sales area increased by 10.4 % between 1997 and
2001 with the Dresden Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) district
recording the largest increase. In 2002, Saxony had 1.59 square metres
of sales area per inhabitant, well above the average in western Germany.
Here, too, the IHK district of Dresden led the field (1.67 m
2
per
inhabitant). In 2001, large retailers with a sales area of 700 square metres
and more accounted for approx. 64 % of the total sales area.
Trades and crafts
On 31 December 2005, there were 55,643 registered trade and craft firms
in Saxony of which 36,614 were undertakings headed by master
craftsmen. The Chemnitz administrative region has the largest number
with 22,683 undertakings, followed by the Dresden administrative region
with 20,943 and the Leipzig administrative region with 12,017
undertakings. Thus, around one third of all craft and trade firms in the
states of eastern Germany (without Berlin) are located in Saxony. By
way of comparison, at the start of 1990 there were approximately 31,000
trade and craft enterprises in the territory covered by present-day Saxony.
Crafts and trades in Saxony currently employ around 320,000 people.
In 1989/90 around 95,000 people, including owners, worked in trades
and crafts in the East German districts of Karl-Marx-Stadt (Chemnitz),
Dresden and Leipzig.
Almost one in five of the labour force in Saxony works in a trade or craft.
With thirteen undertakings for every 1,000 inhabitants, trade and craft
density in Saxony is well above the German national average of 10.5. In
terms of numbers, the largest group of fully registered trades are the
electrical and metalworking trades with 18,136 undertakings and building
and construction with 16,287 firms.
A special feature in Saxony is the diversity of craftspeople – among these
braid makers from Annaberg, gingerbread bakers from Pulsnitz,
watchmakers from Glashütte, wooden toy makers from the Erzgebirge
as well as musical instrument makers from the Vogtland. The Saxons
revived many traditional craft techniques in response to challenges such
as the project to restore the Semper Opera (completed in 1985), the

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Economy and Employment
47
Utmost precision in
watchmaking in
Glashütte
Saxony’s foreign trade
1996–2005
Data: Saxon State
Statistics Office
rebuilding of the Frauenkirche (completed in 2005) or of Green Vault
(completed in 2006).
Foreign trade
Foreign trade activities in Saxony have increased above average since
1991. Exports increased almost sevenfold in the period from 1991 to
2005. Imports also continue to develop positively. In 2005, goods with a
total value of approx. EUR 10.8 billion were imported into the Free
State of Saxony.
Traditionally, exports go to the countries of central and eastern Europe,
western Europe as well as to the United States of America. In 2005, the
US was Saxony’s largest export partner with exports totalling almost
EUR 2.5 billion, followed by Italy, France as well as Great Britain.
Compared to the previous year, there was above-average growth in
exports to Cuba (+145 %), India (+69.1 %) and Taiwan (+64.2 %) in
2005. However, American and Asian countries still account for small
proportions of exports compared with the volume of exports to Europe.
Exports to European countries accounted for almost 65 % of Saxon
exports (approx. EUR 11.4 billion).
As regards imports the Czech Republic is still in the lead with approx.
one fifth followed by France as well as the Russian Federation.
Trade fairs
Emperor Maximilian I granted the city of Leipzig the right to hold fairs
back in 1497, stipulating that no comparable market could be held within
a radius of 225 km. During the course of the centuries Leipzig became a
very important centre for trade between east and west. The first sample

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48
Economy and Employment
The new Leipzig Fair
grounds
The WFS-sponsored
exhibition stand at
CeBIT 2005
fair took place here in 1895 and the first engineering trade fair was held
here in 1918. The first trade fair building, the Städtisches Kaufhaus, opened
in 1896. Thus the Leipzig Fair, which has been called the mother of all
trade fairs, became an international trading centre. The new trade fair
complex was opened in 1996. Particularly successful events taking place
here include the Leipzig Book Fair, AutoMobil International and the Games
Convention. Dresden and Chemnitz have also succeeded in establishing
themselves as trade fair locations with a mainly regional orientation.
Economic development and promotion of the economy
Since 1991 the state-owned Saxony Economic Development Corporation
(WFS) has supported German and foreign investors, Saxon municipalities
and Saxon companies. In this process, WFS co-operates closely with
municipal economic development offices. The Saxon Bank of
Reconstruction provides valuable assistance regarding questions of the
promotion of economic development.
The sectors promoted include business and technology, foreign trade,
the labour market, start-up companies (primarily coaching of start-up
founders) and small and medium businesses. Help is offered for
consolidation, as are participations and guarantees. Production and
innovation co-operations are supported financially and receive additio-
nal impetus by networks funded by the state. A business promotion
database
(http://www.foerderfibel.sachsen.de)
helps people seeking
promotion under a wide variety of programmes.
Labour market
The transition since 1990 from the unproductive job creation society of
the GDR to market economy structures, combined with the corresponding
economic restructuring process, has had a profound effect in the
employment structure of the Free State of Saxony. The number of people
employed dropped by around one third between 1989 and 1993.
After increasing slightly until 1995 this number has remained stagnant
with minor annual fluctuations. As of the year 2001 a stronger decline
was recorded once again. On an annual average the number of people
employed amounted to 1,885 million in 2005. In this context, the weights
between the different sectors of the economy have shifted clearly.
At the same time a drastic increase of open employment was recorded.
By 1994 the unemployment rate (unemployed people as a percentage
of the dependent civilian economically active population) in Saxony
had risen to 15.7 %.

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Economy and Employment
49
Economically active
population in the Free
State of Saxony by
sector
Data: Working group for
the establishment of
employment figures of
the federal and state
governments
(As of March 2006)
10)
Unemployed persons, short-time working, job-creation and structural adjustment measures, further vocational
training measures, infrastructural measures creating jobs, jobs for long-term unemployed, work opportunities,
special measures for younger persons, free promotion, art. 428 Social Security Code III.
11)
This corresponds to a price increase of a representative basket of goods (750 goods) by 8.8 percentage
points during the last five years.
After a slight decline in 1995 the rise in unemployment continued
reaching 18.8 % in 1998. After a renewed decline until the year 2000,
this rate rose again to 20 % on an annual average in 2005.
However, the unemployment rate only partially reflects actual
developments. To assess the situation on the labour market one has to
take into account short-time working, labour market policy measures
and arrangements for older workers, which were particularly significant
in the years until 1996. In 2005, a total of 521,600 people were affected
by unemployment
10)
in Saxony.
Measured against the dependent civilian economically active population,
the total unemployment rate was below the comparable figure for the
previous year, however, at 26 %.
The level of total unemployment in Saxony differs from region to region.
Income and prices
In 2004, the average gross wages and salaries of employees in Saxony in
all sectors of the economy amounted to EUR 21,448.
Thus employees in the Free State of Saxony earned around 81 % of the
average earnings of employees in Germany – in 1991, the figure was 57 %.
In December 2004, the cost of living index for private households in
Saxony reached a value of 108,8 (2000=100)
11)
and was, hence, 2.5 %
higher than in December 2004.

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50
Economy and Employment
Making a living from nature in Saxony
Farming
In 2003, 913,120 ha of Saxony’s territory were used for farming, that is
around 50 % of its total area. By far the largest proportion of this area is
in Lusatia, in central Saxony and the lowland bay of Leipzig.
The natural conditions permit a wide variety of uses. Farmers grow mainly
cereals and rape but also forage. With average yields of up to 64.6 dt/ha
in 2005, for example, roughly 2.5 million tonnes of cereals were harvested.
Fruit growing (in the Elbe Valley and southeast of Leipzig) also has a rich
tradition in Saxony, as has wine-growing (in the area between Meissen
and Dresden in the Elbe Valley). In 2005, 279 agricultural companies
farmed organically on 23,450 ha. In total, 7,434 companies operate in the
field of agriculture. They employ approx. 42,000 people.
From 1994 up to and including 2005 funds totalling EUR 670 million
were made available for the programme for environment-friendly farming
in the Free State of Saxony (UL). Currently, a total of 521,484 ha of
farmland (72 % of the total area farmed), 94,423 ha of pastures (52 %),
4,148 ha of orchards (89.6 %), 209 ha of vineyard (46.4 %) and 8,834 ha
of lakes and ponds are included in the programme. In the year 2005
alone pollution of the soil by nitrates was reduced by approx. 8,450 t.
The use of growing methods that reduce erosion prevented up to 570,000 t
of soil from washing away. On an area of 25,454 ha measures of
environmental protection and for the preservation of the cultivated
landscape were promoted.
Saxon Environmental Alliance
In 1998, the Free State of Saxony chose a new path for strengthening the
regional economy while reducing the strain on the environment by means
of a voluntary agreement between the Saxon state government and the
Saxon economy which is represented by the Saxon chambers of industry
and commerce, the chambers of craft and trades and associations at the
same time as the second federal state to do so after the Bavaria.
On 8 July 2003, Prime Minister Prof. Dr. Georg Milbradt, the specialist
ministers for the environment and for agriculture as well as for economic
affairs and labour and the representatives of the Saxon business
community signed the extension for another five-year term.
Almost 500 stakeholders ranging from small crafts and trades undertakings,
to service providers, hospitals, transport companies, associations, large
industrial corporations of chemical industries, micro-electronics or
foodstuffs industry participate in the environmental alliance.

