image
Reporting under Article 17
of the Habitats Directive
Explanatory Notes and Guidelines
for the period 2013–2018
Final version – May 2017

Final version
May 2017
Article 17 reporting: Explanatory Notes & Guidelines
2
These guidelines have been compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and its European
Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (ETC/BD). They have been developed through a collaborative
work of the Expert Group on Reporting under the Nature Directives, its ad-hoc groups, and the
Expert Group on the Birds and the Habitats Directives (NADEG).
DG Environment. 2017. Reporting under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive: Explanatory notes and
guidelines for the period 2013-2018. Brussels. Pp 188
Cover photo: Dry heaths, © Frédéric Bioret, European Red List of Habitats / EC

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................6
PART 1. THE REPORT FORMAT FIELD-BY-FIELD GUIDANCE ...................................................... 10
GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT FORMAT........................................................... 10
ANNEX A - GENERAL REPORT FORMAT ........................................................................................................... 11
Field-by-field guidance ................................................................................................................................ 11
0
Member State .................................................................................................................................... 11
1
Main achievements under the Habitats Directive ................................................................................ 11
2
General information sources on the implementation of the Habitats Directive – links to information
sources of the Member State ...................................................................................................................... 12
3
Natura 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs & SACs) – site designation (Article 4) ............................................................ 13
4
Set of conservation measures and management plans for Natura 2000 sites (SACs) (Article 6(1)) ........ 14
5
Measures taken in relation to approval of plans & projects (Article 6.4) .............................................. 15
6
Measures taken to ensure coherence of the Natura 2000 Network (Article 10) ................................... 16
7
Reintroduction of Annex IV species (Article 22(a))............................................................................... 16
ANNEX B - REPORT FORMAT ON THE ‘MAIN RESULTS OF THE SURVEILLANCE UNDER ARTICLE 11’ FOR ANNEX
II, IV AND V SPECIES ....................................................................................................................................... 18
Species to be reported ................................................................................................................................ 18
Field-by-field guidance for completing ‘Annex B’ species reports ................................................................. 23
NATIONAL LEVEL ............................................................................................................................................ 23
1
General information ........................................................................................................................... 23
2
Maps .................................................................................................................................................. 24
3
Information related to Annex V species (Article 14) ............................................................................ 27
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL .............................................................................................................................. 28
4
Biogeographical and marine regions ................................................................................................... 29
5
Range ................................................................................................................................................. 29
6
Population ......................................................................................................................................... 33
7
Habitat for the species ....................................................................................................................... 39
8
Main pressures and threats ................................................................................................................ 42
9
Conservation measures ...................................................................................................................... 45
10
Future prospects ................................................................................................................................ 47
11
Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................ 47
12
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for Annex II species ..................................................... 54
13
Complementary information .............................................................................................................. 56
ANNEX C – EVALUATION MATRIX FOR ASSESSING CONSERVATION STATUS OF A SPECIES ............................. 58
ANNEX D – REPORT FORMAT ON THE ‘MAIN RESULTS OF THE SURVEILLANCE UNDER ARTICLE 11’ FOR ANNEX
I HABITAT TYPES ............................................................................................................................................. 59

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Habitats to be reported .............................................................................................................................. 59
Field-by-field guidance for completing ‘Annex D’ Habitat reports ................................................................ 60
NATIONAL LEVEL ............................................................................................................................................ 60
1
General information ........................................................................................................................... 60
2
Maps .................................................................................................................................................. 60
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL .............................................................................................................................. 62
3
Biogeographical and marine regions ................................................................................................... 62
4
Range ................................................................................................................................................. 63
5
Area covered by habitat ..................................................................................................................... 67
6
Structure and functions ...................................................................................................................... 72
7
Main pressures and threats ................................................................................................................ 74
8
Conservation measures ...................................................................................................................... 77
9
Future Prospects ................................................................................................................................ 78
10
Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................ 79
11
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs, SACs) coverage for Annex I habitat types .................................................. 86
12
Complementary information .............................................................................................................. 88
ANNEX E – EVALUATION MATRIX FOR ASSESSING CONSERVATION STATUS OF A HABITAT ........................... 89
PART 2. DEFINITIONS AND METHODS ..................................................................................... 90
DEFINITIONS AND METHODS FOR SPECIES REPORTING .................................................................................. 90
Species to be reported ................................................................................................................................ 90
Marine species ......................................................................................................................................... 103
Transboundary populations ...................................................................................................................... 106
Sources of information for species assessments ........................................................................................ 107
Trends ...................................................................................................................................................... 107
Favourable reference values ..................................................................................................................... 109
2
Maps ................................................................................................................................................ 121
5
Range ............................................................................................................................................... 124
6
Population ....................................................................................................................................... 128
7
Habitat for the species ..................................................................................................................... 136
8
Main pressures and threats .............................................................................................................. 141
9
Conservation measures .................................................................................................................... 143
10
Future prospects .............................................................................................................................. 144
12
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for Annex II species ................................................... 150
DEFINITIONS AND METHODS FOR HABITAT REPORTING .............................................................................. 151
Habitats to be reported ............................................................................................................................ 151
Marine habitats ........................................................................................................................................ 153
Sources of information for assessing habitat types .................................................................................... 154
Trends ...................................................................................................................................................... 155
Favourable reference value....................................................................................................................... 157
2
Maps ................................................................................................................................................ 164
4
Range ............................................................................................................................................... 165
6
Structure and functions (including typical species) ............................................................................ 170
7
Main pressures and threats .............................................................................................................. 175
8
Conservation measures .................................................................................................................... 177

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9
Future prospects .............................................................................................................................. 178
11
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for Annex I habitat types ........................................... 184
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 185

 
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INTRODUCTION
Article 17 paragraph 1 of the Habitats Directive
1
(hereafter 'the Directive') states: ‘Every six years
from the date of expiry of the period laid down in Article 23, Member States shall draw up a report
on the implementation of the measures taken under this Directive. This report shall include in
particular information concerning the conservation measures referred to in Article 6(1) as well as
evaluation of the impact of those measures on the conservation status of the natural habitat types of
Annex I and the species in Annex II and the main results of the surveillance referred to in Article 11.’
Article 17 paragraph 2 requires the European Commission to prepare a composite report based on
the national reports and to make it available for the other EU institutions and the public in general.
The first report in 2000 focused on the legal transposition and general implementation of the
Directive; the second and third reports from the Member States in 2007 and 2013 (covering the
periods 2001–2006 and 2007–2012 respectively) were focused on the conservation status of the
habitat types and species included in the Annexes to the Directive.
Reporting under Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive uses a format approved by Member States’
representatives as part of the Habitats Committee after discussion and consultation in the Expert
Group on the Birds and the Habitats Directives (NADEG). The
Report format aims at standardising
and harmonising the content of the reports across Member States
to allow the aggregation of
national data to produce the EU report. After each reporting period, a revision of the formats and
associated guidelines is undertaken by DG Environment, the European Environment Agency and its
European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity in collaboration with the Member States. The Expert
Group on Reporting under the Nature Directives – which also includes representatives of
stakeholders – is tasked with proposing and discussing the improvement and modification of the
formats and the guidelines published in 2006 and 2011. In order to help this process several ad hoc
groups were set up in order to facilitate a harmonised understanding between Member States, using
scientific and pragmatic approaches.
The format was initially approved by the Habitats Committee in 2003
2
and first used for the period
2001–2006. Experience gained during that report led to some changes for the report for 2007–2012;
in particular, sections were added to help assess the role of the Natura 2000 network in reaching the
goals of the Directive. Further experience with the 2007–2012 reports has led to further changes,
some of which aim to simplify the report. The major additions are questions on the nature of
changes aimed to help measure progress towards the targets in the EU’s 2020 Biodiversity Strategy
and for information on the exploitation of Annex V species.
1
Council Directive 92/43/EEC
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:01992L0043-20070101
2
Assessment, monitoring and reporting of conservation status – preparing the 2001–2007 report under
Article 17 of the Habitats Directive (DocHab-04-03/03 ver.3). DG Environment, 2004.

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Box 1: How to use these explanatory notes & guidelines
These guidelines are aimed primarily at those responsible for compiling the national Article 17
reports for the period 2013–2018, but may also be of interest to others who wish to use or to better
understand the results.
The guidelines are organised in three parts: a short introduction, a practical step-by-step guidance on
how to fill in the different fields of the reports, and a part describing the concepts and methods used
in more detail.
The technical specifications for the data to be reported will be given in specific delivery manuals;
code lists with codes for standardised entry of information in the Report formats will be available on
the Reference Portal. The delivery manuals and code lists complement these Explanatory Notes &
Guidelines.
Technical documents and reference lists
The Reference Portal
3
contains documents and other material related to the information provided in
the Report formats under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive.
It includes:
-
the Report formats for the period 2013–2018;
-
these Explanatory Notes & Guidelines;
-
reference material, e.g. checklists for species and habitat types, maps of biogeographical regions,
marine area of pSCIs, SCIs and SACs, agreed population units, list of pressures and threats, list of
conservation measures, and the European grids (10x10 km ETRS) used for mapping the
distribution and range;
-
additional examples illustrating the guidance provided in these Explanatory Notes & Guidelines;
-
IT applications (reporting and range tools) for preparing and delivering the reporting dataset.
Content of the Article 17 report
The reports under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive provide information on the conservation status
of habitats and species listed in the Annexes to the Directive.
Conservation status is the overall
assessment of the status of a habitat type or a species at the scale of a Member State’s
biogeographical or marine region
.
Favourable conservation status (FCS)
The assessment of the conservation status of a habitat type or species is related to the concept of
Favourable conservation status (FCS). Favourable conservation status is the overall objective to be
reached for all habitat types and species of Community interest (i.e. the habitats and species listed in
Annexes I, II, IV and V of the Directive) and it is defined in Article 1 of the Habitats Directive. It can be
simply described as
a situation where a habitat type or species is prospering (in both quality and
3
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17

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extent/population) and with good prospects to continue to do so in the future
. The conservation
status objective of the Directive is defined in positive terms, oriented towards a favourable situation,
which needs to be defined, reached and maintained. It is therefore aimed at achieving far more than
trying to avoid extinctions.
The conservation status of a species in the Habitats Directive (Article 1(i)) will be taken as
‘favourable’ when:
population dynamics data on the species concerned indicate that it is maintaining itself on a
long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats; and
the natural range of the species is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the
foreseeable future; and
there is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain its
populations on a long-term basis.
The conservation status of a habitat in the Habitats Directive (Article 1(e)) will be taken as
‘favourable’ when:
its natural range and areas it covers within that range are stable or increasing; and
the specific structure and functions which are necessary for its long-term maintenance exist
and are likely to continue to exist for the foreseeable future; and
the conservation status of its typical species is favourable as defined in (i);
The agreed method for the evaluation of conservation status assesses separately each of the
parameters of conservation status (Table 1), with the aid of an evaluation matrix (see Annexes C and
E of the Report format), and then combines these assessments to give an overall assessment of
conservation status.
Table 1: Parameters for the conservation status assessment of species and habitat types
Parameters
for
the
conservation
status
assessment of species
Parameters
for
the
conservation
status
assessment of habitat types
Range
Range
Population
Area
Habitat for the species
Structure and functions
Future prospects
Future prospects

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Box 2: How is the information on conservation status used?
Regular reporting using an agreed format is an obligation under Article 17 of the European Union’s
Habitats Directive. It is essential that the reports from the Member States are harmonised, otherwise
it is not possible to aggregate reports to produce a composite report for the EU as required by the
Directive.
Evaluation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy
The reports give an overview of the state of the EU’s biodiversity and form an important component
of evaluating EU policies, in particular, in measuring progress towards the 2020 targets set under the
EU Biodiversity Strategy. Results from the 2007–2012 reporting period are described in
State of
nature in the EU
(EEA, 2015).
Link with other biodiversity assessments
The EU Water Framework and Marine Strategy Framework Directives use the terms ‘Good Ecological
Status’ and ‘Good Environmental Status’, respectively, which are broadly comparable to FCS.
However, their definitions are different and they assess different aspects of biodiversity. Clearly in
many instances the same data will be used for reporting under two or more Directives
4 5
, and
Member States are encouraged to develop links between work for reporting under all three
Directives. Work is also ongoing at EU level to ensure synergies in definition of the various concepts.
4
The
final
draft
of
Water
Framework
Directive
Reporting
Guidance
can
be
found
here :
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/WFD/WFD_521_2016/Guidance/Guidance/WFD_ReportingGuidance.docx
5
The draft guidance for reporting under articles 8, 9 & 10 for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive can be
found
here :
https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/fd664852-41b1-468f-a007-a3005c06050c/DIKE_15-2017-
02_MSFD2018ReportingGuidance_v2.0.doc

 
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PART
1.
THE
REPORT
FORMAT
FIELD-BY-FIELD
GUIDANCE
Part 1 of these guidelines (The Report format field-by-field guidance) provides a practical step-by-
step guidance on how to fill in the different fields of the Report format. It gives a detailed description
of the nature of information to be reported in each field (e.g. a number, a period) and the basic
requirements to be met by the information (e.g. ‘short-term trends should ideally be reported over
the last 12 years, but some flexibility is permitted’).
More detailed descriptions of concepts and methods for reported information are provided in Part 2
(Definitions and methods).
GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT
FORMAT
The Article 17 Report format consists of five distinct Annexes (A–E)
Annex A – General report:
gives an overview of the implementation and general measures taken under
the Habitats Directive.
Annex B – Report format on the ‘main results of the surveillance under Article 11’ for Annex II, IV and V
species (Species reports):
gives background information for assessment of the conservation status of a
species.
Annex C – Assessing conservation status of a species (Species evaluation matrix):
the evaluation matrix
used to assess the conservation status of a species using the information in the Annex B reports. The
assessment conclusions for each species are also reported in the respective Annex B report.
Annex D – Report format on the ‘main results of the surveillance under Article 11’ for Annex I habitat
types (Habitat type reports):
gives background information for assessment of the conservation status of
a habitat.
Annex E – Assessing conservation status of a habitat type (Habitat type evaluation matrix):
the
evaluation matrix used to assess the conservation status of a habitat type using the information in the
Annex D reports. The assessment conclusions (i.e. for each parameter and the overall assessment) for
each habitat type are also reported in the respective Annex D report.
The information reported in Annexes B and D includes data used for the assessments of conservation
status for each biogeographical or marine region at the Member State and EU levels. Therefore, the
habitat and species reports have a short ‘national’ section to be completed for each habitat type or
species of Community interest present in the Member State, followed by a ‘biogeographical or
marine region’ section. This should be completed for each biogeographical or marine region in the
Member State where the habitat or species is present according to the checklists available from the
Article 17 Reference Portal.

 
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ANNEX A - GENERAL REPORT FORMAT
Field-by-field guidance
The general report or ‘Annex A’ uses a very brief structured format aimed at summarising the most
important facts and figures on the general implementation of the Directive, including links to more
detailed information sources. It is mainly targeted at the interested public, but also at informing the
Commission.
Each Member State is expected to submit one general report covering its entire European territory. It
includes obligatory information about several provisions of the Habitats Directive. In addition, the
main achievements under the implementation of the Directive and the main measures taken to
ensure the coherence of the Natura 2000 network should be briefly described. The report should
give information of relevance for the period 2013–2018.
Language – any EU official language can be used. The Report format tries to minimise the difficulties
of using different languages by requesting numerical information wherever possible. The use of
English is recommended for the free text fields.
All Internet addresses in the reporting fields should be given in full, including the initial
‘http://’
or
‘https://’, if applicable.
0
Member State
Select the two-digit code for your Member State from ISO 3166. For the United Kingdom, use ‘UK’
instead of ‘GB’, in accordance with the list to be found on the Reference Portal
6
.
1
Main achievements under the Habitats Directive
This section aims to inform the interested public about the main achievements under the Habitats
Directive and the Natura 2000 network in the respective Member State during the reporting period.
The information should primarily be given in the national language (field 1.1), with a translation into
English if possible (field 1.2), as this information is likely to be of interest to readers in other Member
States.
1.1
Text in national language
Describe briefly the main achievements under the Habitats Directive during the reporting period,
with a special emphasis on the Natura 2000 network. This can include, for example:
demonstrated benefits for different habitats and species;
experiences with new or improved management techniques;
positive changes in public acceptance of biodiversity protection;
improved cooperation between authorities, nature conservationists and other interest
groups;
initiatives to combine establishment of Natura 2000 sites and the local economy.
6
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17

 
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The text should be kept to a maximum of two pages. If a Member State wishes to add further
documentation to that requested, it should note these annexes and their filenames at the end of this
field, and upload the relevant files to the EEA’s Central Data Repository together with the rest of the
report.
1.2
Translation into English (optional)
This is an optional field to translate the information provided in field 1.1 into English (where it was
reported in another language).
2
General information sources on the implementation of the
Habitats Directive – links to information sources of the Member State
This section aims to inform the interested public where they can find information relating to the
Habitats Directive and the Natura 2000 network of the Member States. In general, only links to
Internet addresses are required. However, free text can also be used where there is a need to explain
how to access the information source, e.g. in the case of multiple sources of information. All of the
following fields should be completed.
2.1
General information on the Habitats Directive
Provide links to general information on the Habitats Directive (e.g. portal presenting EU Nature
Directives).
2.2
Information on the network of pSCIs, SCIs and SACs
Provide links to general information on the network of pSCIs, SCIs and SACs (e.g. an online database
of Natura 2000 sites, publications presenting the network).
2.3
Monitoring schemes (Article 11)
Provide links to general information on monitoring (e.g. portal presenting national monitoring
scheme(s), monitoring guidelines).
2.4
Protection of species (Articles 12–16)
Provide links to general information on species protection (e.g. links to systems for monitoring the
incidental capture and killing of animal species listed in Annex IV, Article 12.4).
2.5
Impact of measures referred to in Article 6.1 on the conservation status of
Annex I habitats and Annex II species (Article 17.1)
Provide links to general information on the implementation of conservation measures within the
Natura 2000 sites and their impact on conservation status.
2.6
Transposition of the Directive (legal texts)
Provide links to general information on transposition of the Directive.