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Economy and Employment
51
Highly automated
timber cropping with
a harvester
The Environmental Alliance for Agriculture and Forestry was
established in 1999 as a voluntary agreement between the Saxon state
ministry for the environment and agriculture and 14 professional
associations of Saxon agriculture, forestry and fisheries. On
15 December 2005 Minister Tillich, Minister of the Environment as
well as representatives of the Saxon agriculture, forestry and fisheries
signed the extension of the environmental alliance for agriculture and
forestry for a further five years.
The 400 signatories undertook to engage in environmentally friendly
farming, forestry and fish farming.
Animal husbandry and fish farms
Around two thirds of the total agricultural income in Saxony comes from
animal husbandry. The animals kept in Saxony are mainly cattle but also
pigs, sheep and laying hens. Moreover, there are also around 30,000 bee
colonies. Cattle farming is a source of income for around 13,000 workers
and also helps to maintain the cultivated landscape.
Milkproduction is currently a main source of income for livestock owners
in Saxony. They are allowed to produce 1.6 million tonnes of milk a year.
Horse breeding in Saxony is best known for the elegant heavy warm-
blood breed. Numerous new stables (approx. 150) have also become a
tourist attraction. The annual parade of stallions in Moritzburg is a
highlight for horse lovers from all over the world. There are also numerous
horse-breeding and equine sports events organized by clubs and societies.
Fish farming in Saxony goes back a long way. In 2005, the fish farmers
in the state marketed approx. 3,400 t of fish a year, including 2,800 t of
edible carp.
Forestry
In 2005 the Free State of Saxony had a total of 513,008 ha of forest, covering
27.8 % of its surface. There are plans to increase this to 30 % in the medi-
um term by planting trees in former mining areas, areas where flooding
originates and areas where forest is sparse. Of the total forest area, 37 % is
owned by the Free State of Saxony, 6 % by the federal government and a
further 8 % by public bodies. 46 % is privately owned, 2 % are owned by
the church and 1 % is special federal government property (LMBV
12)
forest). Saxony’s forests are managed by around 73,000 separate forestry
enterprises. With almost 80 %, coniferous trees, primarily spruce and pine,
prevail in the Saxon forests. The total stock of wood amounts to
12)
Lusatian and Central German Mining Management Co.

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52
Economy and Employment
Belvedere and Vineyard
Palace of Wackerbarth,
Radebeul
126 million m³, which corresponds to 258 m³ per hectare. The annual
growth of wood amounts to approx. 9 m³/ha, of which only roughly one
half is harvested so far. Over the next years, the forests are to become
richer in species also with regard to climatic change.
Wine-growing
The first recorded mention of wine-growing in Saxony dates back to
1161. In the fifteenth century, vineyards covered just over 4,000 hectares.
The introduction of vine pest in 1887 enormously accelerated the decline
of wine-growing, which had already set in. Subsequently, many vineyard
slopes were used for building or as orchards.
With the introduction of pest-resistant vine grafts, in the 1920s and 1930s
there was a gradual recovery that continued after World War II. Wine-
growing was given a further boost by amateur growers who, from around
1970, began replanting some particularly prominent sites in the Elbe
Valley with vines. The wine-growing area has grown very fast in recent
years, from 320 ha in 1990 to 450 ha today. It is characterised by
centuries-old slopes and terraces that lend the Elbe Valley wine-growing
landscape its distinctive charm. Saxony produces mainly white wine.
The most widespread varieties in 2005 were Müller-Thurgau (81 ha),
Riesling (62 ha), Pinot blanc (50 ha); Golden Riesling (12 ha) is grown
only here. Pinot noir is the most widely grown type of red grape and is
grown on 28 ha. As a rule, annual wine production ranges from 15,000
to 20,000 hl, of which only a very small proportion is table wine. In
autumn, the numerous wine festivals held traditionally to celebrate the
new harvest are an attraction for locals and tourists alike. The best-known
festivals are held in Meissen and Altkötzschenbroda.
Rural development
Saxony supports the integrated development of rural spaces and,
therefore, also the improvement of the framework conditions for
agriculture, primarily by converting agricultural buildings to other uses.
Regional development based on grassroots initiatives is playing an
increasingly important role. Around EUR 2.4 billion in funding was
approved for this purpose between 1991 and 2003, including the funds
for removal of flood damage, by means of which an investment volume
of approx. EUR 11 billion was realized.

Economy and Employment
53
Mining
Saxony’s economic wealth is based not least on its rich mineral resources.
In the Erzgebirge, mining can now only be experienced in show mines
as a tourist attraction. Elsewhere, however, raw materials close to the
surface are extracted by open-cast mining. Since reunification, the brown
coal industry in Saxony has invested EUR 10 billion. In 2002, MIBRAG,
the central German brown coal company and LAUBAG, the Lusatian
brown coal company, together extracted around 30 million tonnes of
brown coal that is converted into electricity at the Boxberg and Lippen-
dorf power stations. Around EUR 5 billion has been invested in stone
and earth quarrying since 1990. In 2002, 286 business enterprises
extracted around 31 million tons of consolidated and unconsolidated
rocks. For example, the sand stone for the reconstruction of the Church
of Our Lady in Dresden was quarried near Pirna.

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Infrastructure and Communications
INFRASTRUCTURE
AND
COMMUNICATIONS

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Infrastructure and Communications
55
The A 14 autobahn near
Leipzig passes beneath
the airport runway
Kilometres of road in
Saxony as at 1.1.2006
Data: Saxon State
Statistics Office
Saxony in motion
Roads
Saxony’s road density is higher than the national average with 740 m of
regional road per square kilometre. Since 1991, around EUR 13.3 billion
has been invested in expanding the state’s road network. The transport
policy priority was and still is to complete Saxony’s autobahn network.
The A 38 bypass for Leipzig is completed. Expansion of the A 4, into a
six-lane highway in some places, and of the A 72 between Plauen and
Chemnitz is more or less complete, while the new A 17 from Dresden to
the German-Czech border are to be opened to transport in their entirety
in the course of the year 2006. Work on the new A 72 from Chemnitz to
Leipzig is under way.
1 January 2006, there were 2.69 million licensed motor vehicles in Saxony
of which 2.31 million were cars and more than 180,000 were heavy
goods vehicles. In 2005, a total of 124,146 road accidents was recorded
in the state, 15,922 of these resulted in personal injury, with 20,259 people
injured and 352 fatalities.
Number of border crossing-points on roads
Public transport
A network of railway, tram, regional and municipal bus routes makes
Saxony very accessible. The planning, organisation and development
of public transport is the responsibility of the rural and urban districts.
These have formed special-purpose associations and constitute the local
Regional roads total
13,532 km
of wich federal autobahns
478 km
of wich federal highways
2,421 km
of wich state roads
4,750 km
of wich district roads
5,883 km

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56
Infrastructure and Communications
A Vogtlandbahn
local train
Leipzig railway station –
the world’s largest
railway terminus
The narrow gauge
railway from Zittau
to Jonsdorf/Oybin
authority public transport association: Central Saxony, Upper Elbe Area,
Vogtland, Upper Lusatia/Lower Silesia and Mitteldeutscher Verkehrs-
verbund. Since then, they have organized all public transport as a local
“one-stop shop”. In 2004, approx. 400 million people used busses and
trams and a total of 309 companies with more than 9,600 employees
worked in this field. In the Vogtland region of western Saxony,
“EgroNet”, a cross-border public transport system was realised.
It integrates trains and busses in a single public transport system. Seventeen
rural and urban districts and 62 transport undertakings from Saxony, Ba-
varia, Thuringia and the Czech Republic work together in EgroNet.
Railways
With around 2,700 kilometres of track and nearly 600 stations and halts,
Saxony’s railway network is one of the densest in Europe.
Railway transport in Saxony comprises four areas: intercity express and
inter-regional services to destinations in Germany and Europe at high-
speed tracks of up to 250 km/h, regional transport on fast tracks with
speeds of up to 80 km/h, the Leipzig–Chemnitz route at 160 km/h and
the Bischofswerda–Zittau route at 100 km/h; the suburban railway
systems the in Dresden and Leipzig as well as the similar model in
Chemnitz and the railway transport on the historic narrow gauge tracks
which has more of a tourism character.
Currently, Saxony is connected to 75 local and ten long-distance railway
lines. Since reunification in 1990, approx. EUR 3.9 billion have been
invested in the Saxon railway network. The main focuses of investment
into network expansion are the long-distance routes Saxony-Franken-
Magistrale Hof–Leipzig/Dresden–Görlitz and the German Unity Trans-
port Project 9 (VDE) Leipzig–Dresden. The routes for EU enlargement
towards the east, Berlin–Dresden–Prague, Berlin–Cottbus–Görlitz and
Leipzig–Falkenberg–Hoyerswerda–Horka are part of the Trans-European
railway network and are also being expanded.
At the moment, there are seven railway border crossing-points to the
Czech Republic and two to Poland. By the year 2010, this number is to
be increased to ten (Czech Republic) and three (Poland). Regional par-
tial networks are the Vogtland, Erzgebirge, central Saxon and eastern
Saxon network.
Since the reform of the railway in 1993, more than 20 private railway
companies not owned by the state have been established both in passenger
and freight transport, which reinforce competition on the track, in the
Free State of Saxony.

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Infrastructure and Communications
57
Freight traffic
Saxony has supported the freight traffic centres in Leipzig, Glauchau
and Dresden with funding to the amount of more than EUR 70 million.
The business policy importance is illustrated by means of the following
data: Until now 102 companies providing around 2,500 jobs have been
located in Leipzig, 70 companies with around 2,300 jobs in Glauchau
and Zwickau and seven companies with around 420 jobs in Dresden.
Aviation
Since 1991, the state government has provided a total of EUR 1.4 billion
to aid the expansion of Leipzig-Halle and Dresden airports. For example,
a second runway capable of handling intercontinental flights is currently
being constructed in Leipzig/Halle. The new terminal has a capacity of
4.5 million passengers per year. As of 2008, DHL will operate as the
main European hub for air cargo express at the Leipzig/Halle airport
and, hence, create 3,500 new jobs.
The Dresden runway is currently being restored and extended, the ter-
minal with a capacity of 3.5 million passengers was completed in 2003.
Both of these airports are licensed to operate around the clock and have
very good road and rail connections. This means that everyone in Saxony
can reach an airport within 90 minutes. In the year 2005, Leipzig/Halle
handled more than 2.1 million passengers and Dresden nearly 1.8 million.
Saxony also has four regional and nine local commercial airstrips as
well as ten special landing strips.
Inland shipping
The River Elbe links Saxony with the North German sea ports and the
countries of central and eastern Europe and, therefore, with internatio-
nal trade. To develop inland shipping, Saxony redeveloped the ports of
Torgau, Riesa and Dresden. Since 1995, it has invested more than
EUR 65 million in this project. 47 companies were established in the
ports. These invested another sum of approx. EUR 60 million and created
more than 500 jobs. The ports are operated by Sächsische Binnenhäfen
Oberelbe GmbH. In 2002, the company acquired the ports of Decin and
Lovosice in the Czech Republic as well as shares in the Roßlau port in
2004. Now, it provides competitive transportation for the Czech and the
Saxon economy from a single source.
Saxony is especially proud of the world’s biggest and oldest fleet of
paddle steamers which is based in Dresden. Sächsische Dampfschif-
fahrt has nine historic paddle steamers ranging from 75 to 125 years old.
Dresden’s newly
expanded airport
Fleet of paddle steamers

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58
Infrastructure and Communications
Boxberg coal-fired
power station
operated by Vattenfall
Europe AG & Co. KG
Two elegant saloon ships and two smaller motor boats round off the
fleet. Given normal water levels, the fleet carries around 700,000
passengers to and from the 17 stops on the 101-kilometre shipping route
between Diesbar-Seußlitz and Decin every year.
Saxony’s cities
Urban development in Saxony is characterized by a population reduction
on account of the reduced birth rate and migration away from the region.
For this reason, a conversion of the Saxon cities and rural communes is
required which is accompanied and supported by the Free State of Saxony
in a targeted manner with the help of urban development and EU funding.
These contributions are intended to remove or sustainably mitigate urban
planning grievances and defects by means of urban planning redevelopment
measures. The central towns as per the Saxon regional development plan
are to be strengthened.
In this context, special emphasis is placed on the measures for urban
reconstruction. They serve the purpose of a reduction of the existing
stock of flats and, hence, the reduction of the number of vacant flats on
the basis of urban planning development concepts. This leads to an ur-
ban planning appreciation of sustainable quarters ready for the future.
The funds in the framework of the EU programme for urban development
aims at sustainably supporting disadvantaged areas within cities in their
development on the basis of an integrated campaign and to promote the
development of the entire town in this way.
Saxony has energy
Power (energy business, energy exchange, energy trade fair,
Saxon energy programme)
Since reunification in 1990, more than EUR 11 billion has been
invested in building new and expanding existing plants. The supply
of electricity, gas and long-district heat is safeguarded by six regio-
nal and 39 municipal utilities in addition to the supra-regional energy
suppliers of Vattenfall Europe AG and Verbundnetz Gas AG. One of
the strengths of Saxony in this is the fact that the proportion of district
heating is more than twice the national average. Moreover, more than
300 small and medium businesses operate in the mineral oil and li-
quid gas segment and numerous other companies provide related
services, including energy trading.

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Infrastructure and Communications
59
Saxony believes in domestic energy carriers. This comprises brown
coal just as much as renewable energies. The use of brown coal forms
the basis for a safe and calculable generation of power, because it is
competitive and available in a sufficient quantity in Saxony.
The use of brown coal for the generation of base load power in the Saxon
power plants of Boxberg and Lippendorf forms an essential basis for the
preservation of jobs, in particular in structurally weak regions.
Renewable energies for the generation of power and heat have gained in
importance over the last years. Compared to 1990, their use has increased
more than tenfold and now amounts to 9.2 %.
Wind power accounts for the biggest share in this, followed by water
power, biomass and biogas as well as photovoltaic systems.
An efficient use of energy forms an essential strategy for a sustainable
energy supply within the Free State of Saxony. Since 1990, the energy
efficiency of the economy (gross domestic product with reference to
primary energy consumption) has increased by 2.5 times. In this context,
potential is discernible in all fields of application: manufacturing,
industries, transport and households. Energy-saving procedures,
machinery, devices and vehicles “made in Saxony” are leading
worldwide. Research and development are further preconditions for
sustainable development of the energy sector.
In this case, the main emphasis is on research regarding CO² reduction
technologies in the field of power plant engineering, in particular in the
interest of a load on the environment which should be as low as possible
during the conversion of brown coal into electricity in eastern Germany.
The energy business in Saxony also comprises trading in energy and
energy technologies. In 1999, the first German electricity exchange was
founded in Leipzig upon the initiative of the Saxon state government. In
2002 the Leipzig Power Exchange (LPX) merged with the Frankfurt-
based power exchange to form European Energy Exchange AG (EEX)
with headquarters in Leipzig.
In addition to EEX, the “enertec” energy fair was established as a trading
platform for energy technologies and services.
At the moment, the Free State of Saxony is updating the SAXONY
ENERGY PROGRAMME
13)
. It defines the state government’s energy
policy guidelines and priorities for the years ahead.
Fundamental overhaul
of the power line
network by ABB
13)
The SAXONY ENERGY PROGRAMME and the annual energy reports are published at
www.smwa.sachsen.de
(Wirtschaft/Energie/Sächsische Energiepolitik).
Installation work at the
Espenhain solar park

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60
Infrastructure and Communications
Energy consumption
In parallel to the consumption
of primary energy, the final
consumption of energy
(energy consumption after
conversion, usable energy)
has changed only to an
insignificant degree.
Here, a reduced consump-
tion of mineral oils was set
off by an increased demand
regarding gasses.
Essentially, the mix of energy carriers is determined by mineral oils and
gasses. Furthermore, electricity, district heating, brown and hard coal
as well as the other energy carriers contributed to the energy balance.
The graph clearly shows that the Saxon energy mix has adjusted to
overall German structures since reunification.
Drinking water supply
Drinking water is essential to life so ensuring the drinking water supply
is a mandatory municipal duty. In Saxony, 79 providers ensure that
Saxony is supplied with drinking water, these comprise 45 special-
purpose associations, 11 local authorities in a special-purpose sub-
association and 33 individual local authorities. Saxony also has three
independent long-distance water supply companies that provide drinking
water to the public utilities. Thus, public water supply is characterised
by a combination of local, supra-regional and long-distance water supply.
58 % of Saxony’s drinking water comes from ground water and 42 %
from drinking water reservoirs
14)
.
Sewage disposal
It is the duty of local authorities to dispose of the accruing sewage (foul
water and rain water) in their area. The requirements are stipulated both
by European directives and by state and federal law.
At the end of 2004, a total of 804 local authority sewage treatment plants
with a capacity of 50 population equivalents
15)
(inh.) or more were in
operation in Saxony.
14)
as per 2006
15)
This is a customary measure used in the water industry to assess water pollution. It is based on the number
of inhabitants and equivalent which are calculated in turn on the basis of a comparison between commercial
foul water and domestic foul water.
Drinking water
reservoir Carlsfeld

Infrastructure and Communications
61
In 2004, a total of 93 special-purpose sewage associations (including 10
special-purpose sub-associations) and 154 local authorities (including
46 local authorities in special-purpose sub-associations) were in charge
of sewage disposal. Out of the total number 802 sewage water treatment
plants 641 have been newly constructed, reconstructed or expanded since
1991. 94 % of the plants treat the sewage mechanically and biologically.
Only 6 % of plants
16)
use purely mechanical cleaning methods. In 2004,
90 % of households in areas with a population equivalent density of
more than 2,000 per square kilometre were connected to public sewage
facilities and 80 % in the state as a whole.
17)
For more than 10 % of
people in Saxony, especially in rural areas, small sewage systems will
be part of local authority waste water disposal permanently. By 2015, all
plants are to be equipped with state of the art technology.
Saxony thinks for itself
Newspapers
The main features of Saxony’s newspaper market were drawn after 1989
when the Treuhand, the trust established to act as a holding company for
state-owned enterprises in former East Germany, sold the communist
party’s regional newspapers to large West German media corporations.
Smaller newspapers were often unable to survive in the market. The
remaining newspaper scene in Saxony is as follows (source: IVW 2005):
The newspaper with the largest circulation, the Freie Presse (print run:
354,000) is published in Chemnitz and the surrounding area, while Säch-
sische Zeitung (print run 301,000) is published in Dresden and the
surrounding area. Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten, Torgauer Zeitung and
Muldentalzeitung take most of their supra-regional material from the
Leipziger Volkszeitung (total print run 270 000). The only Sorbian-
language newspapers, Serbske Nowiny (print run just under 2,000), is
published in Bautzen. The Vogtland-Anzeiger (print run: 9,300),
published in Plauen, is a local edition of the Bavarian newspaper Franken-
post. The Morgenpost, published in Dresden and Chemnitz and sold by
street-sellers, is one of the few surviving additions to the Saxon newspaper
scene. It is a local edition of Berliner Kurier and competes with BILD-
16)
The increase of the share of mechnical sewage treatment plants compared with the status report for 2002
results from a completed collection of data for smaller sewage treatment plants.
17)
2004 Status Report – Local authority sewage disposal in the Free State of Saxony