 
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3
Natura 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs & SACs) – site designation (Article 4)
Member States should provide information at the national level on the numbers and surface area of
proposed Sites of Community Importance (pSCIs), Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special
Areas of Conservation (SACs) at the end of the reporting period.
3.1
All sites
Provide the total number and surface area of pSCIs, SCIs and SACs and separately the number and
surface area of SACs.
3.2
Terrestrial area of sites (excluding marine area)
Provide the terrestrial surface area of pSCIs, SCIs and SACs and separately the terrestrial surface area
of SACs.
3.3
Marine sites
Provide the total number and marine surface area of marine pSCIs, SCIs and SACs and separately the
number and marine surface area of marine SACs.
Marine sites
are any sites which include any area of sea (seaward side of the coastline).
Marine area of sites
is the area on the seaward side of the coastline. The definition of the coastline
used to define the marine boundary should follow international
7
or national legislation. This
approach is the same as that adopted for the Standard Data Forms (SDFs) for individual Natura 2000
sites. Thus, a site located on the coast and stretching out into the sea should be counted as a ‘marine
site’, although it might include a terrestrial component (to be included in the figure to be reported in
field 3.2) as well as a marine component (to be included in the figure to be reported in field 3.3; see
map in Figure 1).
Terrestrial area of sites
is any area of a site which is not marine (as defined above). In the Report
format the terrestrial area of sites in km
2
(field 3.2) plus the area of marine sites in km
2
(field 3.3)
together should give the total area of all sites (field 3.1).
3.4
Date of database used
This is normally the date of the last database delivered to the European Commission (uploaded to
the EEA Central Data Repository) during the reporting period (2013–2018). Normally, the total
number and total area of Natura 2000 sites (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) correspond to numbers and areas
provided in this database. However, it is understood that occasionally later sources are used to fill in
information under this section, e.g. to provide the number and area of SACs if some of them were
designated after the database submission. Please supply this information in the DD/MM/YYYY
format.
7
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

image
 
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Figure 1:
Examples of terrestrial and marine Natura 2000 sites. ‘A’ is a terrestrial site (the site
is located in the terrestrial domain only). ‘B’ is a marine site and is located in the marine domain
only. ‘C’ is located in a coastal area, and should be counted as a marine site: it consists of both
terrestrial (yellow) and marine (blue) areas, to be reported in fields 3.2 and 3.3 respectively.
4
Set of conservation measures and management plans for
Natura 2000 sites (SACs) (Article 6(1))
‘Conservation measures and management plans’ are considered to be operational instruments that
outline practical measures to achieve the conservation objectives for the sites in the network.
Conservation measures within the network can fall under, but are not limited to, LIFE programmes,
Rural Development Plans, Structural Funds or other domestic programmes. Ensure that all relevant
management plans or instruments have been fully accounted for.
4.1
Necessary conservation measures have been established according to Article
6(1) and are applied
Give the number of sites and the proportion of the network area within the Member State for which
necessary conservation measures have been established (i.e. for which there exists a statutory,
administrative or contractual framework and for which the measures are being implemented).
Only sites where all necessary measures have been identified and are implemented should be
included. Do not include sites where conservation measures do not target all of the habitats and
species (e.g. with measures targeting only forest habitats and species, although measures are also

 
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needed for other habitats and species) or where not all of the necessary measures have been
implemented.
4.2
Conservation measures have been set out in a comprehensive management
plan or a similar instrument
Give the number of sites and the proportion of the network area within the Member State for which
a comprehensive management plan or a similar instrument is in place. Although the Standard Data
Form (SDF) for each individual site includes information on management plans (i.e. ‘Yes/no/in
preparation’), it is also useful to have information about the overall number of comprehensive
management plans or similar instruments. To put this number in context, the proportion of the
network area that is covered by such plans is also requested.
For this purpose, only management plans covering all parts of a Natura 2000 site (or sites) and all
habitats and species for which the site(s) is/are designated (i.e. comprehensive management plans)
should be taken into account. Such plans should fulfil the following minimum requirements:
indicate all the habitat types and/or species and their localities for which conservation
measures are necessary and planned;
identify the actual status of the habitat types and species and the desired status which
should be reached through the conservation measures;
define clear and achievable conservation objectives;
identify the necessary measures together with the means and a time schedule which can
contribute to meeting those objectives.
5
Measures taken in relation to approval of plans & projects
(Article 6.4)
This section concerns projects and plans for which compensatory measures according to Article 6(4)
were decided on during the reporting period. Any sites affected in this way should be reported under
this section. Repeat fields as necessary for each combination of site and project/plan
8
.
5.1
Site code
Provide the site code of a site with project(s) or plan(s) in need of compensatory measures.
5.2
Site name
Provide the site name.
5.3
Title of project/plan
Provide the title of the project/plan.
8
Further guidance on Article 6 may be found at DG Environment’s website (e.g. the document
Managing
Natura 2000 sites: The provisions of Article 6 of the ‘Habitats’ Directive 92/43/EEC
, published by DG
Environment in 12 EU languages):
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/management/guidance_en.htm#art6

 
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5.4
Year Commission was informed of compensatory measures
Provide the year when the Commission was informed about compensatory measures.
5.5
Year project/plan was started
Provide the year when implementation of the project/plan started.
5.6
Commission opinion requested?
Indicate whether a Commission opinion was requested (‘Yes/no’).
5.7
Impact of projects requiring compensatory measures on conservation status
(optional)
Describe the impact of such projects/plans on the conservation status of habitat types and species.
6
Measures taken to ensure coherence of the Natura 2000
Network (Article 10)
This section is for a general description of the main measures taken to ensure the coherence of the
Natura 2000 network according to Article 10 of the Habitats Directive. Give an overview at national
level of activities taken (including legal measures, or systematic studies); do not give detailed site-by-
site descriptions. If relevant, give references to published reports, scientific papers or websites.
7
Reintroduction of Annex IV species (Article 22(a))
This section is to report on the reintroduction of Annex IV species previously considered extinct or
regionally extinct in the Member State/region. Therefore, it concerns both species still present in the
Member State (but not in the area or region where it is being reintroduced) and species not present
currently. For each species repeat fields 7.1 to 7.8
as needed.
7.1
Species code
Provide the species code as given in the species checklist on the Reference Portal
9
.
7.2
Species scientific name
Provide the species scientific (Latin) name, as given in the species checklist on the Reference Portal.
7.3
Alternative species scientific name (optional)
Provide an alternative scientific name (synonym).
7.4
Common name (optional)
Provide a common name in the national language or English.
7.5
Reintroduction period
Provide a reintroduction period.
9
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7.6
Reintroduction location and number of individuals reintroduced
Provide name of the reintroduction location (field 7.6(a)) and number of individuals reintroduced
(field 7.6(b)). Location can be, for example, a small region, a mountain range, or a Natura 2000 site.
7.7
Is the reintroduction successful?
Indicate whether the reintroduction has been successful (‘Yes/no/too early to say’). A successful
reintroduction implies natural reproduction has already taken place and the population is growing.
7.8
Additional information on the reintroduction (optional)
Additional information on the reintroduction can be given in this optional free-text field.

 
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ANNEX B - REPORT FORMAT ON THE ‘MAIN RESULTS OF THE
SURVEILLANCE UNDER ARTICLE 11’ FOR ANNEX II, IV AND V SPECIES
Species to be reported
I
n general, each Member State should report (either a full or a partial report) for all species listed in
Annexes II, IV and V of the Habitats Directive for every biogeographical or marine region in which
they occur
10
.
This includes all regularly occurring species, marginal, vagrant and occasional species,
species that started to occur only recently (newly arriving species) and species extinct after the
Directive came into force.
The report is optional for species with a scientific reserve. A checklist of
species covered by the Habitats Directive and their occurrence per biogeographical or marine region
and Member State is available on the Article 17 Reference Portal
11
.
Taxonomical changes
Since the original Annexes of the Habitats Directive were published in 1992, there have been
taxonomical revisions of several of the taxa listed,
and several species are now considered to be two
or more species. Conversely, other species listed in the Annexes are now included in other newly
defined species, often losing their specific or even subspecific status.
Wherever feasible (e.g. the species can be determined in the field), when the Directive species is now
considered to be two or more species, there should be one Article 17 report for each currently
recognised species.
In cases, where a species listed in the Annex(es) is now included in other newly
defined species, Member States should consider the interpretation of the species at the time when
the Annexes of the Directive were drafted or amended and provide an Article 17 report
corresponding to the meaning of the species name in the Directive. Where two species listed in the
Directive were merged into one currently recognised species a joint report including both Directive
species should be provided using the currently valid species name (provided in the species checklist)
.
More detailed information can be found in Section ‘
Taxonomical changes and names to be used for
reporting
(in ‘Species to be reported’ chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’part).
For some species the taxonomy remains unclear or was ambiguous at the time the Annexes of the
Directive were drafted. For these species the link between the currently recognised valid names and
the names listed in the Directive is not implicit. A few species listed in the Directive are currently
considered to be taxonomical errors. These situations are highlighted in the species checklist. An
overview of the taxonomy related categories used in the species checklist with an indication of
whether a report is expected or not is provided in Table 2.
10
For the habitat types and species which do not occur in the area of Cyprus where the Community acquis
applies at present, no report is expected but the species should remain in the checklist.
11
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Table 2: Taxonomy related categories used in the species checklist
Species category (code)
Report
Taxonomical uncertainty (TAX)
The taxonomy of the species remains unclear or was ambiguous at the
time the Annexes of the Directive were drafted.
Mandatory
Taxonomical error (NTAX)
Species listed in the Directive is currently proved to be a taxonomical
error. This does not apply to species which were recognised as such in
the past and which are now included under other taxa.
No report
Names to be used for reporting
The Member States are requested to use the species names as indicated in the species checklist
available on the Reference Portal. This list has been updated for the reporting period 2013–2018
following available scientific knowledge and taking into account recommendations from the Member
States. Since there is no up-to-date single taxonomical reference covering all species groups in
Europe, proposed/recommended species names are based on available scientific literature and
available information from global taxonomical references (e.g. Catalogue of Life, Fauna Europea,
Eur+Med PlantBase), regional or national databases (e.g. DynTaxa in Sweden, TaxRef in France), and
regional or national checklists. In most cases (unless there were serious doubts about the valid name
or in cases where a species was a single country endemic) the species names having a valid status in
these global or regional taxonomical references have priority over names used in different Member
States.
Species with marginal or irregular occurrence, extinct species
In some situations it is impossible to provide a complete assessment of the conservation status
(within a Members State’s biogeographical or marine region) using the methods outlined in the
evaluation matrix and this guidelines document. This is particularly the case for irregularly occurring
or marginal species, whose conservation status depends on the status in the neighbouring main
population, and for extinct species. To reflect the problems of reporting in these situations the
species checklist distinguishes several categories of species (or more correctly, several categories of
species occurrence). In general, for these categories it is often not necessary (and not possible) to fill
in a complete report. An overview of the categories, indicating whether a report is expected and
which parts of the report remain mandatory, is provided in Table 3. A more detailed definition of
species categories can be found in Section ‘
Occurrence categories used in the species checklist
(in
‘Species to be reported’ chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’part).

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Table 3:
Categories of species occurrence within the biogeographical/marine region and
indication of the expected content of the Article 17 report
Species category
Report
Mandatory information for report
Present regularly (PRE)
Mandatory
12
Full report.
Occasional (OCC)
Mandatory partial
report
Whenever possible provide information for any of the fields
listed below:
Distribution map (field 2.3)
Actual range – surface area (field 5.1)
Population – size estimate (field 6.2), date (field 6.1) and
method used (field 6.6)
any other relevant information, e.g. whether a species
had been recorded during the reporting period or an
explanation why a species is treated as an occasional
species (field 13.3).
Newly arriving species
(ARR)
Mandatory partial
report
Whenever possible provide information for any of the fields
listed below:
Distribution map (field 2.3)
Actual range – surface area (field 5.1)
Population – size estimate (field 6.2), date (field 6.1) and
method used (field 6.6)
Any other relevant information, e.g. information related
to the potential range expansion or an explanation of
why a species is treated as a newly arriving species (field
13.3).
Marginal (MAR)
Mandatory partial
report
Whenever possible provide information for any of the fields
listed below:
Distribution map (field 2.3)
Actual range – surface area (field 5.1)
Population – size estimate (field 6.2), date (field 6.1) and
method used (field 6.6)
Information on occurrence of main population (field
13.3).
Species extinct after
entry into force of the
Habitats Directive (EXa)
Mandatory
Section 11 ‘Conclusions’. The overall conservation status
is ‘unfavourable-bad’.
12
For the habitat types and species which do not occur in the area of Cyprus where the Community acquis
applies at present, no report is expected but the species should remain on the checklist (using category NPRE in
the checklist).

 
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Species category
Report
Mandatory information for report
Species extinct prior to
entry into force of the
Habitats Directive (EXp)
Mandatory for
species with
restoration project
and for species of
particular interest
with recent signs of
recolonisation
Whenever possible provide information for any of the fields
listed below:
Distribution map (field 2.3)
Actual range – surface area (field 5.1)
Population – size estimate (field 6.2), date (field 6.1) and
method used (field 6.6)
Section 11 ‘Conclusions’
Any other relevant information, e.g. information on
reintroduction
project
or
information
related
to
recolonisation (field 13.3).
Scientific reserve (SCR)
Optional
Any other relevant information, e.g. information on
survey conducted or related to probability that the
species will/will not be refound in the region (field 13.3).
Reporting for species groups
The Annexes include several species groups, for example Annex II has ‘
Alosa
spp.’ while Annex IV has
‘Microchiroptera – All species’. All species included in these groups should be reported separately,
except
Cladonia
subgenus
Cladina, Lycopodium
and
Sphagnum
. For example, there should be
separate reports per region for
Alosa agone
,
A. alosa, A. fallax, A. killarnensis,
etc. For Annex V
Acipenseridae
– All species not mentioned in Annex IV’, reports should be produced for
Acipenser
gueldenstaedtii, A. ruthenus, Huso huso,
etc. The species to be included under each group are shown
in
Table 14:
Species listed in the Directive for which separate or joint reports are expected for
currently recognised species
provided in chapter ‘Species to be reported’ (in ‘Definitions and
methods for species reporting’) and the species checklist available from the Article 17 reporting
Reference Portal
13
.
For
Cladonia
subgenus
Cladina, Lycopodium
spp. and
Sphagnum
spp.
,
Member States should submit
a single report per group per region. It is also possible to report individual species in these groups
(where it is thought that a species needs special attention) as an optional report, but in this case they
should also be included in the report on the genus. For example, if Germany considers that
Sphagnum pulchrum
in the Atlantic region is of special concern, it can submit a report for that
species. However, the overall assessment for
Sphagnum
spp. for the region should also take
Sphagnum pulchrum
into account.
If a Member State wishes to give information on population size, either for the group or an individual
species, the report should be made using reporting units from the Reference Portal
11
(see Section
6
Population
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
For these three species groups, a report giving only the overall assessment of conservation status
and its trend (fields 11.6 and 11.7 of Annex B) is acceptable and no map of distribution is required.
Overall assessment of conservation status should look at the species group as a whole using the
criteria from the evaluation matrix.As it may be difficult to conclude the overall assessment if there
are species with different conservation status, the Member State should explain the variation in field
11.8 ‘Additional information’. If there is a species of particular conservation concern (e.g. in bad
13
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conservation status), Member States are encouraged to submit an additional optional report
14
or
note this fact in field 11.8 ‘Additional information’.
Box 3: Species to be included in
Cladonia, Lycopodium
and
Sphagnum
Cladonia
subgenus
Cladina
– All European species (i.e. occurring in the EU) in the subgenus according
to Ahti (1961 and pers. comm.):
Cladonia arbuscula
(including
Cl. mitis
and
Cl. squarrosa
),
Cl. ciliata
(including
Cl. tenuis
),
Cl. conspicua
,
Cl. portentosa
(
Cl. implexa
),
Cl. rangiferina
,
Cl. stellaris
(
Cl.
alpestris
),
Cl. stygia
,
Cl. azorica
,
Cl. macaronesica
and
Cl. mediterranea
.
Lycopodium
– Listing in Annex V relates to commercial exploitation and commerce is not limited to
the genus
Lycopodium
. For Article 17 reporting
Lycopodium
should be interpreted as all species in
the family
Lycopodiaceae
(
Lycopodium alpinum, L. annotinum, L. clavatum, L. complanatum, L. issleri,
L. madeirense, L. oellgaardii, L. tristachyum, L. zeilleri, Huperzia dentata, H. selago, H. suberecta,
Lycopodiella cernua, L. inundata;
following EURO + MED PlantBase
15
).
Sphagnum
– All European (i.e. occurring in the EU) species in the genera
Sphagnum
except
Sphagnum pylaesii
(Annexes II) according to Hodgetts (2015).
Geographical exceptions from the Annexes of the Directive
Several Member States have an exception from all Annexes where the species is listed, but a report
should be submitted for those species, as they are nevertheless species of Community interest
according to Articles 1 and 2. It should be noted that this legal interpretation is also justified in
technical terms because, in order to understand and assess the EU-wide/biogeographical situation of
such species, the Commission needs information on the status of the species in all EU territory
(including the territory of the Member States with geographical restrictions).
Hybrid populations
If hybrids between two Directive species occur, then the hybrid population(s) should be taken into
account in the reports of both Directive species concerned. If a hybrid is between a Directive species
and a native but non-Directive species, the hybrid population should be considered part of the
population in the biogeographical region if hybridisation is a part of species evolutionary history (e.g.
syntopic populations of
Triturus montandoni
and
T. vulgaris
hybridise and introgression of genes
resulting from hybridisation may play a role in natural selection). On the other hand, if hybridisation
between a Directive species and a native but non-Directive species represents a threat to the
Directive species (e.g. loss of fertility), in this case the hybrid population should be excluded and
hybridisation should be considered as a threat or pressure to species populations. If a hybrid is
between a Directive species and an alien species or a feral population, the report should not cover
the hybrid population, but where appropriate this should be noted as a threat or pressure. For
example, many fish species (such as
Alburnus albidus
) are threatened by hybridisation with
introduced species (in this case with congeneric
A. arborella
) or wild cat populations are threatened
by hybridisation with feral cats.
14
In some situations Member States may complete additional report formats for habitats (subtypes of marine
habitats) or species (e.g. distinct species of genus
Lycopodium
) not listed in the Member State’s checklist and
submit these optional reports together with the mandatory reporting dataset.
15
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Field-by-field guidance for completing ‘Annex B’ species reports
NB: To be completed for each Annex II, IV and V species present
16
. The species Report format
(‘species report’) comprises 13 sections. Sections 1 to 3 should be provided at the national level; the
remaining sections are to be provided at the level of biogeographical or marine region.
NATIONAL LEVEL
1. General information
2. Maps
3. Information related to Annex V species (Article 14)
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL
4. Biogeographical and marine regions
5. Range
6. Population
7. Habitat for the species
8. Main pressures and threats
9. Conservation measures
10. Future prospects
11. Conclusions
12. Natura 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for Annex II species
13. Complementary information
In general, all sections should be completed for each Annex II, IV and V species present
16
. However,
Section 3 ‘Information related to Annex V species (Article 14)’ should only be provided for species
listed in Annex V; Sections 9 ‘Conservation measures’ and 12 ‘Natura 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs)
coverage for Annex II species’ should be completed for Annex II species only.
Even though not all data used in the report will be collected during the reporting period, the report
should give information of relevance for the period 2013–2018.
It is recommended that any free-text information provided is written in English, to facilitate the use
of the information during the EU analysis and to allow a wider readership.
NATIONAL LEVEL
The information below is to be provided at the national level.
1
General information
The following information should be provided for each species, as well as for species from groups
(e.g.
Alosa
spp., and all species of Microchiroptera).
16
A checklist of species thought to be present in each Member State for which a report is expected is available
at
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17

 
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1.1
Member State
Select the two-digit code for your Member State from ISO 3166. For the United Kingdom, use ‘UK’
instead of ‘GB’, in accordance with the list to be found on the Reference Portal
17
.
1.2
Species code
Use codes (four-character sequential code) as given in the species checklist available on the
Reference Portal. New codes will be allocated as necessary (for example, for species that were
recently split and which are not yet included in the checklist) to ensure that all species are covered.
More information on the species code list and possible amendments can be found on the Reference
Portal.
1.3
Species scientific name
Use the scientific name as listed in the species checklist (‘recommended name’; the checklist is
available on the Reference Portal).
In a small number of cases, the entry for scientific name includes
the English phrase such as ‘all others or Complex’, to indicate that the taxonomic unit in question
includes all of the remaining (newly recognised) species not explicitly listed in the checklist. This is for
situations where due to problems of determination or due to unclear taxonomy joint report covering
several newly recognized species is requested. More information is provided in Sections ‘
Names to
be used for reporting
’ and ‘
Taxonomical changes
’ (in ‘Species to be reported’ chapter in ‘Field-by-
field guidance for species reports’).
1.4
Alternative species scientific name (optional)
If the scientific name given under field 1.3 differs from that in general national usage, Member States
may enter an alternative here. Similarly, if the name of a species used in the Annexes of the Habitats
Directive differs from that in the complete species checklist on the Reference Portal, e.g. due to
recent taxonomical changes, then the alternative (Directive) name may be entered here.
1.5
Common name (optional)
If Member States wish to enter the common (vernacular) name of the species (or subspecies) used
nationally, they may do so here. This could be useful if the draft report will be circulated for
comments to people who may not be familiar with the scientific name, or when communicating the
report with the public.
2
Maps
This section contains information on maps to be submitted together with the tabular information as
a part of the Article 17 report. Apart from the mandatory distribution map, other kinds of maps with
information relevant for understanding the assessment of conservation status can also be provided.
17
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2.1
Sensitive species
Some species are particularly subject to, for example, illegal collecting, and making information on
their distribution widely available may be detrimental to their conservation. Where information on
distribution, if reported according to the specifications in field 2.3, is considered ‘sensitive’, this can
be indicated by entering ‘Yes’ in this field.
If a species is marked as ‘sensitive’, the Commission and EEA will not disclose its distribution to the
public (for instance, by posting this information on a publicly available database or Internet-based
site).
2.2
Year or period
Enter the year (e.g. 2015) or period (e.g. 2013–2017) when the distribution was last determined.
Many reports will involve periods, because a mapping of the species distribution in most cases
involves several years of fieldwork and may extend beyond the limits of the current reporting period
(2013–2018). The year or period reported should cover the actual period during which the data were
collected.
In some cases the distribution map will be elaborated based on data from the previous reporting
period or using older distribution data that has been updated with the results of regular monitoring
or using data from online-systems for collecting data. The year or period reported should be that
which the reported distribution relates to.
More detailed information on year or period of data used for the distribution map can be provided in
field 5.12 ‘Additional information’.
2.3
Distribution map
Submit a distribution map, together with the relevant metadata (projection, datum, scale). The
standard is:
10x10 km ETRS89 grid, projection ETRS LAEA 5210
The distribution map should provide information about the actual occurrences of the species, which
should preferably be based on the results of a comprehensive national mapping or inventory of the
species wherever possible (see Section ‘
2
Maps
’ (in
‘Definitions and methods
for
species
reporting’). If field data on actual occurrences of the species are not sufficient, modelling and
extrapolation should be used whenever feasible
18
. The distribution map will be though composed of
grids with both the actual (mapped) and presumed species occurrences.
The distribution map will consist of 10x10 km ETRS89 grid cells in the ETRS LAEA 5210 projection
19
.
The gridded dataset will consist only of the 10-km grid cells where the species is recorded or
estimated as occurring; the use of attribute data to indicate the presence or absence of a species in a
grid cell is not permitted. The period over which the distribution data were collected should be
18
If modelling or exceptionally expert opinion are used this should be noted in the field 2.4 Method used
19
European Terrestrial Reference System 1989; Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Latitude of origin 52N,
Longitude of origin (central meridian) 10E.

 
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included in the metadata, following the INSPIRE guidelines
20
. The technical specifications for
distribution maps are given on the Reference Portal.
If more precise maps giving more detailed species distribution are available, these can be submitted
as additional maps.
In some exceptional cases, such as widely ranging but poorly known cetaceans, it may be relevant to
submit maps using a 50x50 km grid. For small Member States, such as Luxembourg, Malta and
Cyprus (or for other small territories such as the Canary, Madeira or the Azores islands), a 1x1 km
grid (or 5x5 km) is allowed; these will then be aggregated by ETC/BD to 10x10 km for visualisation at
European level.
The grids for individual Member States are available for download from the Reference portal
21
.
2.4
Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. a dedicated mapping or survey or a
robust predictive model with representative sample of occurrence data, calibration and
satisfactory evaluation of its predictive performance using good data on environmental
conditions across entire species range);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. other predictive models or
extrapolation using less complete sample of occurrence and environmental data);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
The ‘Method used’ should be reported as ‘(d) Insufficient or no data available’ if the reported
distribution map obtained as a result of comprehensive mapping, modelling or extrapolation or,
exceptionally, expert interpretation covers less than 75 % of the presumed actual species distribution
(i.e. the resulting map is incomplete in relation to the presumed species distribution)..
2.5
Additional maps (optional)
Member States may also submit additional maps, for example giving more detailed distribution data
(e.g. at higher resolution) or a range map (see Section ‘
5
Range
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for
species reporting’). Any additional maps must be accompanied by the relevant metadata and details
of the projection used. Note that this is an optional field and does not replace the need to provide a
map in field 2.3.
Maps at a resolution other than 10x10 km or with grids other than the ETRS89 LAEA 5210 grid, or
close to 10x10 km, may be reported here.
20
For the period 2013-2018 it is not obligatory or expected to provide the Article 17 spatial dataset compliant
with INSPIRE requirements.
21
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3
Information related to Annex V species (Article 14)
Annex V lists species whose taking in the wild and exploitation may be subject to management
measures. This section aims to identify which Annex V species that are not at Favourable
conservation status are taken or exploited and for which, if any, relevant conservation measures are
being implemented.
3.1
Is the species taken in the wild/exploited?
Indicate whether the species is taken in the wild or exploited (‘Yes/No’).
This field indicates if a species is being taken in the wild or hunted in practice. For example, if a
species is not classified as huntable by national/regional legislation (so it cannot be hunted or
exploited) or if there is a permanent prohibition (for huntable species) on taking or exploiting the
species, the answer should be ‘No’. More information can be provided in field 3.5 ‘Additional
information’.
The remaining fields in this section are only filled in if the response is ‘Yes’ and the conservation
status of the species is ‘unfavourable’ (U1 or U2) in at least one biogeographical or marine region
where the species occurs. Complete fields 3.2 to 3.4 in this case.
3.2
Which of the measures in Article 14 have been taken?
For species taken in the wild or exploited, indicate if any of the measures noted in Article 14 of the
Directive have been taken. This information is only requested for species that are taken in wild or
exploited and which are in ‘unfavourable’ (U1 or U1) status (as reported in field 11.5 ‘Overall
assessment of conservation status’) for one or more regions.
a) Regulations regarding access to property;
b) Temporary or local prohibition on the taking of specimens in the wild and exploitation;
c)
Regulation of the periods and/or methods of taking specimens;
d) Application of hunting and fishing rules which take account of the conservation of such
populations;
e) Establishment of a system of licences for taking specimens or of quotas;
f)
Regulation of the purchase, sale, offering for sale, keeping for sale, or transport for sale of
specimens;
g) Breeding in captivity of animal species as well as artificial propagation of plant species;
h) Other measures; in this case please describe the measure(s).
3.3
Hunting bag or quantity taken in the wild for mammals and
Acipenseridae
(fish)
Provide information on the hunting bag or quantity taken in the wild. Use the same population units
as in field 6.2 ‘Population size’(basically individuals)
22
. These data are provided per year/season over
the length of the reporting period. For species with defined hunting, seasons report per season (if
national counts are also done per season). Season 1 is 2012/2013 (starting in autumn 2012 and
ending in spring 2013); Season 6 is 2017/2018. For species which do not have hunting seasons or
22
The ‘reporting unit’ from the Article 17
checklist
available
on
the
Reference
Portal
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17
.

 
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where national counts are elaborated per year (e.g. sturgeons), provide counts per calendar year;
year 1 is 2013 and year 6 is 2018.
The raw data should be provided for the hunting bag or quantity taken and where a precise number
is known this should be filled in both the ‘Min.’ and ‘Max.’ fields. If only minimum or only maximum
numbers are available these should be reported in respective fields ‘Min.’ and ‘Max.’ Where the
hunting bag is unknown this should be indicated in a separate field.
In cases where bag statistics are only available for a group of species (mainly catches for sturgeons),
without a reliable breakdown per species the proportion (e.g. 0–5% for each minority species; 50–
90% for a majority one) for each species should be estimated and reported as ‘Min.’ and ‘Max.’
values under 3.3. The appropriate explanation should be provided in field 3.5 ‘Additional
information’ (e.g. ‘Bag statistics (min-max) were obtained for a group of species ([species 1],
[species 2], [species x]), but probably >90% relate to the species in this report’
).
The method used
(field 3.4) should reflect the fact that actual figures reported are an approximation and should be ‘b’
or ‘c’ respectively.
3.4
Method used
Use this field to provide information on the method used to quantify the hunting bag or quantity
taken in the wild reported in field 3.3. Choose one of following methods:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate;
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data;
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
3.5
Additional information (optional)
This field is optional and allows Member States to report, as free text, any information which is felt
relevant, such as the regulation in force for the considered species in the country.
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL
The following sections should be completed for each biogeographical or marine region in which the
species occurs. So, for example, if a species occurs in three biogeographical regions within a Member
State, three separate reports are required.

 
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4
Biogeographical and marine regions
4.1
Biogeographical or marine region where the species occurs
Biogeographical region or marine region concerned within the Member State.
Use the following names for biogeographical regions:
Alpine
Boreal
Macaronesian
Atlantic
Continental
Pannonian
Black Sea
Mediterranean
Steppic
Use the following names for marine regions:
Marine Atlantic
Marine Black Sea
Marine Mediterranean
Marine Macaronesian
Marine Baltic Sea
Maps and boundaries of biogeographical and marine regions can be found on the Reference Portal
23
.
More information on marine regions and on species which should be reported in marine regions can
be found in Section ‘
Marine species
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
4.2
Sources of information
For information from published sources related to Sections 5–7 (including the published sources
related to distribution maps, on which the range calculation is based) and Sections 9–13, provide
bibliographic references or links to an Internet site(s). Use the order: author, year, title of
publication, source, volume, number of pages, web address.
All Internet addresses in the reporting fields should be given in full, including the initial
‘http://’
or
‘https://’, if applicable.
5
Range
This section provides information on range surface area, range trends and favourable reference
range.
Range is defined as ‘the outer limits of the overall area in which a habitat type or species is found at
present’ and it can be considered as an envelope within which areas actually occupied occur.
The range should be calculated based on the map of the actual distribution using a standardised
algorithm. A standardised process is needed to ensure repeatability of the range calculation in
different reporting rounds.
It is not necessary to submit a map of the range, but the area of the range and trend in area are
required to assess this parameter. However, a map can be submitted in field 2.5 ‘Additional maps’.
23
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Complementary information and methods for range calculation can be found in Section
5 Range
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
5.1
Surface area
This is the total surface area (in km²) of the current range (outer limits of the species distribution)
within the biogeographical or marine region concerned. The range in the biogeographical or marine
region concerned is represented by grids (10x10 km) which occur entirely or partly within the region
(i.e. grids intersected by the boundaries of the biogeographical or marine regions are counted under
both regions). In general the surface area is provided in 10x10 km resolution and the minimum area
should be 100 km
2
. For localised species with a very small range it is possible to report using a finer
resolution; for example, for species restricted to a single location, range is the area of a locality
where species occurs, which can be sometimes several square metres. Decimals are allowed, as the
range of some species can be very small.
The method for estimating the surface area of range is described in Section ‘
Calculation of range
’ (in
‘5 Range’ chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’ part) is recommended.
5.2
Short-term trend period
Give the dates for the beginning and end of the period for which the trend has been reported. The
short-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 12 years (two reporting cycles). For the 2013–
2018 reports, this means the period is 2007–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Thus, some
flexibility is permitted, so that while trends would ideally be reported for 2007–2018, data from e.g.
2004–2015 will be accepted if the best available data relate to surveys in those years.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
5.3
Short-term trend direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The range trend shows
changes in the overall extent of species distribution. Although rare for range, a fluctuation (or
oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not a trend.
Indicate if range trend over the period reported in field 5.2 was:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Report ‘uncertain’ if some data are available but are not enough to accurately determine direction.
Use ‘unknown’ where there are no data available.
The short-term trend information is used in the evaluation matrix to undertake the conservation
status assessment. Any large-scale deviation from this should be explained in field 5.12 ‘Additional
information’.
If there is an apparent change in direction of the trend resulting from a change in monitoring
methodology or improved knowledge about species distribution, it should not be considered a trend.
This apparent change should be indicated in field 5.11 ‘Change and reason for change in surface area
of range’.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.

 
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5.4
Short-term trend magnitude (optional)
If possible, quantify the percentage change (with range at the beginning of the reporting period as
100 %) over the period reported in field 5.2. It can be given as a precise figure (e.g. 27 %) or a banded
range (e.g. 20–30 %). If it is a precise figure, give the same value under ‘minimum’ and ‘maximum’
(field 5.4(a) and (b)).
5.5
Short-term trend – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. comparing two range maps based on
accurate distribution data, or a dedicated monitoring of a species’ distribution with good
statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from
species occurrence data collected for other purposes, or from data collected from only a part
of the geographical range of a species, or trends based on measuring some other predictors
of species distribution, such as land-cover changes or prey availability);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
5.6
Long-term trend period (optional)
The long-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 24 years (four reporting cycles). For the
2013–2018 reports, this means the period is 1994–2018 or a period as close as possible to this.
Indicate the period in this field. For the 2013–2018 reports this information, and the associated fields
5.7 and 5.8, is optional.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
For guidance in filling in fields
5.7 ‘Long-term trend direction’, 5.8 ‘Long-term trend magnitude’
, and
5.9 ‘Long-term trend – Method used’
see fields 5.3 to 5.5 (Short-term trend).
5.10
Favourable reference range
Favourable reference range is the range within which all significant ecological variations of the
species are included for a given biogeographical region and which is sufficiently large to allow the
long-term survival of the species. This information is needed to evaluate conservation status using
the matrix in Annex C. In many cases it is not possible to estimate a value for favourable reference
range (option a) but it is clear that the favourable reference range is greater (or much greater) than
the present-day value. Using operators (option b) ‘greater than’ (>) and ‘much greater than’ (>>) is
preferable to reporting a parameter as ‘unknown’.

 
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The following information is requested:
a) area in km²; or
b) if operators (≈, >, >>) were used for the assessment, indicate here with the relevant symbol
(≈ ‘approximately equal to’, > ‘more than’, >> ‘much more than’); or
c) if the favourable reference range is unknown, use ‘x’ for the reference range; and
d) indicate the method used' to set the reference value (free-text field).
The field ‘indicate method used’ (d) is mandatory if (a) area is provided, but Member States are
encouraged to describe the method used also when (b) operators were used.
The use of (b) operators should help to reduce the use of ‘unknown’ to a minimum:
if an operator (b) is used, then there is no need to insert a value in field 5.10(a) area in km²;
operators indicate that the reference value is ‘approximately equal to’, ‘more than’ or ‘much
more than’ the current value provided in field 5.1 ‘Surface area (of range)’;
if the value is provided for area in km² (a) no operator should be used.
Where the reference value has changed in comparison to the previous reporting period, this should
be explained in field 5.12 ‘Additional Information’.
Favourable reference values and use of operators are discussed in more detail in Section ‘
Favourable
reference values
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
5.11
Change and reason for change in surface area of range
This field is used to indicate if there is any change since the previous reporting period (2007–2012) in
the range surface area reported and, if so, to describe the nature of this change.
First answer the question: ‘Is there a change between reporting periods?’ (i.e. is area of range
different from the last reporting period?) YES/NO.
If the answer is ‘Yes’, indicate which of the following options apply (it is possible to reply ‘Yes’ to
more than one of the options a–c, but at least one option ‘Yes’ must be selected for options a–d)
24
:
a) yes, due to genuine change;
b) yes, due to improved knowledge/more accurate data;
c)
yes, due to the use of different methods (including taxonomical change or use of different
thresholds);
d) yes, but there is no information on the nature of change.
24
In some cases the actual value reported for range surface area has increased, reflecting both a genuine
increase in range (positive range trend) and better knowledge or data. Both options (‘genuine change’ and
‘improved knowledge or more accurate data’) above should be selected. In other situations the actual value
reported for range surface area has increased since the previous period due to better knowledge or data.
Nevertheless, it may still be clear that the species range is actually declining, based on analyses of data from
sites. The option ‘improved knowledge or more accurate data’ above should be selected. Field 5.12 ‘Additional
information’ allows a Member State to provide further details on why a range estimate has increased, even
though a range decline is reported.

 
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Finally, indicate whether any difference is mainly due to (select one option):
genuine change;
improved knowledge or more accurate data;
the use of a different method.
If a Member State wishes to give further information (e.g. cases where range surface area does not
change, but its borders are shifting), this can be done in field 5.12 ‘Additional information’.
5.12
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on range can be reported here (for
example, details on the use of old distribution data, use of data from the previous reporting period,
use of different gap distance or range calculation method than that recommended).
6
Population
This section provides information on population size, population trends and favourable reference
population.
6.1
Year or period
Enter the year or period during which the population size was last determined: YYYY (for year) and
YYYY–YYYY (for period).
Many reports will involve periods, because species inventories in most cases involve several years of
fieldwork and may extend beyond the limits of the current reporting period (2013–2018). The year or
period reported should cover the actual period during which the data were collected.
In some cases the population size will be estimated based on a complete species census or inventory
which took place during the previous reporting period or even before and that has been updated
with the results of regular monitoring. The year or period reported should be that which the reported
estimate of population size relates to.
More detailed information on year or period of data used for the population size can be provided in
field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
6.2
Population size (in reporting unit)
This field refers to the total population in the biogeographical region or marine region of the
Member State concerned. For all species, except species restricted to a single country, the
population size must be reported using the reporting unit noted in the Article 17 species checklist
available on the Reference Portal
25
. The reporting unit specified in the checklist is individuals or
number of occupied 1x1 km grids or other agreed unit for a few arthropods and non-vascular plants.
The summary of species groups for which either individuals or 1x1 km grids or alternative units are
used is provided in
Table 20:
Population units for each species group
in Section ‘6 Population’ (in
‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’ part).
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This means that, while, for the assessment of conservation status at national level, Member States
should use the most suitable unit for their monitoring of individual species, they should, if necessary,
convert this unit into a ‘reporting’ unit to be reported in field 6.2 and to be used later for EU
biogeographical assessments. If a Member State wishes to report population size using a different
unit this can be reported in field 6.4, but this must be in addition to the reporting unit specified in the
checklist and not as an alternative.
For species occurring only in one Member State, a reporting unit harmonised across all the Member
States is not required, so the Member State can decide which reporting unit to use from the list of
population size units
26
on the Reference Portal. In this case the population size should be reported
under field 6.2 ‘Population size (in reporting unit)’ and not under field 6.4 ‘Additional population
size’. If a species occurs in several biogeographical regions the same unit should be used across all
regions. Field 6.4 ‘Additional population size’ can be used if needed, for example to provide
population size in more precise units if this is available from only one region.
Further information on the use of reporting units is provided in Section ‘
6
Population
(in
‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
If a different reporting unit is used for the assessment, the Member State should ensure that it can
capture trends and is biologically suitable for expressing the favourable reference population.
The population size can be reported as an interval (for example, minimum and maximum value from
repeated census) and/or as a best available single value. The interval size estimate (fields 6.2(b) and
(c) should be given as minimum and maximum numbers. Minimum and maximum should always be
entered together, i.e. not as only the minimum /only the maximum.
There is also a ‘best single value’ field (6.2(d)) where a single value (a precise value or an estimate)
can be entered. In a situation where only a minimum (or maximum) value of the population size is
known (e.g. through expert opinion) this should be entered in the ‘(d) Best single value’ field and
NOT the ‘(b) Minimum’ or ‘(c) Maximum’ fields. The source of this estimate can then be clarified in
field 6.3 (see below). The numbers reported should not be rounded.
Both interval and a best single value can be provided together for example where the interval coming
from the survey data is quite large (e.g. minimum and maximum values) and an expert evaluation of
the actual population size is available. An expert evaluation of survey data can result in a more
accurate single value to be used in the EU assessments. In other situations, the point estimate (best
single value) is available and Member State wishes to provide the confidence limits. The confidence
interval can be entered in the minimum and maximum fields. If both, interval and best single values
are provided this should be explained in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
If the population size reported in field 6.2 was estimated by converting the information reported in
field 6.4, information on the conversion should be given in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
For wide-ranging highly mobile marine species (e.g. whales, dolphins, turtles), use population
estimates from i) regional marine Agreements such as ACCOBAMS and ASCOBANS; ii) Regional Sea
26
The list of population size units to be used in field 6.2 ‘Population size (in reporting unit)’ for species
restricted to a single country or in field 6.4 ‘Additional population size’ is available on the Reference Portal
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17
.