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Infrastructure and Communications
Zeitung filling out its uniform nationwide edition with local news in
Saxony’s major towns and cities.
TV and radio
Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR) a broadcasting corporation established
jointly by Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia was established in 1991.
Prof. Dr. Udo Reiter is the director of this corporation. This broadcasting
corporation under public law transmits its own TV programme (MDR
television) which should also include contributions by the state
broadcasting corporations having a state-specific appearance. In Saxony,
MDR has a state broadcasting centre in Dresden and four regional studios.
Moreover, it has also become a major supplier of programmes to the
first channel of ARD (2006: 11.0 %). Furthermore, MDR has five radio
stations in the state (MDR 1 Radio Sachsen, MDR Figaro, Jump, MDR-
Info and MDR Sputnik via satellite). In addition, the MDR Klassik
programme is available via digital radio.
Private broadcasters
Licensing and supervision authority for broadcasting in Saxony is the
state institution for private broadcasting and new media (SLM) based
in Leipzig. Private radio stations with a full programme that can be
received throughout the state are Radio PSR, Hitradio RTL as well as
R.SA. Others broadcast full programmes only regionally or locally.
Since 30 December 1999 digital radio has been standard in Saxony
with three private programmes available in addition to the public
stations available state-wide.
At the moment 61 broadcaster transmit TV programmes in cable systems.
Six suppliers transmit their television shows terrestrially. In December
2005, digital terrestrial television (DVB-T) was launched in Saxony.
Territorial aspects
Continuing in the tradition of the Saxon printing, publishing and radio
broadcasting industry, Leipzig is the media industry’s main centre of
development in Saxony. In 2005, as many as approx. 30,000 people or
13.3 % of the people employed in the city worked for media enterprises
in Leipzig. What is even more, the media industry accounted for 17.5 %
of the city’s overall sales turnover. The building of Media City Leipzig,
a complex of offices and studios in the immediate vicinity of MDR,
played a major role in this development. Leipzig is also the headquarters
of Mitteldeutsche Medienförderung GmbH (MDM), an institution
founded in 1998 by the states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia
along with broadcasters MDR and ZDF for the purpose of promoting
MDR broadcasting
headquarters in Leipzig
SLM
Saxon State
Institution for
Private Broadcasting
and New Media

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Infrastructure and Communications
63
film, television and media projects. MDM is currently Germany’s fourth
largest film promotion agency, having dispensed more than
EUR 12 million in funding. In addition, the Medientreffpunkt (Media
rendezvous), an event held each year in May, has become established as
a media forum in Leipzig attracting nationwide attention.
Saxony’s international links
The Free State of Saxony commands an excellent telecommunications
infrastructure. The availability of DSL is considerable above that for all
the eastern German states except Berlin. In Saxony most “.de”-domains
of the new federal states (without Berlin) are registered. With a growth
rate of more than 20 % – which is almost 90.000 “.de”-domains more
than at the end 2004 – the Free State occupied a top position throughout
Germany. In addition, Leipzig is the German city with the strongest
increase in domains.
The internet portal “saxxess.com” – a special service for the fields of
information, communications and media – provides a lot of information
on this as well as on many other aspects.
More than 350 professors were engaged in research and teaching in all
fields that are closely connected with the information, communications
and media business (IKM) on the thirteen Saxon universities,
communications and media in Saxony. More than 20,000 students are
preparing for careers in the IT sector and microelectronics. This means
Saxony maintains excellent connections in the world by means of a good
infrastructure and a lot of expertise.
The
www.sachsen.de
website

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64
Education and Research
EDUCATION
AND
RESEARCH

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Education and Research
65
Secondary schools
Dresden/Leuben
Saxony’s schools
system
Saxony educates itself
Structure of the education system
The state constitution requires Saxony inter alia to teach young people
“to act in a socially responsible manner and adopt a free and democratic
outlook.” By the terms of the Education Act of 3 July 1991, Saxony
introduced a two-level interchangeable system of schooling to educate
students with different skills and levels of achievement in the way that is
best suited to them for life in society and a career. Schools that offer
general education are primary schools (1st to 4th grade), secondary
schools (5th to 9th and/or 10th grades) and grammar schools (5th–12th
grade). The schools for children with special needs regarding learning
constitute further schools providing general education. Full-time
schooling is compulsory for nine years, training at trades college as part
of an apprenticeship usually takes a further three years.
After primary school, parents decide on the basis of a school
recommendation whether to send their children to a secondary or a
grammar school. In years 5 and 6 the curriculum in both kinds of school

66
Education and Research
Overview of schools,
students and full.-time
teachers in Saxony
(2005/6 school year)
Data: Saxon State
Statistical Office
Number of schools
Students Teachers
Primary schools
Public
801
104 905
9 114
Private
53
5 315
375
Secondary school
Public
402
110 302
11 026
Private
22
2 521
196
Grammar school
Public
132
90 521
7 786
Private
14
5 101
403
Special school
Public
147
19 937
3 209
Private
19
911
245
Vocational school
Public
113
126 666
5 412
Private
183
43 429
1 983
Alternative education schools
Public
7
2 927
145
Private
1
12
Free Waldorf schools
3
1 202
105
is largely the same, so that the decision regarding education can be
reviewed and may be revised. If students pass their school-leaving exam
at the end of the tenth year in secondary school and fulfil certain other
requirements, they can switch to the tenth class of an ordinary grammar
school or the eleventh class of a vocational grammar school. Grammar
schools provide a comprehensive education as a prerequisite for university
study or a requirement for some other career training. In Saxony, students
take the Abitur, recognised as a university entrance qualification all over
Germany, after 12 years at an ordinary grammar school or after 13 years
at a vocational grammar school.
There are five categories of vocational school or college in Saxony.
Vocational schools and specialist vocational schools teach to different
vocational qualifications and offer special one-year courses in preparation
for career training or activity.
Higher specialist vocational schools and vocational grammar schools
take students who have passed their secondary school-leaving exam and
teach to qualifications that entitled the holder to go on to study. Schools

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Education and Research
67
18)
To find out everything about Saxony’s educational system, visit
www.sachsen-macht-schule.de
of further vocational education provide further vocational education to
skilled workers. Public schools of this kind are organised in vocational
school centres, thereby ensuring a state-wide provision of training
facilities to meet demand. In vocational training, many private schools
and colleges alongside the public system enrich the Saxon school
landscape.
As a result of the steep decline in births since 1989 the number of students
has halved. The required adjustment of the school network in the sector
of general education is now about to be completed
18)
.
Special schools
Students, who due to impairment of one or more faculty cannot be
integrated into the ordinary schools even though special assistance is
provided and therefore have special educational needs attend special
schools. These comprise special schools for the blind and visually
impaired, schools for the hearing impaired, schools for students with
learning disabilities, schools for students with physical disabilities,
schools for children with learning difficulties, schools to remedy speech
defects, schools for children with behavioural difficulties as well as
hospital schools and vocational schools for students with special needs.
Special schools and vocational schools for students with learning
disabilities or difficulties teach students to secondary school leaving
certificate or to a career qualification level.
Promotion of specially talented students
Grammar schools with a special focus on mathematics and science, fine
arts, sports or languages are available for specially gifted and talented
students. In 2001 the Landesgymnasium St. Afra in Meissen was opened
as a grammar school for specially gifted and talented students.
In Saxony, members of the Sorbian national minority live with their
own language and culture. In Sorbian schools, where teaching is available
in Sorbian if parents so wish or students are so inclined, this important
cultural good is kept alive for present and future generations.
Because Saxony wants to be a home for people from all over the world
and their children, there are international schools in Dresden and Leipzig.
Dresden International School takes children from the age of three and
educates them up to International Baccalaureate level with English as
the language of instruction. At the Leipzig International School instruction
is also provided up to IB level (class 12), if required. The curricula are
Boarding school of
Landesgymnasiums
St. Afra Meissen

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68
Education and Research
The “August Horch“
vocational school centre
in Zwickau
The historic campus
and proposed new
campus of the
University of Leipzig
based on the International Baccalaureate Programme. The International
Baccalaureate entitles holders to study at universities all over the world.
Adult education, further education
People in full-time employment can attend two or three years of evening
classes outside working hours and take their school-leaving certificates.
After three or four years of full-time study at the Abendgymnasium
students can take their Abitur, the German university entrance exam.
Colleges also offer the same course in three or four years of full-time
study for adults leading to the university entrance exam. In addition, 30
adult education centres and other private facilities offer everyone a wide
range of further education courses.
Universities, colleges and universities of cooperative education
Saxon universities provide a high level of education. In the course of
restructuring after the demise of the East German university system,
what once were 22 state universities have become 4 state universities, an
international graduate school, five art academies and five technical
colleges. An agreement has been signed with the state universities on
development until 2010, with the result that universities, technical and
art academies can now plan safely over a longer period. Leipzig
University, founded in 1409, has traditionally been geared to science
and the humanities. Its students have included Goethe, Lessing and
Nietzsche.
After 1989, the Dresden University of Technology extended its subject
range substantially by incorporating the former Carl Gustav Carus
Medical Academy and the College of Transport and by setting up a
number of new faculties. In 2005 it was the university with the largest
number of students in Saxony. The University of Technology in
Chemnitz, the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology (the oldest
of its kind in the world) as well as the International Graduate School
Zittau, a university facility in the Neisse Euroregion for students who
have already taken a first degree at Polish, Czech or German universities
are much smaller. There are technical colleges in Dresden, Leipzig,
Mittweida, Zittau/Görlitz and Zwickau. They were formed from former
special and engineering colleges and have a strong practical orientation
in both teaching and research. They were inaugurated in the winter
semester 1992/93.
Saxony’s tertiary education sector also boasts the practice-integrated
courses of the Saxon University of Cooperative Education with six
universities in Bautzen, Breitenbrunn, Dresden, Glauchau, Leipzig, Riesa
and Plauen (an experimental facility). The Dresden Academy of Fine