 
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Conventions (OSPAR, Helsinki,
Barcelona,
Bucharest);
or any other estimates made in cooperation
between Member States sharing the same population (e.g. SCANS
27
) if available. Each Member State
should report the results for their territory (i.e. a respective proportion of the regional population).
Complementary information about assessment of trasnboundary species populations can be found in
Section
Transboundary populations
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
6.3
Type of estimate
The type of estimate for the reported interval in fields 6.2(b) and (c) or the best single value in field
6.2(d) should be outlined here. The options for reporting this are: best estimate, multi-year mean,
95 % confidence interval, or minimum:
best estimate – the best available single figure (including where only the maximum value of
the population size is available) or interval, derived from e.g. a population census, a
compilation of figures from localities, modelled population size based on population
densities and distribution data or expert opinion, but for which 95 % confidence interval
could not be calculated. Whether a best estimate comes from the monitoring data, modelling
or an expert opinion should be entered in field 6.6;
multi-year mean – average value or interval where population size is monitored several times
during the period provided in field 6.1;
95 % confidence interval – estimates derived from sample surveys or a model in which 95 %
confidence limits could be calculated;
minimum – where insufficient data exist to provide even a loosely bounded estimate, but
where a population size is known to be above a certain value, or where the reported interval
estimates come from a sample survey or monitoring project which probably underestimates
the real population size.
If both interval (field 6.2(b) ‘Minimum’ and field 6.2(c) ‘Maximum’) and a single value (field 6.2(d)
‘Best single value’) are provided, field 6.5 ‘Type of estimate’ should correspond to the more accurate
estimate. This should be noted in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
6.4
Additional population size (optional)
This field allows the Member State to report population size using units other than the unit given in
the species checklist. The guidance on reporting the numbers is the same as for field 6.2. If this unit
was used for the assessment of the parameter Population, the Member State should ensure that it
can capture trends and is biologically suitable for expressing the favourable reference population.
The list of population size units to be used in field 6.4 ‘Additional population size’ (or in field 6.2
‘Population size (in reporting unit)’ for species restricted to a single country) is available on the
Reference Portal.
If the population size reported in field 6.2 was estimated by converting the information reported in
field 6.4, give information on the conversion in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’. Field 6.4 is not a
substitute for field 6.2.
27
Hammond et al., 2013

 
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6.5
Type of estimate (optional)
See instructions for field 6.3.
6.6
Population size – Method used
This field is used to describe the methodology used for calculating population size in field 6.2 or the
additional population size reported in field 6.4 (in a situation where the population size in field 6.2 is
converted from the value in field 6.4). Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. repeated direct counts of entire
population; repeated counting based on indices of species presence; from previous complete
inventory updated with robust monitoring data on trends);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. based on mark-recapture
methods; using models based on abundance and distribution data; using extrapolation from
sample surveys of parts of the population; or from previous inventory updated with good
trend data);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
If both interval (field 6.2(b) ‘Minimum’ and field 6.2(c) ‘Maximum’) and a single value (field 6.2(d)
‘Best single value’) are provided, field 6.6 ‘Method used’ should correspond to the more accurate of
both estimates. This should be noted in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
6.7
Short-term trend period
Give the dates of the beginning and end of the period for which the trend has been reported. The
short-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 12 years (two reporting cycles). For the 2013–
2018 reports, this means the period is 2007–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Thus, some
flexibility is permitted, so that while trends would ideally be reported for 2007–2018, data from e.g.
2004–2015 will be accepted if the best available data relate to surveys in those years.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
6.8
Short-term trend direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The trend in population size
shows changes in the overall numbers of individuals in the biogeographical population of a species.
Fluctuation (or oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not
a trend.
Indicate if the population trend over the reported period in field 6.7 was:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Report ‘uncertain’ if some data are available but they are not enough to accurately determine
direction. Use ‘unknown’ where there are no data available.

 
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The short-term trend information is used in the evaluation matrix to assess the conservation status.
Any large-scale deviation from this should be explained in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
If there is an apparent change in direction of the trend resulting from a change in monitoring
methodology or improved knowledge about the size of a species population, it should
not
be
considered a trend. This apparent change should be indicated in field 6.16 ´Change and reason for
change in population size’.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
6.9
Short-term trend magnitude (optional)
If possible, quantify the percentage change (with range at the beginning of the reporting period as
100 %) over the period reported in field 6.7. It can be given as a precise figure (e.g. 27 %) or a banded
range (e.g. 20–30 %). If a precise figure is available give the same value under ‘minimum’ and
‘maximum’ (fields 6.9(a) and (b)). Where a statistically robust method has been used (see field 6.10)
please provide the confidence interval (e.g. 95 %) in field 6.9(c) with the upper and lower confidence
interval limits in fields 6.9(a) and 6.9(b) respectively.
6.10
Short-term trend – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. a dedicated monitoring of a species’
populations with good statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from data
collected from a limited number of sample sites; trends extrapolated from data collected for
other purposes; trends extrapolated from some other indirect measurements, such as
availability of a habitat);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
6.11
Long-term trend period (optional)
The long-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 24 years (four reporting cycles). For the
2013–2018 reports, this means the period is 1994–2018 or a period as close as possible to this.
Indicate the period in this field. For the 2013–2018 reports, this information, together with fields
6.12 to 6.14, is optional.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
For guidance in filling in field
6.12 ‘Long-term trend direction’
, field
6.13 ‘Long-term trend
magnitude’
and field
6.14 ‘Long-term trend – Method used’
, see fields 6.8 to 6.10 (short-term
trends).

 
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6.15
Favourable reference population
Favourable reference population is the population in a given biogeographical region considered the
minimum necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the species
.
This information is needed to
undertake the evaluation of conservation status using the evaluation matrix (Annex C). Favourable
reference population should be given in the same units as that used for ‘Population’ (field 6.2 or 6.4).
In many cases it is not possible to estimate a value for favourable reference population (option a) but
it is clear that the favourable reference population is greater (or much greater or, in exceptional
situations, lower) than the present-day value. Using operators (option b) ‘greater than’ (>), ‘much
greater than’ (>>) or ‘lower than’(<) is preferable to reporting a parameter as ‘unknown’.
The following information is requested::
a) the population size; or
b) if operators (≈, >, >>, <) were used for the assessment, indicate here with the relevant
symbol (≈ ‘approximately equal to’, > ‘more than’, >> ‘much more than’, < ‘less than’); or
c) if the favourable reference population is unknown, use ‘x’ for the reference population; and
d) indicate the method used to set the reference value (free-text field).
The field ‘indicate method used’ (d) is mandatory if (a) population size is provided, but Member
States are encouraged to describe the method used also when (b) operators were used.
If an operator is used to estimate a favourable reference population, it should be compared with the
minimum population size estimate
The operator ‘less than’ (<) can be used only in limited cases; where a species might have developed -
due to exceptional circumstances such as supplementary feeding - an exceptionally high population
level far beyond that considered as favourable in normal circumstances and which is unlikely to be
sustainable or which may even be detrimental to other species or habitats. If used, an explanation
must be provided in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
The use of (b) operators should help to reduce the use of ‘unknown’ to a minimum:
if an operator (b) is used, then there is no need to insert a value in field 6.15(a) ‘Population
size’; operators indicate that the reference value is ‘approximately equal to’, ‘more than’,
‘much more than’ or ‘less than’the current value provided in fields 6.2 or 6.4 respectively;
if the value is provided for population size (a) no operator should be used.
Where the reference value has changed in comparison to the previous reporting period, the reason
for this should be explained in field 6.17 ‘Additional information’.
Favourable reference values and use of operators are discussed in more detail in Section ‘
Favourable
reference values
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
6.16
Change and reason for change in population size
This field is used to indicate if there is any change since the previous reporting period (2007–2012) in
the population size reported and, if so, to describe the nature of this change.
First answer the question: ‘Is there a change between reporting periods (i.e. is population size
different from the last reporting period)?’ YES/NO.

 
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If the answer is ‘Yes’, indicate which of the following options apply (it is possible to reply ‘Yes’ to
more than one of the options a–c, but at least one option ‘Yes’ must be selected for options a–d)
28
:
a) yes, due to genuine change;
b) yes, due to improved knowledge or more accurate data;
c)
yes, due to the use of a different method (including taxonomical change or use of different
thresholds);
d) yes, but there is no information on the nature of the change.
Finally, indicate whether any difference is mainly due to (select one option):
genuine change;
improved knowledge or more accurate data;
the use of a different method.
If a Member State wishes to give further information this can be done in field 6.17 ‘Additional
information’.
6.17
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on population can be reported here
as free text (for example, any information on connectivity, reproduction, mortality, age structure,
and genetic structure and if they deviate from normal, and how they were considered in the
assessment of the status of the population).
7
Habitat for the species
This section provides information on sufficiency of habitat for the species and habitat trends.
Habitat for the species refers to the resources necessary at all stages in the life cycle of the species,
for example both wintering and summer roosts, plus foraging areas, for bats. The meaning of
‘habitat’ in ‘habitat for the species’ is different to ‘habitat types’ defined under Annex I and ‘habitat’
for habitat classifications such as EUNIS, which are more correctly biotopes. Habitat quality includes
elements like the availability of prey but also fragmentation where appropriate for the species;
further guidance is given in Section ‘
7
Habitat for the species
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for
species reporting’).
28
In some cases the actual value reported for population size has increased, reflecting both a genuine increase
in size (positive population trend) and better knowledge or data. Both options (‘genuine change’ and ‘improved
knowledge or more accurate data’) above should be selected. In other situations the actual value reported for
population size has increased since the previous period due to better knowledge or data. Nevertheless, it may
still be clear that the species population is actually declining, based on analyses of data from sites. The option
‘improved knowledge or more accurate data’ above should be selected. Field 6.17 ‘Additional information’
allows a Member State to provide further details on why a population size estimate has increased, even though
a population decline is reported.

 
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7.1
Sufficiency of area and quality of occupied habitat
a) Are area and quality of the occupied habitat sufficient (for long-term survival)?
YES/NO/Unknown.
b) If ‘No’, is there a sufficiently large area of unoccupied habitat of suitable quality (for long-
term survival)? YES/NO/Unknown.
The Report format asks for information on the sufficiency of habitat area and quality. These
questions are aimed at identifying species for which habitat area and/or habitat quality is a limiting
factor for not achieving Favourable conservation status.
While area and quality are treated separately at national level, it is necessary to combine these two
factors when reporting at a biogeographical level, which is why they are addressed together in field
7.1. Any further information, including the separate assessment of sufficiency of habitat area and
quality, can be provided in field 7.9 ‘Additional information’.
7.2
Sufficiency of area and quality of occupied habitat – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. complete mapping or inventory of
habitat for the species including assessment of habitat quality, or inventory of a species’
habitats combined with robust extrapolation of habitat quality, or previous complete
inventory updated with information from robust monitoring);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. using modelling or
extrapolation from detailed surveys of parts of the species’ distribution);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
7.3
Short-term trend period
Give the dates of the beginning and end of the period for which the trend has been reported. The
short-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 12 years (two reporting cycles). For the 2013–
2018 reports, this means the period is 2007–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Thus, some
flexibility is permitted, so that while trends would ideally be reported for 2007–2018, data from e.g.
2004–2015 will be accepted if the best available data relate to surveys in those years.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
7.4
Short-term trend direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The trend in habitat for the
species describes changes in overall area and quality of the occupied habitat. Fluctuation (or
oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not a trend.

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Indicate if the trend in habitat for the species over the reported period in field 7.3 was:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
The assessment of habitat for the species considers both quality and area. Trend direction should be
assessed by using the combinations in Table 4 below (area/quality).
Table 4:
Assessing trend direction of habitat for the species
Reported trend
Relation to area/quality status
stable
Both trends are stable
Area ‘stable’ /quality ‘stable’
increasing
One or both trends are increasing or stable
Area ‘increasing’ / quality ‘increasing’
Area ‘increasing’ / quality ‘stable’
Area ‘stable’ / quality ‘increasing’
decreasing
One or both trends are decreasing
Area ‘decreasing’ / quality ‘decreasing’
Area ‘decreasing’ / quality ‘stable’
Area ‘decreasing’ / quality ‘unknown’
Area ‘stable’ / quality ‘decreasing’
Area ‘unknown’ / quality ‘decreasing’
unknown
At least one trend is unknown and non-decreasing
or there is no dominating trend
Area ‘unknown’ / quality ‘unknown’
Area ‘unknown’ / quality ‘increasing’
Area ‘unknown’ / quality ‘stable’
Area ‘increasing’ / quality ‘unknown’
Area ‘stable’ / quality ‘unknown’
Area ‘increasing’ / habitat ‘decreasing’ (if better
data are not available)
Area ‘decreasing’ / habitat ‘increasing’ (if better
data are not available)
Note: ‘unknown’ in the table above includes both ‘unknown’ and ‘uncertain’.
The short-term trend information should be used in the evaluation matrix to undertake the
conservation status assessment. Any large-scale deviation from this should be explained in field 7.9
‘Additional information’.
If there is an apparent change in the direction of the trend resulting from a change in monitoring
methodology or improved knowledge about area or quality of habitat for species, it should not be
considered a trend.

 
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7.5
Short-term trend – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. dedicated monitoring of both habitat
area and quality with good statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from data
collected from a limited number of sample sites; trends extrapolated from data collected for
other purposes; trends extrapolated from some other indirect measurements);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
ate the category for the most important source of data.
7.6
Long-term trend period (optional)
The long-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 24 years (four reporting cycles). For the
2013–2018 reports, this means the period is 1994–2018 or a period as close as possible to this.
Indicate the period in this field. For the 2013–2018 reports this information is optional. Fields 7.7 and
7.8 are optional as well.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
For guidance in filling in field
7.7 ‘Long-term trend direction’
and field
7.8 ‘Long-term trend method
used’
, see fields 7.4 and 7.5 (short-term trends).
7.9
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on habitat for the species can be
reported here (for example information on fragmentation)
.
8
Main pressures and threats
This section provides information on main pressures and threats. A list of pressures and/or threats
should be provided and for each pressure/threat a ranking of its impact on the conservation status of
species is also required.
Pressures have acted within the current reporting period and they have an impact on the long-term
viability of the species or its habitat(s); threats are future/foreseeable impacts (within the next two
reporting periods) that are likely to affect the long-term viability of the species and/or its habitat(s)
(see Table 5). The threats should not cover theoretical threats, but rather those issues judged to be
reasonably likely. This may include continuation of pressures.

 
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Table 5:
Definition of pressure and threat (in the context of Article 17 reporting)
Period of action/definition
Time-frame
Pressure
Acting now and/or during (any part of or all
of) the current reporting period.
Current six-year reporting period.
Threat
Factors expected to act in the future after the
current reporting period.
Future two reporting periods, i.e. within
12 years following the end of the current
reporting period.
8.1
Characterisation of pressures/threats
Provide a list of pressures and/or threats and a ranking of their impact: list a maximum of 10
pressures and a maximum of 10 threats . Only pressures/threats of high (‘H’) and of medium (‘M’)
importance, as defined in Table 6 below, should be reported.
For each species:
a) select from the list of pressures/threats a maximum of 10 entries for each of pressures and
threats using the code at the second level of the hierarchical list. The list of pressures and
threats is available on the Reference Portal
29
;
b) for each pressure and threat, indicate its ranking, i.e. ‘H’ for High, ‘M’ for Medium, under
both ‘Pressure’ and ‘Threat’. For example if a factor selected from the list represents both a
pressure and a threat, ‘H’ or ‘M’ should be reported under both headings as appropriate. If it
represents a pressure but not a threat, ‘H’ or ‘M’ should be reported under ‘Pressure’ and
‘Threat’ left blank. A maximum of five high-level pressures and five high-level threats should
be noted. This will make it possible to identify the most important factors at a European
scale.
Table 6:
Definition of High and Medium ranked pressures/threats
Code
Meaning
Comment
H
High importance/impact
Important direct or immediate influence and/or acting over large areas (a
pressure is the major cause or one of the major causes, if acting in
combination with other pressures, of significant decline of population
size, range or habitat area or deterioration of habitat quality at the
biogeographical scale; or pressure acting over large areas preventing the
species population or habitat from being restored at Favourable
conservation status at the biogeographical scale).
M
Medium
importance/impact
Medium direct or immediate influence, mainly indirect influence and/or
acting over moderate part of the area/acting only regionally (other
pressure not directly or immediately causing significant declines).
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The impact of the pressure should reflect the influence of a pressure or threat on conservation status
of the species. Only pressures that have an important direct or immediate influence on one or several
parameters of conservation status at the biogeographical scale (causing significant decline or
deterioration or preventing species from reaching favourable status, see Table 6 above) should be
ranked as ‘high’. However, it is likely that species with Favourable conservation status or where only
very localised or slight declines were recorded will not have high importance pressures (unless the
pressures are counteracted with measures). The maximum number of ‘high’ ranked pressures and/or
threats that can be reported is five, even if more could be considered. This, together with any other
information related to pressures and threats, can be noted in field 8.3 ‘Additional information’
Table 7 provides an example of pressures and threats characterisation using a maximum of five
pressures of High importance.
Table 7:
An example of pressures and threats characterisation.
Characterisation of pressures
/
threats
a) Pressure/threat
List a maximum of 10 pressures and a maximum of 10
threats using the code list provided on the Reference Portal
b)
Ranking of pressure/threat
Indicate whether the pressure/threat is
of:
H = high importance (maximum 5 entries
for pressures and 5 entries for threats)
M = medium importance
Pressure
Threat
A14 Application of synthetic fertilisers
H
H
A22 Active abstractions from groundwater, surface water
or mixed water for agriculture
M
-
B05 Clear-cutting, removal of all trees
H
M
D01 Roads, paths railroads and related infrastructure (e.g.
bridges, viaducts, tunnels)
H
H
D05 Electricity and communication infrastructure (e.g.
phone lines, masts and antennas)
H
M
E01 Conversion from other land uses to housing and
settlement areas (excl. drainage)
M
H
I02 Problematic native plants and animals
H
H
K04 Natural processes of eutrophication or acidification
-
M
Note that the example is only illustrative since it uses draft codes that may not be retained as such in the final
list of pressures and threats.
Keeping in mind that some of the species move over quite large areas (or are migratory), status and
trends reported in a particular Member State may reflect the effects of pressures and threats from
outside the Member State (e.g. the impact of hunting in a neighbouring Member State on marginal
species population) or even from beyond the EU. Likewise, species can be affected by pressures and

 
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threats originating from outside the Member State (e.g. pollution or nitrogen deposition). The list of
pressures and threats has codes to address the transboundary effect of pressures and threats: ‘XO
threats and pressures from outside the Member State’ and ‘XE threats and pressures from outside
the EU territory’.
More detailed guidance on reporting pressures and threats is provided in Section ‘
8
Main
pressures and threats
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’) and in the notes in the list
of pressures and threats available from the Reference Portal.
8.2
Sources of information (optional)
Provide sources of information relevant to Section 8 (optional) with URL, metadata, or supporting
evidence for the highest ranking pressures only (i.e. High importance).
8.3
Additional information (optional)
If a Member State wishes to give additional information on the nature of a certain pressure/threat,
this can be provided in this field.
9
Conservation measures
This section concerns information on conservation measures, including management plans, taken to
maintain or to restore the species at Favourable conservation status. Conservation measures are only
mandatory for Annex II species but whenever available Member States are encouraged to provide
this information also for Annex IV species.
The section contains a list of measures and their evaluation. The evaluation is an overall assessment
and not a measure-by-measure evaluation.
9.1
Status of measures
Select whether measures are needed or not. If the answer is ‘Yes, measures are needed’, then
proceed to answer the following three questions:
a) measures identified but none yet taken? (YES/NO); or
b) measures identified and taken? (YES/NO); or
c)
measures needed but cannot be identified? (YES/NO).
Measures may be implemented at different points in time. Choose option (a) if the majority of the
most important measures identified have not yet been taken; Choose option (b) if the majority of the
most important measures have already been or are being implemented.