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Education and Research
69
Data: Saxon State
Staistical Office
Institution
Students
Universities and colleges
Dresden University of Technology
32 699
University of Leipzig
29 147
Chemnitz University of Technology
10 025
Freiberg University of Mining and Technology
4 500
International Graduate School Zittau
282
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts
537
Leipzig Academy of Visual Arts
571
University of Music and Drama Leipzig
822
University of Music Dresden
619
Palucca Dance Academy Dresden
139
Technical colleges
Dresden
5 079
Leipzig
5 965
Mittweida
5 017
Zittau/Görlitz
3 658
Zwickau
4 574
FHSV Meißen
667
Bautzen
505
Breitenbrunn
550
Dresden
1 095
Glauchau
1 147
Leipzig
485
Riesa
524
Plauen
196
Number of students
in the winter semester
2005/2006
Arts dates back to the Electoral Saxon Art Academy, founded in 1764. It
shares the distinction of being Saxony’s art academy with the longest
tradition with the Leipzig Academy of Drawing, Painting and
Architecture, also founded in 1764, and now the Academy of Visual
Arts.
Leipzig’s Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy University of Music and Dra-
ma, which with 822 students is the state’s largest arts academy, dates
back to the first German conservatory, founded in 1843 by the composer
Mendelssohn, while Dresden’s Carl Maria von Weber University of Music
dates back to a college of music founded in the city in 1856.
The Palucca Dance Academy, also in Dresden, dates back to a school of
dancing founded by Gret Palucca in 1925. In all, Saxony currently boasts
27 universities and colleges with 107,792 students (winter semester 2005/
Universities of
cooperative education
The Palucca Dance
Academy, Dresden

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70
Education and Research
Number of libraries
in Saxony at the
end of 2004
The world’s first single-
lens reflex camera with
perforated cine film saw
the light of day in
Dresden in 1936
Full-time libraries
222
Part-time libraries
365
Travelling libraries
8
School libraries
326
2006). In addition to the 15 state universities under the aegis of the
Ministry of Science and the Fine Arts, two are under the wing of the
Ministry of the Interior and ten are run privately.
Libraries and archives
Knowledge gained in the course of centuries is looked after and passed
on in Saxony’s libraries and archives. The largest of the state’s 921
libraries is Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig, which keeps a copy of every
publication that appears in Germany.
In 2004 the number of books taken out on loan totalled 21.4 million, or
roughly 5 books per inhabitant of Saxony. As a “collective memory of
administration and society” the free state runs four state archives (the
Hauptstaatsarchiv Dresden, the Staatsarchive Leipzig and Chemnitz, the
Bergarchiv Freiberg). Further archives are kept by the Saxon state
assembly, the Bautzen archives group, Saxon universities (six archives)
and the rural districts (23 district archives).
Saxony thinks ahead
Inventions
Countless inventions are the result of Saxon ingenuity and only a few
can be listed here: The first German steam locomotive was made in
Saxony, as was the first single-lens reflex camera. Everyday items such
as the toothpaste tube, brassiere, teabag, beer mat and coffee filter were
invented here. The world’s first daily newspaper was published on 1
July 1650 in Leipzig. Back in 1894, Saxony was home to the precursor
of roller skates and inline skates. The first gasworks in continental Europe
brought gaslight to Halsbrücke near Freiberg in 1815, while Germany’s
first district heating works brought central heating to Dresden in 1900.
The first CFC-free refrigerator from Saxony gave the environment a
break and won the German environment award in 1993. Between 1997
and 2002 the administrative district of Dresden recorded the highest
increase in high-tech patent applications within the EU.

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Education and Research
71
Research and development
The state’s universities are centres of Saxon research. In addition to their
basic funding they receive project funding from the Saxon ministry of
Science in order to undertake projects in the field of basic and innovati-
ve research. Saxon universities also share external funding with growing
success. In 2004, their third-party funding totalled about EUR 226
million. In addition, the German Research Federation (DFG) currently
funds 16 special research areas, 18 graduate colleges and 11 research
groups at Saxon universities and research facilities – of which three have
an international status – as well as seven research groups at Saxon
universities and research institutions. More than 50 non-university
research facilities with about 2,800 funded appointments were subsidised
by the Free State of Saxony with supplementary funding from the federal
government.
The research facilities include three Max Planck institutes each in Leipzig
and Dresden that mainly corry out basic research, the Umweltforschungs-
zentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, which performs especially complex tasks
in environmental and health research, eleven Fraunhofer Society Institut-
ions and 2 Fraunhofer Society facilities as centres of technology transfer,
research institutions of the “Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz” scientific
association and 11 state-run facilities.
Over the past ten years, Saxony has also extended extra-university
research into the humanities and now has seven non-university research
facilities including the Saxon Academy of Science in Leipzig, the Insti-
tute of Saxon History and Folklore in Dresden, Simon-Dubnow-Institu-
te of Jewish History and Folklore at the University of Leipzig, the Sorbian
Institute in Bautzen, the Hannah Arendt Institute of Research on
Totalitarianism at the Dresden University of Technology and the Leipzig
Dance Archives. Leipzig also boasts the Humanities Centre for Eastern
Central European History and Culture with basic funding from the Free
State of Saxony and supplementary project funding from the German
Research Federation (DFG).
Since 2005 the Central and Eastern European Centre for Science, the
Economy and Culture has also been based in Leipzig which is one of
thirteen institutions run by Fraunhofer Society. Biotechnology, which is
becoming an important economic factor in Saxony through research and
industries, is particularly important. The universities and the industries
in the Free State co-operate successfully as well as closely in the bio-
technology research centres of BioInnovationsZentrum (BIOZ) in Dres-
den and Bio-technological Bio-medical Centre (BBZ) in Leipzig.
Lobby of the Max
Planck Insitute of
Molecular Cell Biology
and genetics, Dresden

72
Education and Research
www.biosaxony.de
– a Saxon initiative – is gaining worldwide reputation.
The Free State supports and promotes biotechnology by means of
sustainable investments. More than EUR 200 million have been invested
into the improvement of the conditions for a sustainable business and
scientific structure for biotechnology since the year 2000: The
establishment of the start-up centres of BIOZ and BBZ was subsidised
with grants totalling EUR 100 million by the Free State. With 12 new
professor’s chairs that have been established for EUR 40 million the
universities in Dresden and Leipzig intensify their research activities in
biotechnology. A further EUR 60 million have already been made
available for application-oriented research and development projects.
Technology transfer
A network of 42 technology centres for technology advice, technology
mediation and technology-oriented business start-up support has been
established in Saxony to support the transfer of technology from
universities, colleges and research and development facilities to small
and medium businesses. This includes two patent information centres,
four technology advice centres (technology agencies), 15 technology
transfer centres and 21 technology and business start-up centres.
So far, more than 700 technology-oriented new companies with a total
of 4,200 employees have been established in the technology start-up
centres. The Saxon State Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour
subsidised the activities of these facilities via demand- and results-
oriented projects that aimed at activating, accelerating or improving
technology transfer. So far, the technology transfer has been supported
with funds of in total more than EUR 72 million in the framework of
522 projects. New technologies are also distributed through co-operation
relationships and networks to a particular degree. Approx. four fifths of
the companies engaging in R&D co-operated with other companies,
universities and research institutions in the framework of their research
activities. More than one third of the companies active in R&D is
integrated into networks. The “Silicon Saxony” network is the biggest
micro-electronics network in Europe. It brings together manufacturers,
suppliers, service providers, universities, research facilities and
administration. The 207 companies which are members of this network
employ a total of 17,000 staff members.

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Education and Research
73
Technology transfer
centres and non-profit
research companies
in Saxony
Techology start-up centre
Technology agency
Technology advice centre
Patent information centre
Non-profit research
company (GmbH)
Many companies
have invested in
“Silicon Saxony’’

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74
Welfare and Sports
WELFARE
AND
SPORTS

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Welfare and Sports
75
We Saxons take care
Cosmopolitan Saxony promotes democracy and tolerance
Democracy, tolerance and a cosmopolitan attitude are nothing you can
decree “top down”. The citizens themselves have to fill the principles of
tolerance and open-mindedness with life and, moreover, they have to
commit themselves to
their
democracy. In order to support clubs,
associations, municipalities and initiatives fighting right-wing extremism,
anti-Semitism and xenophobia or meeting the development of these
phenomena preventatively and dedicated to supporting local or
democratic structures and promoting own initiatives, the courage of ones’
convictions, civic commitment and co-determination at the same time,
the Free State of Saxony started the state programme “Weltoffenes Sach-
sen” (“Cosmopolitan Saxony”) worth EUR 2 million per year in the
year 2005. So far, approx. 80 projects were supported this year and
approx. 60,000 Saxon citizens were reached by the measures supported
by the state programme. Many small network points and mobile advisory
teams help to develop civil society, to ensure that citizens on site show
commitment for their community and dedicate themselves to local
associations and bodies on site. The fight against right-wing extremism
is the logical consequence of these activities, since, after all, tolerance
and democracy are the exact opposites of the principle of a “strong
leader”.
Applications for grants can be submitted to the State Chancellery of
Saxony, Archivstraße 1, 01095 Dresden at any time. An advisory board
consisting of nine members takes decisions regarding awarding of grants.
Health care
Saxony ensures that medical care is available throughout the state by
means of a state-wide network of medical practices. In many places,
medical centres provide a wide range of services under one roof.
In 2004, there were 82 hospitals, two university hospitals and an armed
forces hospital in Saxony. The university hospitals provide for both
medical training of young doctors and medical research at a high level.
Following German re-unification, substantial funding has been made
available for investment in hospitals in Saxony that have now caught up
with the standard in western Germany both in terms of the buildings and
of medical technology.
Nursery facilities and help for young people
Once children reach the age of three, they have a statutory entitlement to
a place at kindergarten. The prescribed ratio of care staff to children is
The new extensions to
Zittau District Hospital

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76
Welfare and Sports
one care worker for six children in crêches, one care worker for thirteen
children in kindergartens and 0.9 of a care worker per 20 children in day
nurseries (on the basis of nine hours of care per day in crêches and
kindergarten and six hours in after-school care centres). As of 1 April
2005, there were in total 2,640 day-care facilities in the Free State of Saxony.
As of the that date, 203,264 children, including 3,885 children with
disabilities, attended one of these facilities and child minders looked
after 1,648 children. The percentage of children that make use of these
facilities are as follows: 38.7 % of children of crêche age, 102.8 % of
children of kindergarten age
21)
and 62.2 % of children of after-school
care centre age. In 2005, the state budget provided EUR 294.5 million in
subsidies toward the cost of running nursery facilities.
A further EUR 23.7 million was earmarked in the 2006 budget for
offers and services in the framework of help for young people
(excluding nursery facilities). Further funding from the European Social
Fund was also put to use.
19)
incl. salaried doctors in medical practices and health-care facilities
20)
incl. dentists in university hospitals and assistant dentists
21)
This figure of more than 100% is due to provisions for children of day nursery age who still attend kindergarten.
Practising doctors
14 329
General practitioners
19)
6 124
Hospital doctors
7 139
Doctors at authorities (health authorities, pension offices)
466
Otherwise employed
600
Practising dentist
20
)
3 821
Hospital beds (as per hospital plan)
26 613
Hospital nurses and nursing auxiliaries
18 110
in hospitals (31. December 2004)
Medical care in Saxony
as at 31 Dec. 2005
Data: General Medical
Council of Saxony,
General Dentistry
Council of Saxony
Carnival at the
kindergarten in
Klotzsche
Crêches
21
Kindergartens
72
After-school care centres
525
Combined facilities
1 996
Private nurseries
26
Nursery facilities in
Saxony 2005

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Welfare and Sports
77
State child allowances
Saxony pays parents a state child allowance in addition to the federal
government’s child allowance. It is paid for nine months to an amount of
up to EUR 205 (in exceptional cases: EUR 307) but it is income-related.
For children who will be born as of 1 January 2007 the federal
government’s child allowance will be replaced by parents’ allowance.
The state child allowance will be continued in a form comparable to the
current one.
Support for people with disabilities
In the Free State of Saxony, there is a diverse and differentiated offer of
facilities for people with disabilities of which some have open access,
some are partly open and others are in-patient facilities. The aim is to
enable people with disabilities to take part in the life of society with
equal rights and as independently as possible. The range of offers by the
state, the churches and the free institutions includes self-help groups, advice,
employment and qualification, plus sheltered accommodation. Many
facilities are offered in integrated contexts (kindergarten, schools, etc.).
Employment in the primary labour market, integration projects and
workshops for the disabled along with training projects make people
with disabilities largely able to lead a normal life. An environment without
barriers, whether lowered curbs, traffic lights with acoustic signals and
ground-level access to busses and trains are also part of this. The Saxon
authorities also feel committed to ensuring freedom from barriers and
converting their buildings step by step accordingly. The free state and
foundations promote measures to achieve this objective. In Saxony, there
are six social paediatric centres, 46 early support and advice centres,
two employment promotion agencies, three employment training
agencies, 58 workshops for the disabled and 146 homes for people with
disabilities; in addition to this, there are advice centres, outpatient services
for people with disabilities and many other facilities.
Unemployment benefits stage II (Hartz IV)
In May 2006, 651,347 persons received stage II unemployment benefits,
roughly 80 % of the people who needed social welfare were fit for
employment, whereas roughly 20 % were not fit for employment in the
Free State of Saxony. Moreover, the number of children of less than
15 years of age receiving such welfare benefits is also very high (113,156
persons).
The association of
“Dresdner” Tafel hands
out food donations to
people in need

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78
Welfare and Sports
Saxony’s successful
athletes at the 2006
Olympic Winter Games
in Turin at a reception
held by the State
Chancellery
Support for senior citizens
The aim of Saxony’s policy on senior citizens is to enable older and old
people to integrate and take part in society on a lasting basis. There are
four main areas in which help and care facilities are provided for senior
citizens: These are open, outpatient, partially inpatient and inpatient care
in local authority, charitable or private facilities. The open facilities are
very wide-ranging from meeting places for senior citizens via hiking
groups to self-help groups and sheltered accommodation. A dense
network of care and nursing services currently numbering around 880
along with welfare centres and other services such as Meals on Wheels,
enables older people to be supplied and looked after in the domestic
environment with which they are familiar. A total of more than 39,000
inpatient places are available in more than 600 old people’s homes and
care homes. In addition, approx. 1,600 places are available in short-time
care facilities.
Sporting Saxony
The sporting state of Saxony first attracted notice in 1899: The German
Football Association was founded in Leipzig. Here, it was “A time to
make friends” on the occasion of the World Cup 2006.
Olympic athletes from Saxony have won 52 Olympic medals, including
18 gold, 18 silver and 16 bronze medals as well as 44 Paralympic medals
in fencing, weight-lifting, judo, canoe racing, skating, speed skating,
Nordic combination, tobogganing, cross-country skiing and ski jumping.
At the 2006 winter Olympics alone eight Saxon athletes won eight medals
(among which there were two gold medals).
In relation to its population, Saxony was therefore one of the most
successful German states at the Olympics. That must surely be why the
“Youth Trains” for the Olympics programme is such a popular scheme
in the state and culminated in the federal finals in winter sports hosted in
Oberwiesenthal in 2006. Saxony does not just cater for top-level
competitive sport, however.
The idea of night skating in Dresden, where motorists are banned from
the streets, has been exported to many other towns and cities.
There are numerous marathons, the “Sachsen fährt ab” cycle race and
many more. Great importance is attached to school sport, too – which is
why Saxons students have three sports lessons per week. This provides
scope for elective courses, co-operation with sports clubs and trying out
new disciplines.

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Welfare and Sports
79
The variety of sports for the disabled, on the other hand, ranges from
rehabilitation sport via sport for the general public to top-level competitive
sport. Saxony also goes in for sporting disciplines that are out of the
ordinary: Since 1991, Dresden Dragon boaters have been at home in the
“Am Blauen Wunder” sailing club. In 1995, the successful young team
competed in the Dragon boat world championships in China. Young
acrobats have trained in Ottendorf-Okrilla since 1963.
Their club holds an annual international open tournament. Riesa, too,
is making a sporting name for itself by holding the sumo wrestling
world championships. For winter sports, 1,000 kilometres of cross-
country ski runs are available in the Erzgebirge and Zittauer Gebirge
mountains, where snow can (almost) be relied on. Down hill skiers
can use more than 100 lifts. In addition to long-distance and Alpine
skiers, Saxony’s winter sports areas are home to snowboarders, biathlon
specialists and ski jumpers. More than 4,200 sports clubs with around
530,000 members belong to Saxony’s state sports association. Between
them, more than 80,000 volunteers put in around 15 million hours of
unpaid work in this field.
Dragon boat
race in Dresden

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80
Art and Culture
ART
AND CULTURE

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Art and Culture
81
Experiencing culture
Castles, palaces and gardens
With its palaces, castles and gardens from all eras, Saxony is one of the
richest and most varied cultural landscapes in Europe. Saxony owns
approx. 70 of these complexes. Nineteen of the most artistically
significant of them have formed the state-owned enterprise State Palaces,
Castles and Gardens in 1993. Four further historically important palaces
have been operated as largely independent operating companies since
the year 2000.
In Dresden, the Zwinger Palace with the Semper Gallery, the Brühl
Terrace, Pillnitz Palace and Park as well as the Grosser Garten are world-
renowned. They testify magnificently to the glory days of the Saxon
electoral court in the Baroque and Rococo era. In 2004, both the Dres-
den Elbe Valley between the castles of Pillnitz and Übigau as well as
Muskau Park/Park Muzakowski which is located on the German and
Polish bank of the River Neiße were named UNESCO world heritage
sites. Moritzburg Palace, north of Dresden in an extensive cultural and
pond landscape, dates back to building work by Electoral Prince Moritz
in the sixteenth century and is famous for enormous areas of leather
wall covering, the Federzimmer and the large collection of historic antlers
as well as a pheasant run with a Rococo castle. The Albrechtsburg in
Meissen holds a special place in Saxony history as the „cradle of Saxony”.
Built from 1471 on, it represents the transition from a late mediaeval
castle to a palace. Moreover, Nossen Castle and the Monastery Park
Altzella are also located in this region. Here, a park with ruins was
developed in accordance with contemporary taste during the Romantic
era on the remains of a former Cistercian monastery.
Augustusburg Palace, built under Electoral Prince August I as a
magnificent Renaissance castle in the valley of the river Zschopau,
testifies to the wealth of Saxony during the heyday of silver mining in
the Erzgebirge. Along with Scharfenstein Castle and Lichtenwalde Palace
it makes up the “three worth seeing” – a tourist attraction in the region.
The former residence of the later King Johann of Saxony – Weesenstein
Palace – in the Valley of the river Müglitz is outstanding on account of
its unusual architecture, its genuine era furnishings as well as a valuable
library. Kriebstein Palace above the Zschopau Valley, Gnandstein Palace
in the Kohrener Land and the castle ruins of Stolpen convey some idea
of traditions of the Saxon rural aristocracy that date well back to the
Middle Ages. The origins of Rochlitz Castle, Colditz Castle and Milden-
stein Castle in the Mulde valley partly date back to the era of the Staufer.
Rammenau Palace from the Baroque era in Upper Lusatia is an example
Weesenstein Palace
Moritzburg Palace
Gnandstein Castle