 
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9.2
Main purpose of the measures taken
Indicate the main purpose of the measures taken. This part should only be filled in if the conservation
measures have been taken (field 9.1(b) ‘Measures identified and taken’ is marked ‘Yes’). Even if
several purposes can be identified, please indicate only the main one in terms of implementing the
measures.
a) maintain the current range, population and/or habitat for the species;
b) expand the current range of the species (related to ‘Range’);
c)
increase the population size and/or improve population dynamics (improve reproduction
success, reduce mortality, improve age/sex structure) (related to ‘Population’);
d) restore the habitat of the species (related to ‘Habitat for the species’).
9.3
Location of the measures taken
If the reply to field 9.1(b) ‘Measures identified and taken’ is ‘Yes’, indicate where the measures are
mostly being implemented:
a) only inside Natura 2000;
b) both inside and outside Natura 2000;
c)
only outside Natura 2000.
This field tries to capture where the main focus of the conservation action is taking place. Therefore,
choose option (a) if all, or the vast majority, of the conservation measures are restricted to Natura
2000, option (b) if there is a proportional investment in the implementation of measures inside and
outside Natura 2000, and option (c) if all, or the vast majority, of the measures are taken outside
Natura 2000.
9.4
Response to the measures
Provide an estimate of when the measures taken will start, or are expected to start, to neutralise the
pressure and to produce positive effects (with regard to the main purpose of the measures indicated
in field 9.2). Choose one option from:
a) short-term results (within the current reporting period, 2013–2018);
b) medium-term results (within the next two reporting periods, 2019–2030);
c)
long-term results (after 2030).
9.5
List of main conservation measures
List a maximum of 10 conservation measures using the code provided on the Reference Portal
30
.
More detailed guidance on the use of conservation measures is provided in Section ‘
9 Conservation
measures
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’) and in the notes in the list of
conservation measures available from the Reference Portal.
9.6
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on conservation measures can be
reported here.
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10
Future prospects
This section provides information on the future prospects of three parameters (Range, Population
and Habitat of the species). Future prospects indicate the direction of expected change in
conservation status in the near future based on a consideration of the current status, reported
pressures and threats, and measures being taken for each of the other three parameters (Range,
Population and Habitat of the species).More information si provided in Section ‘
10
Future
prospects
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’)
.
10.1
Future prospects of parameters
For each parameter (Range, Population and Habitat for the species) indicate if the prospects are
‘good’, ‘poor’, ‘bad’ or ‘unknown’. Future prospects of each of the three parameters should
principally reflect the future trends which are the result of the balance between threats and
conservation measures. The future prospects should be assessed in relation to the current
conservation status. For example, the impact of future improvement on the assessment of future
prospects of a parameter will be different if the current status is ‘favourable’ or ‘unfavourable-bad’.
An evaluation method is provided in Section ‘
Assessing future prospects
’ (in ’10 Future prospects’
chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’ part)
.
10.2
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand how future prospects were assessed can be reported
here.
11
Conclusions
This section includes the assessment of conservation status at the end of the reporting period in the
biogeographical region or marine region concerned. It is derived from the matrix in Annex C.
Give the result of the assessment for each parameter of conservation status using the four categories
available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’
(XX).
The conservation status of parameters is assessed using the criteria in the evaluation matrix (Annex C
of the Report format). Sections 11.1 to 11.5 provide an overview of the assessment criteria for each
of the parameters of conservation status. In addition, several complementary assumptions and
criteria are outlined in these guidelines which aim at harmonising and facilitating the assessment of
conservation status. For each parameter these complementary assumptions and criteria are
summarised under the heading ‘Complementary remarks’.

 
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11.1
Range
Give the result of the assessment of the status for Range using the four categories available:
‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’ (XX).
Conservation
status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Range is ‘favourable’ if:
the trend is stable (loss and expansion in balance) or increasing; and
range surface area (field 5.1) is not smaller than the favourable reference range
(field 5.10).
Complementary remarks:
1. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 5.2) should be used for the status
assessment.
2. The status of Range should not be favourable if any large-scale changes resulting from
human pressures but not impacting the range surface area (e.g. shifts of range
boundaries) were recorded.
Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Range is ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’)
Complementary remarks:
1. The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Range. However, taking into account the criteria for ‘favourable’ and
‘unfavourable-bad’, the status of Range should be considered as ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ if:
a decline equivalent to a loss of less than 1 % per year; or
range surface area (field 5.1) is less than 10 % below favourable reference range
(field 5.10).
2. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 5.2) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Range is ‘unfavourable-bad’ if:
a large decline equivalent to a loss of more than 1 % per year within the period
specified by the Member State; or
range surface area (field 5.1) is more than 10 % below favourable reference
range (field 5.10).
Complementary remarks:
The trend over the short-term trend period (field 5.2) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Range is ‘unknown’ if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.

 
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11.2
Population
Give the result of the assessment of the status of Population using the four categories available:
‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’ (XX).
Conservation
status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Population is ‘favourable’ if:
population size (fields 6.2 or 6.4) is not smaller than the favourable reference
population (field 6.15); and
the age structure, mortality and reproduction are not deviating from normal.
Complementary remarks:
1. Age structure, mortality and reproduction not deviating from normal are those of a
natural, self-sustaining population (for example, with no recorded or anticipated
problems with recruitment).
2. Although the evaluation matrix does not explicitly mention population trend as a
criterion for ‘favourable’ status (unlike for two other parameters), situations where the
population trend is negative and the population status is still ‘favourable’ will be rare. A
population decline often reflects a negative impact of pressures on mortality and/or
reproduction. Furthermore, Article 1(i) of the Directive requires that population
dynamics data of the species indicate that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a
viable component of its natural habitats. Therefore, for a species to be in a ‘favourable
status’, the population trend should not be declining unless the actual population size is
safely above the favourable reference population size. As for the remaining parameters,
the trend over the short-term trend period (field 6.7) should be used for the status
assessment.
3. Although the evaluation matrix does not explicitly mention the genetic variability of
the species, the requirement for long-term maintenance of a species (Article 1 (i))
suggests that the genetic variability should be that of a self-sustaining population.
Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Population is ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
1. The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Population. However, taking into account criteria for ‘favourable’ and
‘unfavourable-bad’, the status of Population should be considered ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ if:
a moderate decline equivalent to a loss of less than 1 % per year and equal to or
below ‘favourable reference population’; or
a large decline equivalent to a loss of more than 1 % per year and above or
equal to ‘favourable reference population’; or
population size (fields 6.2 or 6.4) is less than 25 % below favourable reference
population (field 6.15); or
age structure somehow different from a natural, self-sustaining population.
2. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 6.7) should be used for the status

 
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assessment.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Population is ‘unfavourable-
bad’ if:
a large decline equivalent to a loss of more than 1 % per year within the period
specified by the Member State and below ‘favourable reference population’; or
population size (fields 6.2 or 6.4) is more than 25 % below favourable reference
population (field 6.15); or
reproduction, mortality and age structure are markedly different from normal.
Complementary remarks:
1. Reproduction, mortality and age structure markedly different from normal should be
interpreted as markedly different from a natural, self-sustaining population (for example,
a higher than normal proportion of old individuals or a lack of reproducing adults or a
lack of offspring).
2. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 6.7) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Population is ‘unknown’ if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
11.3
Habitat for the species
Give the result of the assessment of the status of Habitat for the species using the four categories
available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’
(XX).
Conservation
status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Habitat for the species is
‘favourable’ if:
area of the habitat is sufficiently large (field 7.1); and
area of the habitat is stable or increasing; and
habitat quality is suitable for the long-term survival of the species (field 7.1).
Complementary remarks:
1. The area of habitat can be considered ‘sufficiently large’ and habitat quality ‘suitable’
if any of the questions under field 7.1 ‘Sufficiency of area and quality of occupied
habitat’ are answered ‘Yes’ (‘Are area and quality of the occupied habitat sufficient for
long-term survival?’ And ‘If no, is there a sufficiently large area of unoccupied habitat of
suitable quality for long-term survival?’). If the answer to any of these questions is ‘Yes’,
it is likely that the habitat availability or quality is not a limiting factor for the long-term
viability of the species.
2. The trend in habitat for the species used for the assessment of the status (field 7.4)
has both a qualitative and quantitative component, so the status can only be ‘favourable’
if there is neither decline in habitat area nor deterioration of habitat quality.
3. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 7.3) should be used for the status
assessments.

 
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4. Although the evaluation matrix does not mention fragmentation of habitat, this
should not be having a negative impact on the functioning of population. As such,
fragmentation should be considered when evaluating the quality of the habitat
.
Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Habitat for the species is
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Habitat for the species. However, taking into account criteria for ‘favourable’
and ‘unfavourable-bad’, the status of Habitat for the species should be considered
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
area of habitat is not sufficiently large in some way to ensure the long-term
survival of the species; or
habitat quality is not adequate, in some way not allowing long-term survival of
the species; or
habitat area is declining or habitat quality is deteriorating.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
The status of Habitat for the species is ‘unfavourable-bad’ if:
the area of habitat is clearly not sufficiently large to ensure the long-term
survival of the species; or
habitat quality is bad, clearly not allowing long-term survival of the species.
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Habitat for the species is
‘unknown’ if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
11.4
Future prospects
Give the result of the assessment of the status of Future prospects using the four categories
available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’
(XX).
Conservation
status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Future prospects is
‘favourable’ if:
main pressures and threats to the species are not significant and species will
remain viable in the long-term.
Complementary remarks:
The Future prospects should be assessed as ‘favourable’ if all parameters have good
prospects (field 10.1), or if prospects of one parameter are ‘unknown’ while the other
parameters have good prospects. The matrix for combining the prospects of three
parameters to give overall status of Future prospects is provided in
Table 26: Combining
the evaluation of the three parameters to give Future prospects for a species
in Section
’10 Future prospects’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’ part).

 
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Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Future prospects is
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Future prospects. However, taking into account the method for assessing the
Future prospects proposed in these guidelines, the status should be considered
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if the prospects of one or more parameters (field 10.1) are
poor, none has bad prospects and there is at most one parameter with ‘unknown’
prospects.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Future prospects is
‘unfavourable-bad’ if:
there are severe influence of pressures and threats to the species, prospects for
its future are very bad and long-term viability is at risk.
Complementary remarks:
The Future prospects should be assessed as ‘unfavourable-bad’ if one or more
parameters have bad prospects (field 10.1).
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex C) the status of Future prospects is ‘unknown’
if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
Complementary remarks:
The Future prospects should be assessed as ‘unknown’ if two or more parameters have
‘unknown’ prospects and no parameter has bad prospects (field 10.1).
11.5
Overall assessment of conservation status
Give the result of the overall assessment of conservation status using the four categories available:
‘favourable’, ‘unfavourable-inadequate’, ‘unfavourable-bad’ and ‘unknown’, based on the evaluation
matrix for assessing conservation status for a species.
Status of
parameters
All ‘favourable’, or
three ‘favourable’ and
one ‘unknown’
One or more
‘inadequate’, but
no ‘bad’
One or more
‘bad’
Two or more
‘unknown’ combined
with ‘favourable’ or all
‘unknown’
Overall
assessment of CS
‘favourable’
‘unfavourable-
inadequate’
‘unfavourable-
bad’
‘unknown’

 
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11.6
Overall trend in conservation status
If the overall assessment of conservation status reported in field 11.5 is ‘favourable’, ‘inadequate’ or
‘bad’, indicate its trend (qualifier) as follows:
improving / deteriorating / stable / unknown.
The qualifier should be based on trends (for Range, Population and Habitat for the species) over the
reporting period (2013–2018). As the trends over the reporting period are often not available, short-
term trends can be used to assess the trend in the conservation status, unless there is evidence that
the trend during the reporting period is different than a measured short-term trend (e.g. if after past
decline of a species population over the reporting period 2007–2012 the population trend has
stabilised, the qualifier should be assessed as ‘stable’ even though the population trend is
‘decreasing’; this should be explained in field 11.8 ‘Additional information’). The (short-term) trends
should be combined using Table 8 below.
Table 8:
Assessing overall trend in conservation status of a species by combining trends for
parameters
Short-term trend of parameters (Range, Population,
Habitat for the species
Overall trend in CS
Number
increasing
Number
stable
Number
decreasing
Number
unknown
3
0
0
0
Improving
(Only increasing and stable trends)
2
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
Stable
(Only stable trends or stable and increasing
dominates (there is at least one increasing and
only one unknown or decreasing)).
*
Trend magnitude should also be considered.
The overall trend in CS is stable only in case of
moderate declines (< 1 % per year).
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
1
1
1*
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
3
0
Deteriorating
(Decreasing trends dominate)
* Trend magnitude should also be considered.
The overall trend in CS is declining only in case
of important declines (> 1 % per year).
1
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
1
1
1*
0
0
0
0
3
Unknown
(Unknown trends dominate)
1
0
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
Note: ‘unknown’ in the table above includes both ‘unknown’ and ‘uncertain’.

 
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11.7
Change and reasons for change in conservation status and conservation
status trend
This field is used to indicate if there is any change since the previous reporting period (2007–2012) in
conservation status and/or in trend in conservation status and, if yes, the reason for this change.
First answer the question ‘(a) no, there is no difference’ (Yes if there is a difference and No if there is
not) separately for overall assessment of conservation status and overall trend in conservation
status.
If the answer to the initial question is ‘Yes’, indicate which of the following options apply (separately
for the overall assessment of conservation status and overall trend in conservation status; it is
possible to reply ‘Yes’ to more than one of the options b-d , but at least one option ‘Yes’ must be
selected for options b-e):
b) yes, due to genuine change;
c)
yes, due to improved knowledge/more accurate data;
d) yes, due to the use of different method (including taxonomical change or use of different
thresholds);
e) yes, but there is no information on the nature of change.
Finally, indicate (separately for overall assessment of conservation status and overall trend in
conservation status) whether any difference is mainly due to:
genuine change;
improved knowledge or more accurate data;
the use of a different method.
If a Member State wishes to give further information, this can be done in field 11.8 ‘Additional
information’.
11.8
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information in fields 11.1 to 11.7.
12
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for Annex II
species
This section provides information on population size and population trend within the Natura 2000
network. This section only concerns Annex II species. The requested information should cover the
proposed Sites of Community Importance (pSCIs), the Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and
Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) of the Natura 2000 network within the biogeographical/marine
region concerned.
The information relates to all pSCIs/SCIs/SACs where the Annex II species is present, not only those
sites where the species is declared as a target species or a conservation objective.
See background information in Section ‘
12
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for
Annex II species
(in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).

 
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12.1
Population size inside the pSCIs, SCIs and SACs network
Indicate the population size within the network in the biogeographical or marine region concerned,
including all sites where the species is present. Use the same unit as in field 6.2 ‘Population size (in
reporting unit)’
31
and follow the same guidance as for the population size estimates in field 6.2.
Some species are mainly present inside the network during a period of the year (e.g. wintering or
reproducing) and largely outside the network for the rest of the year (bats in particular). As Natura
2000 sites are often the most important sites for these species, the population size within the Natura
2000 network should include populations which are only present within sites for part of the year.
Similarly, different Natura 2000 sites can cover different life stages (there are sites with hibernating
or reproducing populations, but also sites which only include foraging habitats). The population size
within the Natura 2000 network should include all sites proposed for reproducing, hibernating or
foraging/staging populations or individuals.
12.2
Type of estimate
The type of estimate for the interval reported in fields 12.1(b) and (c) or the best single value in field
12.1(d) should be outlined here. The options for reporting this are: best estimate, multi-year mean,
95 % confidence interval, or minimum.
Follow the same guidance as for the ‘Type of estimate’ for the Population size (field 6.3).
12.3
Population size inside the network – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate
(
e.g. repeated direct counts of entire
population; repeated counting based on indices of species presence; from previous complete
inventory updated with robust monitoring data on trends);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. based on mark-recapture
methods, or using models based on abundance and distribution data, or using extrapolation
from sample surveys of parts of the population, or from previous inventory updated with
good trend data);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
Follow the same guidance as for the ‘Method used’ for the Population size (field 6.6).
12.4
Short-term trend of population size within the network – Direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The trend in population size
informs on changes in overall numbers of specimens within the Natura 2000 sites. Fluctuation (or
oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not a trend.
31
The ‘reporting unit’ from the
Article
17
checklist
available
on
the
Reference
Portal
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17
.

 
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Indicate whether the trend of population size is:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Short-term trend within the Natura 2000 network should be assessed over the period indicated in
field 6.7.
See instructions for field 6.8 ‘Short-term trend direction’.
12.5
Short-term trend of population size within the network – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. dedicated monitoring of a species’
populations with good statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from data
collected from a limited number of sample sites; trends extrapolated from data collected for
other purposes; trends extrapolated from some other indirect measurements, such as
availability of a habitat);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
12.6
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand how Natura 2000 covers the species can be reported here.
13
Complementary information
This section is optional and is a place to include any additional or supplementary information.
13.1
Justification of % thresholds for trends (optional)
The indicative suggested threshold for a large decline given in the evaluation matrix (Annex C) is 1 %
per year. If another threshold has been used for the assessment, please give details, including an
explanation of why.
13.2
Transboundary assessment (optional)
Where a joint conservation status assessment is made between two Member States, i.e. where there
is a wide-ranging transboundary species population, further detailed information can be given here.
The information to provide is:
Member States involved (use code list on the Reference Portal) and if any non-EU countries
were involved in the assessment;
parameters assessed in the transboundary area (usually Range and Population);
the % of the total population in the Member State concerned;
list of joint management measures;
references/links, if available.

 
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Further information on assessment of transboudary populations can be found in Section
Transboundary populations
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
13.3
Other relevant information (optional)
Include any other information thought relevant to the species report and to assessing conservation
status.

 
ANNEX C – EVALUATION MATRIX FOR ASSESSING CONSERVATION
STATUS OF A SPECIES
The matrix is an aid to assessing the conservation status of a species. It shall be used for each
biogeographical or marine region in which the species is present. The results of using the matrix have
to be provided in Section ‘
11
Conclusions
’ (in ‘Field-by-field guidance for species reports’)
.

 
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ANNEX D – REPORT FORMAT ON THE ‘MAIN RESULTS OF THE
SURVEILLANCE UNDER ARTICLE 11’ FOR ANNEX I HABITAT TYPES
Habitats to be reported
In general, each Member State should report all habitats listed in Annex I of the Habitats Directive for
every biogeographical or marine region in which they occur
32
(see also next paragraph).
The habitats listed in Annex I can be both biotopes or biotope complexes, and sometimes an Annex I
habitat is a component of another Annex I habitat. As a result patches of one or more Annex I
habitats can occur within another Annex I habitat. More information on how to report for those
overlapping habitats can be found in Section ‘
Overlapping habitats
’ (in ‘Habitats to be reported’
chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’ part)
.
A report is optional for habitats with a scientific reserve. A checklist of habitats covered by the
Habitats Directive and their occurrence per biogeographical or marine region and Member State is
available on the Article 17 Reference Portal
33
.
Most habitats are clearly present or absent, but to cover all possibilities the habitats checklist also
distinguishes habitats with ‘marginal occurrence’ and where there is some uncertainty of status
(‘scientific reserve’). An overview of the categories in the habitat checklist, with an indication of
whether a report is expected and which parts of the report remain mandatory, is given in Table 9. A
detailed definition of habitat categories can be found in Section ‘
Occurrence categories used in the
habitat checklist
’ (in ‘Habitats to be reported’ chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat
reporting’ part).
Table 9:
Categories of habitat occurrence within the biogeographical/marine region of the
Member State and indication of the expected content of the Article 17 report
Habitat category (code)
Report
Mandatory information for report
Present regularly (PRE)
Mandatory
Full report.
Marginal (MAR)
Mandatory partial
report
Whenever possible provide information for any of the
fields listed below:
Distribution map (field 2.2)
Actual range – surface area (field 4.1).
Area covered by habitat - surface area (field 5.2)
and date (field 5.1) and method used (field 5.4).
Scientific reserve (SCR)
Optional
Any other relevant information, e.g. related to the
problems of habitat interpretation (field 12.2).
32
For For the habitat types and species which do not occur in the area of Cyprus where the Community acquis
applies at present, no report is expected but the species should remain in the checklist (using category NPRE in
the checklist).
33
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17

 
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Field-by-field guidance for completing ‘Annex D’ Habitat reports
NB: To be completed for each Annex I habitat present
34
.
It is recommended that the free text information in the different fields is written in English to
facilitate the further use of information in the EU analysis and to allow a wider readership.
Even though not all data used in the report will be collected during the reporting period, the report
should give information of relevance for the period 2013–2018.
NATIONAL LEVEL
The following information is to be provided at the national level:
1
General information
1.1
Member State
Select the two-digit code for your Member State from ISO 3166. For the United Kingdom, use ‘UK’
instead of ‘GB’, in accordance with the list to be found on the Reference Portal
35
.
1.2
Habitat code
Use the code given in the habitats checklist (see the Reference Portal, these are the same codes as
given in the 2013 edition of the Interpretation Manual
36
). Do not use any other coding systems.
Reports are expected for each biogeographical region for which the habitat type is listed in the
checklist for reporting under the Nature Directives (for marginal occurrence see ‘
Habitats to be
reported
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)).
2
Maps
This section contains information on maps to be submitted together with the tabular information as
a part of the Article 17 report. Apart from the mandatory distribution map, other kinds of maps with
information relevant for understanding the assessment of conservation status can also be provided.
2.1 Year or period
Enter the year (e.g. 2015) or period (e.g. 2013–2017) when the distribution was last determined.
Many reports will involve periods, because a mapping of the habitat distribution in most cases
involves several years of fieldwork and may extend beyond the limits of the current reporting period
(2013–2018). The year or period reported should cover the actual period during which the data were
collected.
34
A checklist of habitats thought to be present in each Member State for which a report is expected is available
at
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17
35
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17
36
Interpretation manual of European Union habitats - EUR 28
. DG Environment - Nature and Biodiversity
.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/docs/Int_Manual_EU28.pdf

 
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In some cases the distribution map will be elaborated based on data from the previous reporting
period or using older distribution data that has been updated with the results of regular monitoring
or using data from online-systems for collecting data. The year or period reported should be that
which the reported distribution relates to.
More detailed information on year or period of data used for the distribution map can be provided in
field 4.12 ‘Additional information’.
2.2
Distribution map
Submit a distribution map, together with the relevant metadata (projection, datum, scale). The
standard is:
10x10 km ETRS89 grid, projection ETRS LAEA 5210
The distribution map should provide information about the actual occurrences of the habitat, which
should preferably be based on the results of a comprehensive national mapping or inventory of the
habitat wherever possible (see Section ‘
2
Maps
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat
reporting’)). If field data on actual occurrences of the habitat are not sufficient, modelling and
extrapolation should be used whenever feasible
37
. The distribution map will be though composed of
grids with both the actual (mapped) and presumed habitat occurrences.
The distribution map will consist of 10x10 km ETRS89 grid cells in the ETRS LAEA 5210 projection
38
.
The gridded dataset will consist only of the 10-km grid cells where the habitat is recorded or
estimated as occurring; the use of attribute data to indicate the presence or absence of a habitat in a
grid cell is not permitted. The period over which the distribution data were collected should be
included in the metadata, following the INSPIRE guidelines
39
. The technical specifications for
distribution maps are given on the Reference Portal.
If more precise maps giving more detailed distribution of habitat are available, these can be
submitted as additional maps.
For small Member States, such as Luxembourg, Malta and Cyprus (or for other small territories such
as the Canary, Madeira or the Azores islands), a 1x1 km grid (or 5x5 km) is allowed; these will then be
aggregated by ETC/BD to 10x10 km for visualisation at European level.
The grids for individual Member States are available for download from the Reference Portal
40
.
37
If modelling or exceptionally expert opinion are used this should be noted in the field 2.3 Method used
38
European Terrestrial Reference System 1989; Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Latitude of origin 52N,
Longitude of origin (central meridian) 10E.
http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gis
39
For the period 2013-2018 it is not obligatory or expected to provide the Article 17 spatial dataset compliant
with INSPIRE requirements.
40
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2.3
Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. a dedicated mapping or survey or a
robust predictive model with representative sample of occurrence data, calibration and
satisfactory evaluation of its predictive performance using good data on environmental
conditions across the range of the habitat);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. other predictive models or
extrapolation using less complete sample of occurrence and environmental data);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
If the reported distribution map obtained as a result of comprehensive mapping, modelling or
extrapolation or, exceptionally, expert interpretation covers less than 75 % of the presumed actual
habitat distribution (i.e. the resulting map is incomplete in relation to the presumed habitat
distribution), the ‘Method used’ should be reported as ‘(d) Insufficient or no data available’.
2.4
Additional maps (optional)
Member States may also submit additional maps, for example giving more detailed distribution data
(e.g. at higher resolution) or a range map (See Section ‘
4
Range
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for
habitat reporting’)). Any additional maps must be accompanied by the relevant metadata and details
of the projection used. Note that this is an optional field and does not replace the need to provide a
map in field 2.2.
Maps at a resolution other than 10x10 km or with grids other than the ETRS89 LAEA 5210 grid, or
close to 10x10 km, may be reported here.
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL
3
Biogeographical and marine regions
The following section should be completed for each biogeographical or marine region in which the
habitat occurs. So, for example, if a habitat occurs in three biogeographical regions within a Member
State, three separate reports are required.

 
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3.1
Biogeographical or marine region where the habitat occurs
Biogeographical region or marine region concerned within the Member State.
Use the following names for biogeographical regions:
Alpine
Boreal
Macaronesian
Atlantic
Continental
Pannonian
Black Sea
Mediterranean
Steppic
Use the following names for marine regions:
Marine Atlantic
Marine Black Sea
Marine Mediterranean
Marine Macaronesian
Marine Baltic Sea
Maps and boundaries of biogeographical and marine regions can be found on the Reference Portal
41
.
More information on marine regions and on habitats which should be reported in marine regions can
be found in Section ‘
Marine habitats
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
3.2
Sources of information
For information from published sources related to Sections 4–6 (including the published sources
related to distribution maps, on which the range calculation is based) and Sections 8–12, provide
bibliographic references or links to an Internet site(s). Use the order: author, year, title of
publication, source, volume, number of pages, web address.
All Internet addresses in the reporting fields should be given in full, including the initial
‘http://’
or
‘https://’, if applicable.
4
Range
This section provides information on range surface area, range trends and favourable reference
range.
Range is defined as ‘the outer limits of the overall area in which a habitat or species is found at
present’ and it can be considered as an envelope within which areas actually occupied occur.
The range should be calculated based on the map of the actual distribution using a standardised
algorithm. A standardised process is needed to ensure repeatability of the range calculation in
different reporting rounds.
It is not necessary to submit a map of the range but the area of the range and trend in area are
required to assess this parameter. However, a map can be submitted in field 2.4 ‘Additional maps’.
Complementary information and methods for range calculation can be found in Section
4 Range
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)
.
41
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4.1
Surface area
This is the total surface area (in km²) of the current range (outer limits of the habitat distribution)
within the biogeographical or marine region concerned. The range in the biogeographical or marine
region concerned is represented by grids (10x10 km) which occur entirely or partly within the region
(i.e. grids intersected by the boundaries of the biogeographical or marine regions are counted under
both regions). In general, the surface area is provided in 10x10 km
2
resolution and the minimum area
should be 100 km
2
. For localised habitats with a very small range it is possible to report using finer
resolution; for example, for habitats restricted to a single location, range is the area of locality where
habitat occurs, which can be several square metres. Decimals are allowed, as the range of some
habitats can be very small.
The method for estimating the surface area described in Section ‘
Calculation of range
(in ‘4 Range’ chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’ part) is recommended.
4.2
Short-term trend period
Give the dates for the beginning and end of the period for which the trend has been reported. The
short-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 12 years (two reporting cycles). For the 2013–
2018 reports, this means the period is 2007–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Thus, some
flexibility is permitted, so that while trends would ideally be reported for 2007–2018, data from e.g.
2004–2015 will be accepted if the best available data relate to surveys in those years.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)
.
4.3
Short-term trend direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The range trend shows
changes in the overall extent of distribution of the habitat. Although rare for range, a fluctuation (or
oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not a trend.
Indicate if range trend over the period reported in field 4.2 was:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Report ‘uncertain’ if some data are available but they are not enough to accurately determine
direction. Use ‘unknown’ where there are no data available.
The short-term trend information is used in the evaluation matrix to undertake the conservation
status assessment. Any large-scale deviation from this should be explained in field 4.12 ‘Additional
information’.
If there is an apparent change in direction of the trend resulting from a change in monitoring
methodology or improved knowledge about habitat distribution, it should not be considered a trend.
This apparent change should be indicated in field 4.11 ‘Change and reason for change in surface area
of range’.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).

 
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4.4
Short-term trend magnitude (optional)
If possible quantify the percentage change over the period indicated in field 4.2. The range at the
beginning of the reporting period is taken as 100 %. The figure can be presented as a precise figure
(e.g. 27 %) or as a banded figure (e.g. 20–30 %). If providing a precise figure give the same value in
the ‘minimum’ and ‘maximum’ fields.
4.5
Short-term trend – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. comparing two range maps based on
accurate distribution data, or a dedicated monitoring of a habitat’s distribution with good
statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from
occurrence data collected for other purposes, or from data collected from only a part of the
geographical range of a habitat, or trends based on measuring some other predictors of
habitat distribution, such as land-cover changes);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
4.6
Long-term trend period (optional)
The long-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 24 years (four reporting cycles). For the
2013–2018 reports this period is 1994–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Indicate the
period in this field. For the 2013–2018 reports this information and the associated fields 4.6 and 4.7
are optional.
Further guidance is given in ‘Trends’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
For guidance in filling in fields
4.7 ‘Long-term trend direction’
,
4.8 ‘Long-term trend magnitude’
and
4.9 ‘Long-term trend – Method used’,
please see the guidance for fields 4.2 to 4.5 (short-term
trends).
4.10
Favourable reference range
Favourable reference range is the range within which all significant ecological variations of the
habitat are included for a given biogeographical region and which is sufficiently large to allow the
long-term viability of the habitat. This information is needed to undertake the evaluation of
conservation status according to Annex E. In many cases it is not possible to estimate a value for
favourable reference range (option (a)) but it is clear that the favourable reference range is greater
(or much greater) than the present-day value. Using operators (option (b)) ‘greater than’ (>) and
‘much greater than’ (>>) is preferable to reporting a parameter as ‘unknown’.

 
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The following information is requested:
a) area in km²; or
b) if operators (≈, >, >>) were used for the assessment, indicate here with the relevant symbol
(≈ ‘approximately equal to’, > ‘more than’, >> ‘much more than’); or
c) if the favourable reference range is unknown, use ‘x’ for the reference range; and
d) indicate the method used to set the reference value (free-text field).
The field ‘indicate method used’ (d) is mandatory if (a) area is provided, but Member States are
encouraged to describe the method used also when (b) operators were used.
The use of operators should help to reduce the use of ‘unknown’ to a minimum:
if an operator (b) is used, then there is no need to insert a value in field 4.10(a) area in km²;
operators indicate that the reference value is ‘approximately equal to’, ‘more than’ or ‘much
more than’ the current value provided in field 4.1 ‘Surface area (of range)’;
if the value is provided for area in km² (a) no operator should be used.
Where the reference value has changed in comparison to the previous reporting period, this should
be explained in field 4.12 ‘Additional Information’.
Favourable reference values and the use of operators are discussed in more detail in Section
Favourable reference value
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)
.
4.11
Change and reason for change in surface area of range
This field is used to indicate if there is any change since the previous reporting period (2007–2012) in
the range surface area reported and, if so, to describe the nature of this change.
First answer the question: ‘Is there a change between reporting periods’ (i.e. is area of range
different from the last reporting period)? YES/NO.
If the answer is ‘Yes’, indicate which of the following options apply (it is possible to reply ‘Yes’ to
more than one of the options a–c, but at least one option ‘Yes’ must be selected for options a–d)
42
:
a) yes, due to genuine change;
b) yes, due to improved knowledge or more accurate data;
c)
yes, due to the use of a different method (including use of different thresholds);
d) yes, but there is no information on the nature of change.
42
In some cases the actual value reported for range surface area has increased, reflecting both a genuine
increase in range (positive range trend) and better knowledge or data. Both options (‘genuine change’ and
‘improved knowledge or more accurate data’) above should be selected. In other situations the actual value
reported for range surface area has increased since the previous period due to better knowledge or data.
Nevertheless, it may still be clear that the habitat range is actually declining, based on analyses of data from
sites. The option ‘improved knowledge or more accurate data’ above should be selected. Field 4.12 ‘Additional
information’ allows a Member State to provide further details on why a range estimate has increased, even
though a range decline is reported.

 
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Finally, indicate whether any difference is mainly due to (select one of the options):
genuine change;
improved knowledge or more accurate data;
the use of a different method.
If a Member State wishes to give further information (e.g. cases where range surface area does not
change, but its borders are shifting), this can be done in field 4.12 ‘Additional information’.
4.12
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on range can be reported here (for
example, details on the use of old distribution data, use of data from the previous reporting period,
use of different gap distance or range calculation method than that recommended).
5
Area covered by habitat
This section reports on the area covered by the habitat type within the range in the biogeographical
or marine region concerned.
5.1
Year or period
Enter the year (e.g. 2015) or period (e.g. 2013–2017) when the surface area of the habitat was
determined.
Many reports will involve periods, because habitat mapping usually involves several years of
fieldwork and may extend beyond the limits of the current reporting period (2013–2018). The year or
period reported should cover the actual period during which the data were collected.
In some cases the area covered by habitat will be estimated based on a comprehensive habitat
mapping which took place during the previous reporting period or even before and that has been
updated with the results of regular monitoring. The year or period reported should be that which the
reported estimate of the area covered by habitat relates to.
More detailed information on year or period of data used for the area covered by habitat can be
provided in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
5.2
Surface area
This refers to the total area (in km
2
) currently occupied by the habitat within the biogeographical or
marine region of the Member State concerned. For overlapping habitats see ‘Habitats to be reported’
(in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
The surface area of habitat can be reported as an interval (for example minimum and maximum
value or 95 % confidence interval from a model) and/or as a best available single value. The interval
surface area estimate (fields 5.2(a) and (b)) should be given as minimum and maximum numbers.
Minimum and maximum should always be entered together, i.e. not as only the minimum /only the
maximum.
There is also a ‘best single value’ field (5.2 (c)) where a single value (a precise value or an estimate)
can be entered. When only a minimum (or maximum) value of the surface area of the habitat is
known (e.g. through expert opinion) this should be entered in the ‘Best single value’ field and NOT

 
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the ‘(a) Minimum’ or ‘(b) Maximum’ fields. The source of this estimate can then be clarified in field
5.3 (see below). The numbers reported should not be rounded.
Both interval and a best single value can be provided togethe, for example where the interval coming
from modelling is quite large (e.g. minimum and maximum values) and an expert evaluation of the
actual surface area of habitat is also available. The expert evaluation of modelling results can result in
a more accurate single value to be used in the EU assessments. In other situations, the point estimate
(best single value) is available and Member State wishes to provide the confidence limits. The
confidence interval can be entered in the minimum and maximum fields. If both, interval and best
single values are provided this should be explained in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
5.3
Type of estimate
The type of estimate for the reported interval in fields 5.2(a) and (b) or the best single value in field
5.2(c) should be outlined here. The options for reporting this are:
best estimate – the best available single figure (including where only the maximum value of
the area covered by habitat is available) or interval, derived from e.g. a survey or a model, a
compilation of figures from localities or expert opinion, but for which 95 % confidence limits
could not be calculated. Whether a best estimate comes from the monitoring data, modelling
or from an expert opinion should be assessed in field 5.4;
95 % confidence interval – estimates derived from sample surveys or a model in which 95 %
confidence interval could be calculated;
minimum – where insufficient data exist to provide even a loosely bounded population size
estimate, but where a population size is known to be above certain value, or where the
reported interval comes from a sample survey or monitoring project which probably
underestimates the real population size.
If both interval (field 5.2(a) ‘Minimum’ and field 5.2(b) ‘Maximum’) and a single value (field 5.2(c)
‘Best single value’) are provided, field 5.3 ‘Type of estimate’ should correspond to the more accurate
estimate. This should be noted in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
5.4
Surface area – Method used
This field is used to detail the methodology used for calculating habitat area in field 5.2. Choose one
of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. complete habitat mapping or data
from previous habitat mapping updated with robust monitoring data on trends);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. using modelling or
extrapolation from surveys of parts of the habitat distribution; using data from previous
complete habitat mapping updated with good trend data);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
If both interval (field 5.2(a) ‘Minimum’ and field 5.2(b) ‘Maximum’) and a single value (field 5.2(c)
‘Best single value’) are provided, field 5.4 ‘Method used’ should correspond to the more accurate
estimate. This should be noted in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.

 
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5.5
Short-term trend period
Give the dates of the beginning and end of the period for which the trend has been reported. The
short-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 12 years (two reporting cycles). For the 2013–
2018 reports, this means the period is 2007–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Thus, some
flexibility is permitted, so that while trends would ideally be reported for 2007–2018, data from e.g.
2004–2015 will be accepted if the best available data relate to surveys in those years.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)
.
The short-term trend should be used for the assessment. Any large-scale deviation from this should
be explained under field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
5.6
Short-term trend direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The trend in area covered by
habitat shows changes in the overall area covered by the habitat. Although rare for habitat area, the
fluctuation (or oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not
a trend.
Indicate if the habitat trend over the reported period in field 5.4 was:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Report ‘uncertain’ if some data are available but they are not enough to accurately determine
direction. Use ‘unknown’ where there are no data available.
The short-term trend information is used in the evaluation matrix to assess the conservation status.
Any large-scale deviation from this should be explained in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
If there is an apparent change in direction of the trend resulting from a change in monitoring
methodology or improved knowledge about the habitat distribution, it should not be considered a
trend. This apparent change should be indicated in field 5.14 ‘Change and reason for change in
surface area’.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
5.7
Short-term trend magnitude (optional)
If possible, quantify the percentage change (with range at the beginning of the reporting period as
100 %) over the period reported in field 5.4. It can be given as a precise figure (e.g. 27 %) or a banded
range (e.g. 20–30 %). If a precise figure is available give the same value under ‘minimum’ and
‘maximum’ (fields 5.6(a) and (b)). Where a statistically robust method has been used (see field 5.7)
please provide the confidence interval (e.g. 95 %) in field 5.6(c) with the upper and lower CI limits in
fields 5.6(a) and 5.6(b) respectively.

 
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5.8
Short-term trend – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. a dedicated monitoring of a habitat
area with good statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from data
collected from a limited number of sample sites; trends extrapolated from data collected for
other purposes; trends extrapolated from some other indirect measurements, such as land-
cover changes);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
5.9
Long-term trend period (optional)
The long-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 24 years (four reporting cycles). For the
2013–2018 reports, this means the period is 1994–2018 or a period as close as possible to this.
Indicate the period in this field. For the 2013–2018 reports, this information, together with fields
5.10 to 5.12, is optional.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)
.
For guidance in filling in field
5.10 ‘Long-term trend direction’
, field
5.11 ‘Long-term trend
magnitude’
and field
5.12 ‘Long-term trend – Method used’
, see fields 5.6 to 5.8 (short-term
trends).
5.13
Favourable reference area
Favourable reference area is the surface area in a given biogeographical region considered the
minimum necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the habitat type; this should include
necessary areas for restoration or development for those habitat types for which the present
coverage is not sufficient to ensure long-term viability. This information is needed to undertake the
evaluation of conservation status using the evaluation matrix (Annex C). In many cases it is not
possible to estimate a value for favourable reference area (option (a)) but it is clear that the
favourable reference area is greater (or much greater or, in exceptional situations, lower) than the
present-day value. Using operators (option (b)) ‘greater than’ (>), ‘much greater than’ (>>) or ‘lower
than’(<) is preferable to reporting a parameter as ‘unknown’.
The following information is requested:
a) area in km²;
b) if operators (≈, >, >>, <) were used for the assessment, indicate here with the relevant
symbol (≈ ‘approximately equal to’, > ‘more than’, >> ‘much more than’, < ‘less than’);
c) if there are no data on the area covered by the habitat, use ‘x’ for the reference area;
d) indicate the method used to set the reference value (free-text field).
The field ‘indicate method used’ (d) is mandatory if (a) area is provided, but Member States are
encouraged to describe the method used also when (b) operators were used.