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of the Saxon rural aristocracy’s way of life. It is famous for its classicist
rooms – in particular the mirror hall. Königstein Fortress holds a special
position in the landscape of Saxon castles by virtue of its outstanding
location and its former military importance, covering an area of
9.5 hectares it is the largest fortress in Germany
22)
.
Architecture
The economic and cultural wealth of the past can be experienced in
many historic town centres with town houses. The old city centres of
Bautzen, Freiberg, Görlitz (with more than 3,600 listed buildings),
Grimma, Meissen, Pirna and Torgau are particularly attractive. The late
Gothic hall churches built e.g. in Annaberg, Schwarzenberg or Görlitz
from the late fifteenth century with their richly decorated vaults and
their striving for unification of spatial effect were a consequence of
economic prosperity. They boast important artistic interiors.
After the destruction wrought during the Thirty Years’ War a separate
and distinct Baroque style of architecture inspired by Italian and French
models took shape on the basis of the renewed economic recovery. Spe-
cial mention must here be made of the Frauenkirche (Church of Our
Lichtenwalde Castle
1,000-year-old Bautzen
Umgebindehaus
in Niederoderwitz,
Upper Lusatia
22)
See series of publications and annuals by “Staatliche Schlösser, Burgen und Gärten Sachsen”, plus an
annual calendar of events. For further details visit
www.schloesser.sachsen.de.

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83
Villa Esche, Chemnitz,
architect: Henry van
de Velde
Jean-Étienne Liotard:
The Chocolate Girl,
Gemäldegalerie “Alte
Meister”, Dresden
Lady) and the catholic Hofkirche (Court Church). The Romanushaus in
Leipzig is a striking example of a Baroque bourgeois city palace. There
is also a wide range of testimonies to rural architecture. Moreover, the
timber-framed (“Umgebindehaus”) style that has mainly been preserved
in the region of Upper Lusatia must also be mentioned. Examples of the
neo-classical style that prevailed in about 1800 include the conversion
of the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig, the Landhaus in Dresden or the Neue
Palais at Pillnitz Palace.
Gottfried Semper’s Gemäldegalerie and his first and second Hoftheater
in Dresden mark a return to the Italian Renaissance. The industrialization
of Saxony during the 19th century mainly produced railway and industrial
buildings.The former Reichsgericht building, now the seat of the Federal
Administrative Court, is an impressive example of the historicist style.
The Völkerschlachtdenkmal in Leipzig or Memorial to the 1813 Battle
of the Nations, is another monumental building. The reform style of
architecture in Hellerau Garden City, Dresden and its Festspielhaus
adopted a new approach to surmounting historicism. Well-known
examples of modern classics include Villa Rabe in Zwenkau as well as
Erich Mendelsohn’s Kaufhaus Schocken in Chemnitz
23)
.
The Fine Arts
In Saxony, art has always enjoyed a special status. This magnificent
tradition goes back to the electoral princes and kings of Saxony who
were enthusiastic art collectors and amassed immense art treasures over
the centuries. Electoral Prince August laid the foundation stone in 1560
by setting up the Kunstkammer. This collection grew so quickly that
numerous special museums were founded in the eighteenth century. They
included the Gemäldegallerie in Dresden established in 1722 under
Augustus the Strong. With works by Titian, Correggio, Rubens,
Rembrandt and Vermeer it is one of the world’s foremost art collections.
This enthusiasm for the arts included patronage of artists. In 1680,
Electoral Prince Johann Georg III endowed the School of Drawing and
Painting, the precursor of the Saxon Art Academy. It really flourished in
the early nineteenth century when the Romantics Caspar David Friedrich
and Ludwig Richter lived and worked in Dresden. Modern art trends in
the early twentieth century fell on fertile soil in Saxony. Private are dealers
were particularly committed and made Dresden a major trendsetter in
European art. That was the period when the artists’ associations “Die
Brücke” and “Dresdner Sezession” were founded in 1905 and 1919
23)
Georg Dehio: Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler: Sachsen I (Regierungsbezirk Dresden), Munich/
Berlin 1996; Sachsen II (Regierungsbezirke Leipzig und Chemnitz), Munich/Berlin 1998

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Art and Culture
The Leipzig
Thomanerchor
respectively. Saxon artists with a world reputation today include Gerhard
Richter and Neo Rauch. Along with major new museum buildings to
house the Dresden state art collections and the Museum of Fine Arts in
Leipzig, a lively galleries and university scene with a brisk succession
of exhibitions is constantly adding fresh stimuli.
Music and the perfomring arts
Saxony is a state with a long tradition of musical theatre. The Dresden
Palace, which is currently undergoing restoration, was the birthplace of
the opera (Heinrich Schütz’s Daphne) in the German-speaking world in
1662. Today, the Saxon State Opera in Dresden with the Semper Opera
House, rebuilt in 1985, has one of the world’s finest opera houses at its
disposal. Theatres run by the free state include the Staatsschauspiel Dres-
den and the Landesbühnen Sachsen. The latter, based in Radebeul, tour
a wide range of locations around the state, including in the summer season
the open-air Rathen Felsenbühne in Saxon Switzerland. The German-
Sorbian Volkstheater Bautzen puts on stage plays both in German and in
Sorbian. It is Germany’s only professional bi-cultural theater. Over the
past two centuries public, non-court theatres have been founded not only
in cities such as Leipzig, Dresden, Chemnitz or Zwickau but also in
smaller towns such as Annaberg, Bautzen, Freiberg, Görlitz, Plauen and
Zittau. At present, Saxony boasts 15 public theatres and 10 orchestras to
go with them. Saxony also has 16 large cultural and operatic orchestras
that are run by the state, local authorities and private institutions. The
Gewandhausorchester in Leipzig, the Sächsische Staatskapelle in Dres-
den and the Dresden Philharmonie are the best-known. In addition, the
symphony orchestra of the Mitteldeutsche Rundfunk broadcasting service
is domiciled in Leipzig. One of the oldest features of European musical
culture is the Saxon boys’ choirs founded nearly 800 years ago, the Dres-
den Kreuzchor and the Leipzig Thomanerchor.
Popular art and handicrafts
Saxon craft industry workers maintain and enrich traditional craft
techniques with a great deal of love, skill and enthusiasm. Striking
examples of products that are known well beyond the state’s borders
include Meissen and Freital china, Plauen lace, musical instruments from
the Vogtland, dress trimmings from Annaberg, embroidery from Eiben-
stock, artificial flowers from Sebnitz, pottery from Waldenburg,
blueprinted fabrics and damask from the Lusatia, Christmas stars from
Herrnhut, wooden toys from Seiffen and environs, serpentine turned work

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85
Easter eggs coloured
using the traditional
Sorbian wax technique
The annual Wave Gothic
meeting in Leipzig
from Zöblitz, Christmas decorations from the Erzgebirge, glasswork and
basketweaving. In the days of Augustus the Strong, Johann Melchior
Dinglinger took the goldsmith’s craft to a peak of perfection. The results
of his handiwork can be seen in Saxony’s richest treasure chamber, the
Green Vault in Dresden. Woodcarving, turning, woodwork, lacemaking,
silhouette cutout work or the artistic decoration of Easter eggs in the
Sorbian-speaking areas are the epitome of popular art, but the range of
activities extends to a variety of classical craft techniques, candle-making,
felt-making and much more.
Fairs and festivals
Fairs, some with very long traditions, are just as much at home in
Saxony as are numerous youth and scene events. All in all they are a
colourful mixture of different genres and epochs, only a few of which
can be mentioned here. In the Sorbian-speaking areas, the Birds’
Wedding is celebrated on January 25. That is when the birds thank
young people with sweets for having fed them in winter. On the Easter
Rides, Sorbian riders in festive dress proclaim the message of Christ’s
resurrection in ceremonial processions early on Easter Sunday morning.
In May the International Honky Tonk pub festival attracts thousands
of visitors to Leipzig, while at the Dresden International Dixieland
Festival jazz sets the tone.
Whitsun is the time for Europe’s Wave Gothic meeting of Gothic and
neo-Romantic punks in Leipzig. In June the International Trabant Dri-
vers’ meeting attracts many guests to Zwickau, and in August thousands
of hip-hop and reggae fans converge on Chemnitz for Europe’s biggest
Splash festival. In June, people in Plauen celebrate their own Vogtland
Family Festival, but the biggest popular festival of all in Saxony is
Saxons’ Day, celebrated over the first weekend in September at a dif-
ferent place in the state every year. Clubs and associations meet to
share their local customs and traditions accompanied by a rich and
varied programme, many culinary specialities and a festival procession.
In June Freiberg celebrates its Mining Festival and in December, on
the second Sunday in Advent, the miners’ parade marches round the
town. To add a little light to the winter and set the mood for Christmas,
people in Schneeberg celebrate their Lichtelfest, or Festival of Lights,
on the second Sunday in Advent. Numerous traditional Christmas
markets, including Germany’s oldest, the Dresden Striezelmarkt, first
recorded mention in 1434, offer Christmas flair to get you in the festive
mood. Be they town festivals, fleet parades of the river steamers, the