 
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If an operator is used to estimate a favourable reference area, it should be compared with the
minimum estimate of surface area given in field 5.2.
The operator ‘less than’ (<) can be used only in special cases, such as for the habitat type ‘7120
Degraded raised bog still capable of natural regeneration’ or due to a restoration project which
results in the change of a non-priority habitat type into a priority habitat type. If used, an explanation
must be provided in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
The use of (b) operators should help to reduce the use of ‘unknown’ to a minimum:
if an operator (b) is used, then there is no need to insert a value in field 5.13(a) area in km²;
operators indicate that the reference value is ‘approximately equal to’, ‘more than’, ‘much
more than’ or ‘less than’ the current value provided in field 5.2 ‘Surface area (area covered
by habitat)’;
if the value is provided for area in km² (a) no operator should be used.
Where the reference value has changed in comparison to the previous reporting period, the reason
for this should be explained in field 5.15 ‘Additional information’.
Favourable reference values and the use of operators are discussed in more detail in ‘
Favourable
reference value
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’)
.
5.14
Change and reason for change in surface area
This field is used to indicate if there is any change since the previous reporting period (2007–2012) in
the area covered by habitat reported and, if so, to describe the nature of this change.
First answer the question: ‘Is there a change between reporting periods’ (i.e. is area covered by
habitat different from the last reporting period)? YES/NO.
If the answer is ‘Yes’, indicate which of the following options apply (it is possible to reply ‘Yes’ to
more than one of the options a–c, but at least one option ‘Yes’ must be selected for options a–d)
43
:
a) yes, due to genuine change;
b) yes, due to improved knowledge or more accurate data;
c)
yes, due to the use of a different method (including use of different thresholds);
d) yes, but there is no information on the nature of change.
Finally, indicate whether any difference is mainly due to (select one option):
genuine change;
improved knowledge or more accurate data;
the use of a different method.
43
In some cases the actual value reported for area covered by habitat has increased, reflecting both a genuine
increase in area (positive trend) and better knowledge or data. Both options (‘genuine change’ and ‘improved
knowledge or more accurate data’) above should be selected. In other situations the actual value reported for
area covered by habitat has increased since the previous period due to better knowledge or data.
Nevertheless, it may still be clear that the habitat area is actually declining, based on analyses of data from
sites. The option ‘improved knowledge or more accurate data’ above should be selected. Field 5.15 ‘Additional
information’ allows a Member State to provide further details on why an area estimate has increased, even
though an area decline is reported.

 
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If a Member State wishes to give further information, this can be done in field 5.15 ‘Additional
information’.
5.15
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on habitat area can be reported
here as free text (for example, information on the need to reflect fragmentation in setting favourable
reference area).
6
Structure and functions
This section provides information on the proportion of the habitat area in ‘good’ and ‘not-good’
condition, its trends, and typical species. Habitat structure is considered to be the physical
components of a habitat which will more than likely be formed by species both living and dead, but
can also include abiotic features.
Complementary information on structure and functions of habitat can be found in Section
6 Structure and functions (including typical species)
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat
reporting’)
.
6.1
Condition of habitat
Provide the area (km²) of habitat with ‘good’, ‘not-good’ and ‘unknown’ condition. The condition of
the habitat at the biogeographical level is reported as:
a) area in good condition;
b) area in not-good condition;
c)
area where condition is not known.
The area is reported in km² and can be reported as a range (minimum and maximum); if a precise
value is known this value should be reported for both the ‘minimum’ and ‘maximum’ fields.
Further information on estimating habitat area in ‘good’/’not good’ condition can be found in Section
Condition of habitat type
’ (in ‘6 Structure and functions (including typical species)’ chapter in
‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’ part)
.
6.2
Condition of habitat – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. complete habitat mapping including
information on habitat conditions, or complete habitat mapping combined with robust
extrapolation of habitat conditions or previous complete inventory updated with information
from robust monitoring);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. using modelling or
extrapolation from detailed surveys of parts of the habitat distribution);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.

 
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6.3
Short-term trend of habitat area in good condition – Period
Give the dates of the beginning and end of the period for which the trend has been reported. The
short-term trend should be evaluated over a period of 12 years (two reporting cycles). For the 2013–
2018 reports, this means the period is 2007–2018 or a period as close as possible to this. Thus, some
flexibility is permitted, so that while trends would ideally be reported for 2007–2018, data from e.g.
2004–2015 will be accepted if the best available data relate to surveys in those years.
Further guidance is given in Section ‘
Trends
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
6.4
Short-term trend of habitat area in good condition – Direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The trend of habitat area in
good condition should inform on changes in proportions between the habitat areas in good and not-
good condition. Although rare in the case of range of habitat area, fluctuation (or oscillation) is not a
directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not a trend.
Indicate if the habitat trend over the reported period in field 6.3 was:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Report ‘uncertain’ if some data were available but they were not enough to accurately determine
direction. Use ‘unknown’ where there are no data available.
The short-term trend information is used in the evaluation matrix to assess the conservation status.
Any large-scale deviation from this should be explained in field 6.8 ‘Additional information’.
If there is an apparent change in direction of the trend resulting from a change in monitoring
methodology or improved knowledge about the habitat condition, it should
not
be considered a
trend. An apparent change should be indicated in field 6.8 ‘Additional information’, and the trend
should be reported as ‘unknown’, unless other information also clearly shows a trend.
6.5
Short-term trend of habitat area in good condition – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. dedicated monitoring of a habitat’s
condition with good statistical power);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. trends derived from data
collected from a limited number of sample sites; trends extrapolated from data collected for
other purposes; trends extrapolated from some other indirect measurements, such as shrub
coverage);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.

 
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6.6
Typical species
The typical species of the habitat are reported as they are used to assess whether a habitat is at FCS.
These are species which occur regularly in the habitat type (as opposed to occasionally occurring
species) and are species which are good indicators of favourable habitat quality. The list of ‘typical
species’ chosen for the purpose of assessing conservation status should ideally remain stable over
the medium to long term, i.e. across reporting periods. Typical species may be drawn from any
species group. The choice of species should not be restricted to the species listed in Annexes II, IV
and V of the Habitats Directive.
Indicate if the list of typical species has changed since the previous reporting period (Yes or No).
If the list of ‘typical species’ has changed, then an additional spreadsheet with an updated list is
requested. The spreadsheet should follow the specifications provided on the Reference Portal
44
. Only
Latin names should be used. It is recommended to use names from the Pan-European Species
directories Infrastructure (PESI
45
) Catalogue of Life (CoL
46
), Eur+Med PlantBase
47
, or another
international or regional taxonomical reference.
An extensive definition of typical species (and structure and functions) can be found in Section
Typical Species
’ (in ‘6 Structure and functions (including typical species)’ chapter in ‘Definitions and
methods for habitat reporting’ part).
6.7
Typical species – Method used (optional)
This field allows for changes in the methodology for recording typical species to be noted.
If ‘No’ was chosen in field 6.6, there is no requirement to complete field 6.7.
6.8
Additional information (optional)
Additional information can be provided as free text to help understand the information given on the
condition of the habitat or typical species.
7
Main pressures and threats
This section provides information on main pressures and threats. A list of pressures and/or threats
should be provided and for each pressure/threat a ranking of its impact on the conservation status of
habitat is also required.
Pressures have acted within the current reporting period and they have an impact on the long-term
viability of the habitat and its typical species; threats are future/foreseeable impacts (within the next
two reporting periods) that are likely to affect the long-term viability of the habitat and its typical
species (see Table 10). The threats should not cover theoretical threats, but rather those issues
judged to be reasonably likely. This may include continuation of pressures
44
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45
http://www.eu-nomen.eu/
46
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/
47
http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

 
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Table 10:
Definition of pressure and threat (in the context of Article 17 reporting)
Period of action/definition
Time-frame
Pressure
Acting now and/or during (any part of or all
of) the current reporting period.
Current six-year reporting period.
Threat
Factors expected to act in the future after the
current reporting period.
Future two reporting periods, i.e. within
12 years following the end of the current
reporting period.
7.1
Characterisation of pressures/threats
Provide the list of pressures and/or threats and a ranking of their impact: list a maximum of 10
pressures and a maximum of 10 threats. Only pressures/threats of high (‘H’) and of medium (‘M’)
importance, as defined in Table 11, should be reported.
For each habitat:
a) Select from the list of pressures/threats, a maximum of 10 entries for each of pressures and
threats using the code at the second level of the hierarchical list. The list of pressures and
threats is available on the Reference Portal
48
.
b) For each pressure and threat, indicate its ranking, i.e. ‘H’ for High, ‘M’ for Medium, under
both ‘Pressure’ and ‘Threat’. For example, if a factor selected from the list represents both a
pressure and a threat, ‘H’ or ‘M’ should be reported under both headings as appropriate. If it
represents a pressure but not a threat, ‘H’ or ‘M’ should be reported under ‘Pressure’ and
‘Threat’ left blank. A maximum of five high-level pressures and five high-level threats should
be noted. This will make it possible to identify the most important factors at a European
scale.
Table 11:
Definition of High and Medium ranked pressures/threats
Code
Meaning
Comment
H
High
importance/impact
Important direct or immediate influence and/or acting over large areas (a
pressure is the major cause or one of the major causes, if acting in
combination with other pressures, of significant decline of surface area of
habitat, range or area of habitat with good conditions; or pressure acting
over large areas preventing the habitat from being restored to Favourable
conservation status at the biogeographical scale).
M
Medium
importance/impact
Medium direct or immediate influence, mainly indirect influence and/or
acting over moderate part of the area/acting only regionally (other
pressure not directly or immediately causing significant declines).
The impact of the pressure should reflect the influence of a pressure or threat on conservation status
of the habitat. Only pressures having important direct or immediate influence on one or several
parameters of conservation status at the biogeographical scale (causing significant decline or
deterioration or preventing habitat from reaching favourable status, see Table 11) should be ranked
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as ‘high’. However, it is likely that habitats with Favourable conservation status or where only very
localised or slight declines were recorded will not have high importance pressures (unless the
pressures are counteracted with measures). The maximum number of ‘high’ ranked pressures and/or
threats that can be reported is five, even if more could be considered. This, together with any other
information related to pressures and threats, can be noted in field 7.3 ‘Additional information’
Table 12 provides an example of pressures and threats characterisation using a maximum of five
pressures of High importance.
Table 12:
An example of pressures and threats characterisation
Characterisation of pressures
/
threats
a) Pressure/threat
List a maximum of 10 pressures and a maximum of 10 threats
using the code list provided on the Reference Portal
b) Ranking of pressure/threat
Indicate whether the pressure/threat is
of:
H = high importance (maximum 5
entries for pressures and 5 entries for
threats)
M = medium importance
Pressure
Threat
A14 Application of synthetic fertilisers
H
H
A22 Active abstractions from groundwater, surface water or
mixed water for agriculture
M
-
B05 Clear-cutting, removal of all trees
H
M
D01 Roads, paths railroads and related infrastructure (e.g.
bridges, viaducts, tunnels)
H
H
D05 Electricity and communication infrastructure (e.g. phone
lines, masts and antennas)
H
M
E01 Conversion from other land uses to housing and
settlement areas (excl. drainage)
M
H
I02 Problematic native plants and animals
H
H
K04 Natural processes of eutrophication or acidification
-
M
Note that the example is only illustrative since it uses draft codes that may not be retained as such in the final
list of pressures and threats.
Habitats can be affected by pressures and threats originating from outside the Member State (e.g.
pollution or nitrogen deposition). The list of pressures and threats has codes for transboundary effect
of pressures and threats: ‘XO threats and pressures from outside the Member State’ and ‘XE threats
and pressures from outside the EU territory’.
More detailed guidance on reporting pressure/threats is provided in Section ‘
7
Main
pressures
and threats
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’) and in the notes in the list of
pressures and threats available from the Reference Portal.

 
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7.2
Sources of information (optional)
Provide sources of information relevant to Section 7 (optional) with URL, metadata, or supporting
evidence for the highest ranking pressures only (i.e. High importance).
7.3
Additional information (optional)
This is an optional field to provide any additional information on the nature of a certain
pressure/threat.
8
Conservation measures
This section concerns information on conservation measures, including management plans, taken to
maintain or to restore the habitats at Favourable conservation status. The section contains a list of
measures and their evaluation. The evaluation is an overall assessment and not a measure-by-
measure evaluation.
8.1
Status of measures
Select whether measures are needed or not. If the answer is ‘Yes, measures are needed’, then
proceed to answer the following three questions:
a) measures identified but none yet taken? (YES/NO); or
b) measures identified and taken? (YES/NO); or
c)
measures needed but cannot be identified? (YES/NO).
Measures may be implemented at different points in time. Choose option (a) if the majority of the
most important measures identified have not yet been taken, choose option (b) if the majority of the
most important measures have already been or are being implemented.
8.2
Main purpose of the measures taken
Indicate the main purpose of the measures taken. This part should only be filled in if the conservation
measures have been taken (field 8.1(b) ‘Measures identified and taken’ is marked ‘Yes’). Even if
several purposes can be identified, please indicate only the main one in terms of implementing the
measures:
a) maintain the current range, surface area or structure and functions of the habitat type;
b) expand the current range of the habitat type (related to ‘Range’);
c) increase the surface area of the habitat type (related to ‘Area covered by habitat’);
d) restore the structure and functions, including the status of typical species (related to ‘Specific
structure and functions’).
8.3
Location of the measures taken
Indicate where the measures are mostly being implemented. This part should only be filled in if the
conservation measures have been taken (field 8.1(b) ‘Measures identified and taken’ is marked
‘Yes’):
a) only inside Natura 2000;
b) both inside and outside Natura 2000;
c)
only outside Natura 2000.

 
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This field tries to capture where the main focus of the conservation action is taking place. Therefore,
choose option (a) if all, or the vast majority, of the conservation measures are restricted to Natura
2000, option (b) if there is a proportional investment in the implementation of measures inside and
outside Natura 2000, and option (c) if all, or the vast majority, of the measures are taken outside
Natura 2000.
8.4
Response to the measures
Provide an estimate of when the measures taken will start, or are expected to start, to neutralise the
pressure and to produce positive effects (with regard to the main purpose of the measures indicated
in field 8.2). Choose one option from:
a) short-term results (within the current reporting period, 2013–2018);
b) medium-term results (within the next two reporting periods, 2019–2030);
c)
long-term results (after 2030).
8.5
List of main conservation measures
List a maximum of 10 conservation measures using the code that is provided on the Reference
Portal
49
.
More detailed guidance on the use of conservation measures is provided in Section ‘
8 Conservation
measures
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’) and in the notes in the list of
conservation measures available from the Reference Portal.
8.6
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information given on conservation measures can be
reported here.
9
Future Prospects
This section provides information on the future prospects of three parameters (Range, Area, and
Structure and functions). Future prospects indicate the direction of expected change in conservation
status in the near future based on a consideration of the current status, reported pressures and
threats, and measures being taken for each of the other three parameters (Range, Area, and
Structure and functions).
9.1
Future prospects of parameters
For each parameter (Range, Area, and Structure and functions), indicate if the prospects are ‘good’,
‘poor’, ‘bad’ or ‘unknown’. Future prospects of each of the three parameters should principally
reflect the future trends which are the result of the balance between threats and conservation
measures. The future prospects should be assessed in relation to the current conservation status. For
example, the impact of future improvement on the assessment of future prospects of a parameter
will be different if the current status is ‘favourable’ or ‘unfavourable-bad’.
An evaluation method is provided in Section ’
Assessing future prospects
’ (in ‘9 Future prospects’
chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’ part).
49
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9.2
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand how Future prospects were assessed can be reported
here.
10
Conclusions
This section includes the assessment of conservation status at the end of the reporting period in the
concerned biogeographical region or marine region. It is derived from the matrix in Annex E.
Give the result of the assessment for each parameter of conservation status using the four categories
available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’
(XX).
The conservation status of parameters is assessed using the criteria in the evaluation matrix (Annex E
of the Report format). Sections 10.1 to 10.5 provide an overview of the assessment criteria for each
of the parameters. In addition, several complementary assumptions and criteria are outlined in these
guidelines, which aim at harmonising and facilitating the assessment of conservation status. For each
parameter these complementary assumptions and criteria are summarised under the heading
‘Complementary remarks’.
10.1
Range
Give the result of the assessment of the status for Range using the four categories available:
‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’ (XX).
Conservation status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Range is ‘favourable’ if:
the trend is stable (loss and expansion in balance) or increasing; and
range surface area (field 4.1) is not smaller than the favourable reference
range (field 4.10).
Complementary remarks:
The trend over the short-term trend period (field 4.2) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Range is ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
1. The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ status of Range. However, taking into account the criteria for ‘favourable’
and ‘unfavourable-bad’, the status of Range should be considered as ‘unfavourable-
inadequate’ if:
a decline equivalent to a loss of less than 1 % per year; or
range surface area (field 4.1) is less than 10 % below favourable reference
range (field 4.10).

 
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2. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 4.2) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Range is ‘unfavourable-bad’
if:
a large decline equivalent to a loss of more than 1 % per year within the
period specified by the Member State; or
range surface area (field 4.1) is more than 10 % below favourable reference
range (field 4.10).
Complementary remarks:
The trend over the short-term trend period (field 4.2) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Range is ‘unknown’ if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
10.2
Area
Give the result of the assessment of the status for Area covered by the habitat using the four
categories available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and
‘unknown’ (XX).
Conservation status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Area covered by habitat is
‘favourable’ if:
the trend is stable (loss and expansion in balance) or increasing; and
area covered by habitat (field 5.2) is not smaller than the favourable reference
area (field 5.13); and
there are no significant changes in distribution pattern within the range.
Complementary remarks:
1. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 5.5) should should be used for the
status assessment.
2. There may be situations where the habitat area has decreased during the short-term
trend period (field 5.5) as a result of management measures (e.g. to restore another
Annex I habitat or the habitat of an Annex II species). The habitat area could still be
considered at Favourable conservation status, but in such cases give details in field
10.8 ‘Additional information’.
3. For dynamic habitats such as shifting dunes the habitat area may have decreased
during the short-term trend period (field 5.5), but due to the dynamic nature of the
habitat this does not represent a permanent loss of the habitat area. In this situation
the habitat area could still be assessed as ’favourable’ but details should be given in
field 10.8.

 
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Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Area covered by habitat is
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
1. The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Area covered by habitat. However, taking into account the criteria for
‘favourable’ and ‘unfavourable-bad’ the status of area covered by habitat should be
considered as ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
a decline equivalent to a loss of less than 1 % per year; or
area covered by habitat (field 5.2) is less than 10 % below favourable
reference area (field 5.13); or
small losses in distribution pattern within range.
2. The trend over the short-term trend period (field 5.5) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Area covered by habitat is
‘unfavourable-bad’ if:
a large decrease equivalent to a loss of more than 1 % per year within the
period specified by the Member State; or
major losses in distribution pattern within range; or
area covered by habitat (field 5.2) is more than 10 % below favourable
reference area (field 5.13)
Complementary remarks:
The trend over the short-term trend period (field 5.5) should be used for the status
assessment.
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Area covered by habitat is
‘unknown’ if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
10.3
Specific structure and functions (including typical species)
Give the result of the assessment of the status for Structure and functions using the four categories
available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’
(XX).
Conservation
status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Structure and functions is
‘favourable’ if:
structure and functions (including typical species) are in good condition; and
and there are no significant deteriorations/pressures.