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Art and Culture
The Dresden
Striezelmarkt
steam locomotives event, castle festivals, bridge festivals or world stars
in Leipzig, something is always going on in Saxony. Well-known events
in Saxony’s cultural life also include the following:
Gottfried Silbermann Festival and International Silbermann Organ
Competition (at Freiberg Cathedral)
Dresden Music Festival (classical and contemporary e-music)
Dresden Days of Contemporary Music
Chemnitz Cultural Encounters (centred on music and performing arts,
with a special focus on Art, Industry and Science)
Zwickau Music Festival (in honour of Robert Schumann)
Leipzig Bach Festival (annual) and International Bach Competition (biennial)
euro-scene Leipzig (Festival of Contemporary European Theatre)
– Central European Festival (cross-border Saxon-Czech-Bavarian
festival with a focus on music)
Filmfest Dresden. International Festival for Animation and Short Films
International Leipzig Festival for Documentary and Animated Film
Film Nights on the Bank of the Elbe (large-scale projection and
concerts in Dresden)
Chemnitz Children’s Film Festival “Schlingel”– 10th International
Film Festival for Children and Young Audiences
Saxon Literature Days (held every other year in a different cultural region)
– Kamenz Lessing Days
Dresden Poetry Days
Leipzig Book Prize for European Understanding
Saxon Amateur Theatre Days
Cultural promotion
Saxony has grown organically over centuries as a cultural area. The state
art collections are known well beyond the state’s borders for the unique
variety and complexity of their exhibits. Saxony was home to composers
such as Johann Sebastian Bach, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner,
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, and famous orchestra played – and
continue to play – works by the masters. The Thomanerchor in Leipzig
and the Kreuzchor in Dresden have maintained their musical heritage at
world level for 800 years. Saxony has also pioneered the performing

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87
Chemnitz Opera House
Bad Muskau landscape
park, a UNESCO World
Heritage site laid out by
Prince Pückler
arts. Caroline Neuber, 1697–1760 reformed German theatre, and Gret
Palucca laid the foundations for modern expressive dancing in the 1920s.
From 1990 on, centralist structures in the cultural landscape were replaced
by pluralist ones in Saxony. At the same time the state’s rich cultural
substance was to be maintained to a large extent. In December 1993, the
Saxon state assembly passed the Cultural Regions in Saxony Act to
strengthen the regional level. By the terms of the Act the state finances
jointly with eight rural cultural regions (consisting of rural administrati-
ve districts and municipalities) and three urban cultural regions
(Chemnitz, Dresden and Leipzig) subsidies for local authority cultural
institutions and activities in the regions. State funding for these activities
amounts to around EUR 85 million a year.
Saxony funds state institutions such as museums, theatres and orchestras
(about EUR 82.5 million a year) in addition to the free artistic activity of
composers, performing artists, filmmakers, writers and the socio-cultural
activities of committed societies and associations. Avaried cultural life
can only take shape and be maintained on the basis of unpaid voluntary
work in numerous societies and various foundations, such as the Saxon
Cultural Foundation. Approx. EUR 6.4 million are allocated every year
in the context of the so-called General Promotion of Art and Culture.
The “Kulturstiftung des Freistaates Sachsen” foundation contributes
approx. EUR 2.4 million to this amount.
The Saxon schools of music which form the basis of musical life in
Saxony are supported to the amount of EUR 5 million every year.
The Sorbs take care of their art and culture by means of a large number
of groups, choirs and societies. Important cultural institutions include
the Sorbian National Ensemble, the Domowina Verlag publishing
house in Bautzen, the Ortenburg Sorbian Museum in Bautzen, the
German-Sorbian People’s Theatre in Bautzen and the WITAJ
Language Centre. Sorbian language and culture are also maintained
in newspapers, magazines and books as well as in Sorbian-language
radio and TV programmes. The state government funds these
institutions, societies and projects jointly with the federal government
and the state of Brandenburg, awarding the Foundation for the Sorbian
People an annual grant of EUR 16 million. At around EUR 98 per
inhabitant or 2.4 % of the state budget, Saxony is the German non-
city state with the highest cultural expenditure in Germany.

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Art and Culture
The oldest Horch car in
the August Horch
Museum, Zwickau
The German Damask and
Terry Towelling Museum
in Grossschönau
Saxony treasures memories
Museums
There are now more than 470 museums and exhibition facilities in Saxony.
The former electoral and royal collections in Dresden are world-
renowned. They include the Gemäldegalerie Alte und Neue Meister, the
sculpture collection, the Green Vault (a treasure chamber established by
Saxony’s rulers), the porcelain collection with a unique abundance of
Far Eastern and Meissen china, and the armoury, one of the most
outstanding collections of arms, armour and costumes, Leipzig’s
municipal art museums also enjoy international renown, as do the art
collections in Chemnitz. Of the municipal history museums, special
mention must be made of the ones in Bautzen, Chemnitz, Dresden, Frei-
berg, Görlitz, Leipzig, Plauen and Zittau. Specialised collections include
the Museum of Military History in Dresden, the German Hygiene Mu-
seum, the Transport Museum in Leipzig, the Museums of Musical In-
struments in Leipzig and Markneukirchen as well as the German Book
and Script Museum and the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig.
A speciality of Saxony is its technical museums, including the mining
museums in Freiberg and Altenberg-Zinnwald, the mining museum in
Oelsnitz/Erzgebirge, the Saxon Industrial Museum in Chemnitz, Lenge-
feld Chalk Works, the Frohnau Hammer near Annaberg and the Saiger-
hütte in Grünthal. Craft and technical products are on show at the Plauen
Lace Museum, the motorcycle exhibition at Augustusburg Palace, the
showrooms at the Staatliche Porzellanmanufaktur Meissen and the au-
tomobile exhibition in Zwickau. The city of Dresden’s technology
collections include numerous exhibits from Saxon film technology. the
German Institute for Animated Film (DIAF) collection also includes
more than 2,000 copies of Saxon films that are available for public access.
The natural-history museums in Görlitz, Dresden, Chemnitz, Leipzig, und
Waldenburg have important collections. They also make noteworthy
contributions to the research work in this field. A number of museums
focus on folklore, e.g. the museum of Erzgebirge toys in Seiffen. The state
museums of ethnology in Leipzig, Dresden and Herrnhut present extensi-
ve collections of non-European art and items of practical use.

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Art and Culture
89
Bautzen Memorial:
exterior view of BZ II
Saxon literature museums include those in Kamenz (the Lessing Mu-
seum), Dresden (the Erich Kästner Museum), Hainichen (the Gellert
Museum) and the Karl May museums in Hohenstein-Ernstthal (the
house where the writer was born) and Radebeul.
Memorials
The Saxon Memorials Foundation is dedicated in equal measure to
memories of the victims of Nazi dictatorship, the Soviet occupying po-
wer and the East German regime. The curators of the memorials organize
exhibitions, events, educational offers and circulate publications.
The Bautzen Memorial recalls the victims of Bautzen’s two prisons, the
former state penitentiary Bautzen I (the “Yellow Misery”), first a Nazi
prison, then a Soviet special camp and one of the most-feared prisons in
East Germany, and Bautzen II, which from 1956 to 1989 served as a
prison for “prisoners of state” with special access for the Ministry of
State Security (MfS, or Stasi).
The Münchner Platz Memorial in Dresden recalls the victims of judicial
crime under the Nazi regime, Soviet military justice and the East Ger-
man criminal justice system. In the Third Reich the former district court
served the Nazi judiciary as a court and execution facility. The Pirna-
Sonnenstein Memorial recalls the 15,000 mainly mentally handicapped
people who were murdered in the gas chamber in 1940/41 as part of the
Nazi “destruction of life unfit for living.” The Torgau Documentation
and Information Centre recalls the victims of Nazi Wehrmacht justice.
The military prisons and barracks were used to house political prisoners
by the Soviet occupying forces and in East Germany, too. The Ehren-
hain Memorial in Zeithain near Riesa testifies to the mass death of mainly
Soviet PoWs between 1941 and 1945 in the Zeithain prisoner of war
camp. The Foundation also funds memorials to everyday repression by
the Ministry of State Security: the former remand prison of the Dresden
Stasi in Bautzener Strasse and the museum at the Runde Ecke in Leipzig,
the former Stasi headquarters in Leipzig. The Foundation runs a
documentation centre on the history of resistance and repression in the
Nazi era and East Germany and provides funding or non-material support
for smaller memorial projects.

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Writer and dialect poet
Lene Voigt, 1891–1962
The Fasskeller
in Auerbachs
Keller, Leipzig
Typically Saxon
Dialect(s)
In many areas it does not take experts to identify different languages and
dialects. The Saxon, too, is recognized by his dialect – often commented
by biting mockery in the form of quotations from that dialect.
Yet a historic form of Saxon dialect, the Meissen or Upper Saxon
chancellery German in its written form that was much lauded by linguists
from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries, was a basis of the later
spoken and written High German to which Luther’s Bible translation
made its contribution.
If you want to describe the Saxon accent, the first feature that strikes the
listener is the “softening” of hard consonants. B replaces P (“Babba”