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Complementary remarks:
1. The evaluation matrix states that if more than 25 % of the habitat type area in the
region being assessed is considered ‘unfavourable’ (i.e. not in good condition), then the
status of Structure and functions is ‘unfavourable-bad’. However, it does not give
numerical criteria for ‘favourable’ or ‘unfavourable-inadequate’. It appears that in
previous reports Member States have used very different thresholds of the proportion of
habitat area that must be in good condition to justify assessing Structure and functions
as ‘favourable’. Ideally, the entire area of a habitat type should be in good condition for
Structure and functions to be considered ‘favourable’. However, this is hardly achievable
in practice and it could be acceptable to have part of the habitat type in ‘not-good’
condition, but still consider Structure and functions to be assessed as ‘favourable’.
It is recommended to use an indicative value of 90 % of the habitat type area (field 6.1)
in ‘good’ condition as the threshold to conclude on ‘favourable’ Structure and functions.
If Member State uses a different value, this should be noted and explained in field
10.8 Additional information’. This indicative value could, for example, be adapted
according to the rarity/abundance of the habitat type (for more guidance see Section
Condition of habitat type
’ (in ‘6 Structure and functions (including typical species)’
chapter in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’ part).
2. Although it is not stated clearly in the evaluation matrix, the trend (trend in area in
good condition (field 6.4)) must be stable or increasing for Structure and functions to be
considered ‘favourable’.
3. Although a full assessment of the conservation status of each typical species is not
required, the typical species overall should be ‘favourable’ (not threatened), at least in
this habitat, as species can be typical of more than one habitat.
4. For a habitat to be considered ‘favourable’, fragmentation or other conditions are not
impacting significantly on ecological processes.
5. It is possible that restoration has increased the area of habitat, but has decreased the
proportion of habitat in ‘not good’ condition, as the restored area is not yet in ‘good’
condition. In such cases, if the area in ‘good’ condition is less than 90 % of the habitat
area, the habitat should not be ‘favourable’ for the parameter Structure and functions
(see above, point 1). Such cases are most likely to arise where the habitat area is lower
than the reference value and the overall conservation status would have been
‘unfavourable’ regardless of Structure and functions.
Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Structure and functions is
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
1. The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Structure and functions. However, taking into account the criteria for
‘favourable’ and ‘unfavourable-bad’ and complementary criteria for ‘favourable’ status,
the status of Structure and functions should be considered as ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
if:
the area of habitat with ‘unfavourable’ (‘not good’) condition (field 6.1) is less
than 25 %; and

 
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the area of habitat with ‘good’ condition (field 6.1) is less than 90 %; and
the area of habitat with ‘unknown’ condition (field 6.1) is less than 75 %.
Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Structure and functions is
‘unfavourable-bad’ if:
more than 25 % of the area is unfavourable (‘not good’ in field 6.1) as regards its
specific structure and functions (including typical species).
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Structure and functions is
‘unknown’ if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
Complementary remarks:
The status of Structure and functions should be considered ‘unknown’ if more than 75 %
of habitat area has ‘unknown’ condition (field 6.1).
10.4
Future prospects
Give the result of the assessment of the status of Future prospects using the four categories
available: ‘favourable’ (FV), ‘unfavourable-inadequate’ (U1), ‘unfavourable-bad’ (U2) and ‘unknown’
(XX).
Conservation
status
Assessment criteria
Favourable (FV)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Future prospects is
‘favourable’ if:
no significant impact from threats to habitat is expected and its long-term
viability is assured.
Complementary remarks:
The Future prospects should be assessed as ‘favourable’ if all parameters have good
prospects (field 9.1), or the prospects of one parameter are ‘unknown’ while the other
parameters have good prospects. The matrix for combining the prospects of three
parameters to give overall status of Future prospects is provided in
Table 33: Combining
the evaluation of the three parameters to give Future prospects for a habitat type
in
Section ’9 Future prospects’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
Unfavourable-
inadequate (U1)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Future prospects is
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if:
any other combination (other combination of criteria than for ‘favourable’ or
‘unfavourable-bad’).
Complementary remarks:
The evaluation matrix does not include explicit criteria for ‘unfavourable-inadequate’
status of Future prospects. However, taking into account the method for assessing the
Future prospects proposed in these guidelines, the status should be considered
‘unfavourable-inadequate’ if the prospects of one or more parameters (field 9.1) are
‘poor’, none has ‘bad’ prospects and there is at most one parameter with ‘unknown’
prospects.

 
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Unfavourable-bad
(U2)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Future prospects is
‘unfavourable-bad’ if:
severe impacts from pressures and threats to the habitat are expected,
prospects for its future are ‘bad’ and long-term viability is not assured.
Complementary remarks:
The Future prospects should be assessed as ‘unfavourable-bad’ if one or more
parameters have ‘bad’ prospects (field 9.1).
Unknown (XX)
According to the evaluation matrix (Annex E) the status of Future prospects is ‘unknown’
if:
there is no or insufficient reliable information available.
Complementary remarks:
The Future prospects should be assessed as ‘unknown’ if two or more parameters have
‘unknown’ prospects and no parameters have ‘bad’ prospects (field 9.1).
10.5
Overall assessment of conservation status
Give the result of the overall assessment of conservation status using the four categories available:
‘favourable’, ‘unfavourable-inadequate’, ‘unfavourable-bad’ and ‘unknown’, based on the evaluation
matrix for assessing conservation status for a habitat.
Status of
parameters
All ‘favourable’, or
three ‘favourable’ and
one ‘unknown’
One or more
‘inadequate’, but
no ‘bad’
One or more
‘bad’
Two or more
‘unknown’ combined
with ‘favourable’ or all
‘unknown’
Overall
assessment of CS
‘favourable’
‘unfavourable-
inadequate’
‘unfavourable-
bad’
‘unknown’
10.6
Overall trend in conservation status
If the overall conservation status reported in field 10.5 is ‘favourable’, ‘inadequate’ or ‘bad’, indicate
the trend (qualifier) as follows:
improving / deteriorating / stable / unknown.
The qualifier should be based on trends (for Range, Area covered by habitat, and Structure and
functions) over the reporting period (2013–2018). As the trends over the reporting period are often
not available, reported short-term trends can be used to assess the trend in the conservation status,
unless there is evidence that the trend during the reporting period is different than a measured
short-term trend (e.g. if after past decline of habitat over the reporting period 2007–2012 the trend
has stabilised, the qualifier should be assessed as ‘stable’ even though the trend in habitat area is
‘decreasing’; this should be explained in field 10.8 ‘Additional information’). The (short-term) trends
should be combined using Table 13 below.

 
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Table 13: Assessing overall trend in conservation status of a habitat by combining trends for
parameters
Short-term trend of parameters (Range, Area of
habitat, Structure and functions
Overall trend in CS
Number
increasing
Number
stable
Number
decreasing
Number
unknown
3
0
0
0
Improving
(Only increasing and stable trends)
2
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
Stable
(Only stable trends or stable and increasing
dominates (there is at least one increasing and
only one unknown or decreasing))
*
Trend magnitude should also be considered.
The overall trend in CS is stable only in case of
moderate declines (< 1 % per year).
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
1
1
1*
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
3
0
Deteriorating
(Decreasing trends dominate)
* Trend magnitude should also be considered.
The overall trend in CS is declining only in case
of important declines (> 1 % per year).
1
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
1
1
1*
0
0
0
0
3
Unknown
(Unknown trends dominate)
1
0
0
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
Note: ‘unknown’ in the table above includes both ‘unknown’ and ‘uncertain’.
10.7
Change and reasons for change in conservation status and conservation
status trend
This field is used to indicate if there is any change since the previous reporting period (2007–2012) in
conservation status and/or in trend in conservation status and, if so, what the reason for this change
is.
First answer the question ‘(a) no, there is no difference’ (Yes if there is a difference and No if there is
not) separately for overall assessment of conservation status and overall trend in conservation
status.

 
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If the answer to the initial question is ‘Yes’, indicate which of the following options apply (separately
for overall assessment of conservation status and overall trend in conservation status; it is possible to
reply ‘Yes’ to more than one of the options b-d, but at least one option ‘Yes’ must be selected for
options b-e):
b) yes, due to genuine change;
c)
yes, due to improved knowledge/more accurate data;
d) yes, due to the use of different method;
e) yes, but there is no information on the nature of change.
Finally, it should be indicated (separately for overall assessment of conservation status and overall
trend in conservation status) whether any difference is mainly due to:
genuine change;
improved knowledge or more accurate data;
the use of a different method.
If a Member State wishes to give further information, this can be done in field 10.8 ‘Additional
information’.
10.8
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand the information in fields 10.1 to 10.7.
11
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs, SACs) coverage for Annex I habitat
types
This section provides information on surface area of habitat and trend of surface area in good
condition within the Natura 2000 network. The requested information should cover the proposed
Sites of Community Importance (pSCIs), the Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special Areas
of Conservation (SACs) of the Natura 2000 network within the biogeographical/marine region
concerned.
The information relates to all pSCIs/SCIs/SACs where the habitat is present, not only those sites
where the habitat is declared as a target habitat or a conservation objective.
See background information in Section ‘
11
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage for
Annex I habitat types
’ (in ‘Definitions and methods for habitat reporting’).
11.1
Surface area of the habitat type inside the pSCIs, SCIs and SACs network
Indicate the surface area of the habitat type within the network in the biogeographical or marine
region concerned, including all the sites where the habitat type is present. Follow the same guidance
as for the surface area of the habitat in field 5.2.

 
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11.2
Type of estimate
The type of estimate for the reported interval in field 11.1(a) and (b) or the best single value in field
11.1(c) should be outlined here. The options for reporting this are: best estimate, 95 % confidence
interval, and minimum.
Follow the same guidance as for the ‘Type of estimate’ for the surface area covered by the habitat
(field 5.3).
11.3
Surface area of the habitat type inside the network – Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate (e.g. complete habitat mapping or data
from previous habitat mapping updated with robust monitoring data on trends);
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data (e.g. using modelling or
extrapolation from surveys of parts of the habitat distribution; using data from previous
complete habitat mapping updated with good trend data; using models);
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most important source of data.
Follow the same guidance as for field 5.4 ‘Surface area – Method used’ for the area covered by the
habitat.
11.4
Short-term trend of habitat area in good condition within the network –
Direction
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. The trend of habitat area in
good condition should inform on changes in proportions between the habitat areas in good and not-
good condition within the Natura 2000 network. Although rare in the case of range of habitat area,
fluctuation (or oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not
a trend.
Indicate whether the trend of habitat area in good condition is:
stable / increasing / decreasing / uncertain / unknown.
Short-term trend within the Natura 2000 network should be assessed over the period indicated in
field 6.3.

 
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11.5
Short-term trend of habitat area in good condition within the network –
Method used
Choose one of the following categories:
a) complete survey or a statistically robust estimate;
b) based mainly on extrapolation from a limited amount of data;
c)
based mainly on expert opinion with very limited data;
d) insufficient or no data available.
Only one category can be chosen; where data have been compiled from a variety of sources, choose
the category for the most im portant source of data.
11.6
Additional information (optional)
Additional information to help understand Natura 2000 coverage can be reported here.
12
Complementary information
This section is optional and is a place to include any additional information.
12.1
Justification of % thresholds for trends (optional)
The indicative suggested threshold for a large decline given in the evaluation matrix (Annex E) is 1 %
per year. If another threshold has been used for the assessment please give details, including an
explanation of why.
12.2
Other relevant information (optional)
Include any other information thought relevant to the habitat report and to assessing conservation
status.

 
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ANNEX E – EVALUATION MATRIX FOR ASSESSING CONSERVATION
STATUS OF A HABITAT
The matrix is an aid to assessing the conservation status of a habitat. It shall be used for each
biogeographical or marine region in which the habitat is present. The results of using the matrix have
to be provided in Section ‘
10
Conclusions
’ (in ‘Field-by-field guidance for habitat reports’).

 
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PART 2. DEFINITIONS AND METHODS
This part of these guidelines provides complementary information to the guidance in Part 1 (The
Report format field-by-field guidance). It elaborates on the concepts and gives definitions (for more
conceptual assessments, such as Structure and functions, Favourable reference values), assessment
methods (e.g. for Future prospects), and, where relevant, worked examples (best practice). It is
largely based on the guidance from the 2007–2012 reporting period
50
, but several sections have been
revised.
DEFINITIONS AND METHODS FOR SPECIES REPORTING
Species to be reported
This chapter provides complementary information to the guidance provided in Section ‘
Species to be
reported
’ (in ‘Field-by-field guidance for species reports’).
Taxonomical changes and names to be used for reporting
Several species listed in the Annexes of the Habitats Directive have been recently revised from a
taxonomical point of view, and are now considered to be two or more species.
Conversely, other
species listed in the Annexes are now included in other newly defined species often losing their
specific or even subspecific status. A common taxonomic understanding of the taxa by all Member
States concerned is essential for merging the Member States’ reports in order to produce an EU-level
assessment of their conservation status. The basic rule in aligning the species to be reported with the
current taxonomy is to report at the species level in line with current understanding of the
taxonomy, bearing in mind how a species was understood by the legislator at the time when the
Annexes of the Directive were drafted or amended.
As a general principle, in situations where the species listed in the Directive was split into several
other species wherever feasible (e.g. the species can be determined in the field), there should be one
Article 17 report for each currently recognised species. For example, the Directive lists
Euproctus
asper
, but following a taxonomical revision this is now considered to be two species, under a
different genus name, i.e
. Calotriton asper
and
C. arnoldi
, and there should be a report for each of
these taxa – as indicated in the species checklist.
In some exceptional situations a joint report covering more than one currently recognised species
should be provided. This includes the following situations:
scientific uncertainty on validity of newly described taxa; or
diverging opinions on species taxonomy; or
lack of clarity concerning the species taxonomy; or
problems with determination of newly described species which cannot be resolved in due
time.
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%20Guidelines-final.pdf

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Table 14 provides an overview of the species listed in the Directive for which a separate or joint
report is expected for currently recognised species. As there is no up-to-date taxonomical reference
covering all species groups in Europe, the list of species in this table is based on available scientific
literature and available information from global and regional taxonomical references and proposals
by Member States.
Table 14:
Species listed in the Directive for which separate or joint reports are expected for
currently recognised species (more detailed information and possible updates of this table can be
found on the Reference Portal
51
)
Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Plants
Aquilegia bertolonii
Aquilegia bertolonii
Aquilegia reuteri
Separate reports
Plants
Centranthus trinervis
Centranthus amazonum
Centranthus trinervis
Separate reports
Plants
Melanoselinum decipiens
Angelica lignescens
Melanoselinum decipiens
Separate reports
Plants
Narcissus longispathus
Narcissus longispathus
Narcissus segurensis
Narcissus yepesii
Separate reports
Plants
Sideroxylon marmulano
Sideroxylon canariensis
Sideroxylon mirmulans
Separate reports
Molluscs
Congeria kusceri
Congeria jalzici
Congeria kusceri
Separate reports
Molluscs
Discus guerinianus
Atlantica calathoides
Atlantica gueriniana
Separate reports
Molluscs
Unio crassus
Unio crassus
Unio tumidiformis
Separate reports
Molluscs
Unio elongatulus
Unio glaucinus
Unio mancus
Unio pictorum (population
previously known as U.
elongatulus)
Unio ravoisieri
Separate report for
Unio ravoisieri.
Joint report for other species of
U. elongatulus
species group
Crustaceans
Austropotamobius pallipes
Austropotamobius italicus
Austropotamobius pallipes
Joint report under the name
Austropotamobius pallipes
Insects
Carabus variolosus
Carabus (variolosus) nodulosus
Carabus variolosus
Separate reports
Insects
Euphydryas (Eurodryas,
Hypodryas) aurinia
Euphydryas aurinia
Euphydryas glaciegenita
Euphydryas provincialis
Joint report under the name
Euphydryas aurinia
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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Insects
Osmoderma eremita
Osmoderma barnabita
Osmoderma cristinae
Osmoderma eremita
Osmoderma italica
Osmoderma lassallei
Separate reports for
Osmoderma.
cristinae
and
O. italic
a
Joint report for
O. eremita,
O. barnabita, O. lassallei
under the
name ‘
Osmoderma eremita
Complex’.
Insects
Zerynthia polyxena
Zerynthia cassandra
Zerynthia polyxena
Separate reports
Other
invertebrates
Hirudo medicinalis
Hirudo medicinalis
Hirudo verbana
Separate reports
Lampreys
Lampetra planeri
Lampetra alavariensis
Lampetra auremensis
Lampetra lusitanica
Lampetra planeri
Separate reports
Fish
Acipenseridae,
all species
not mentioned in Annex IV
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii
Acipenser nudiventris
Acipenser ruthenus
Acipenser stellatus
Huso huso
Separate reports
Fish
Alosa spp.
Alosa agone
Alosa alosa
Alosa fallax
Alosa immaculata
Alosa killarnensis
Alosa macedonica
Alosa tanaica
Alosa vistonica
Separate reports
Fish
Aphanius fasciatus
Aphanius almiriensis
Aphanius fasciatus
Separate reports
Fish
Aphanius iberus
Aphanius baeticus
Aphanius iberus
Separate reports
Fish
Barbus plebejus
Barbus bergi
Barbus cyclolepis
Barbus euboicus
Barbus pergamonensis
Barbus plebejus
Barbus prespensis
Barbus sperchiensis
Barbus strumicae
Barbus tyberinus
Separate reports
Fish
Barbus meridionalis
Barbus balcanicus
Barbus caninus
Barbus carpathicus
Barbus meridionalis
Barbus peloponnesius
Barbus petenyi
Barbus rebeli
Separate reports for
Barbus
meridionalis s.str
.
, B.caninus
and
B. peloponnesius
Joint report for
B. balcanicus, B. petenyi
and
B. carpathicus
under name
’Barbus
meridionalis
all others
where more
than one species occurs

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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Fish
Barbus spp.
Barbus albanicus
Barbus barbus
Barbus haasi
Barbus macedonicus
Barbus waleckii
Luciobarbus bocagei
Luciobarbus graecus
Luciobarbus graellsii
Luciobarbus guiraonis
Luciobarbus microcephalus
Luciobarbus sclateri
Luciobarbus steindachneri
Separate reports
Fish
Chalcalburnus chalcoides
Alburnus mandrensis
Alburnus mento
Alburnus sarmaticus
Alburnus schischkovi
Alburnus vistonicus
Alburnus volviticus
Separate reports
Fish
Chondrostoma lusitanicum
Iberochondrostoma almacai
Iberochondrostoma lusitanicum
Separate reports
Fish
Chondrostoma polylepis
(including C. willkommi)
Pseudochondrostoma duriense
Pseudochondrostoma polylepis
Pseudochondrostoma
willkommii
Separate reports
Fish
Chondrostoma toxostoma
Parachondrostoma arrigonis
Parachondrostoma miegii
Parachondrostoma toxostoma
Parachondrostoma turiense
Separate reports

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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Fish
Cobitis taenia
Cobitis arachthosensis
Cobitis bilineata
Cobitis calderoni
Cobitis dalmatina
Cobitis hellenica
Cobitis illyrica
Cobitis jadovaensis
Cobitis meridionalis
Cobitis narentana
Cobitis ohridana
Cobitis paludica
Cobitis puncticulata
Cobitis punctilineata
Cobitis stephanidisi
Cobitis elongatoides
Cobitis pontica
Cobitis strumicae
Cobitis tanaitica
Cobitis taenia
Cobitis vardarensis
Cobitis vettonica
Cobitis zanandreai
Joint report for
‘Cobitis taenia
Complex’
(C. elongatoides, C. strumicae
C. tanaitica, C. pontica).
Separate reports for remaining species
Fish
Coregonus spp. (except
Coregonus oxyrhynchus -
anadromous populations in
certain sectors of the North
Sea) –
Coregonus albula complex
Coregonus albula
Coregonus fontanae
Coregonus lucinensis
Coregonus trybomi
Coregonus vandesius
Separate reports
Fish
Coregonus spp. (except
Coregonus oxyrhynchus -
anadromous populations in
certain sectors of the North
Sea) –
Coregonus lavaretus
complex
Coregonus arenicolus
Coregonus atterensis
Coregonus bavaricus
Coregonus clupeoides
Coregonus danneri
Coregonus hoferi
Coregonus lavaretus
Coregonus macrophthalmus
Coregonus maraena
Coregonus maxillaris
Coregonus megalops
Coregonus nilssoni
Coregonus pallasii
Coregonus pennantii
Coregonus pidschian
Coregonus renke
Coregonus stigmaticus
Coregonus wartmanni
Coregonus widegreni
Joint report for ‘Coregonus lavaretus
Complex’

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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Fish
Coregonus spp. (except
Coregonus oxyrhynchus -
anadromous populations in
certain sectors of the North
Sea)
Coregonus pollan
Coregonus pollan
Separate report
Fish
Cottus gobio
Cottus gobio
Cottus aturi
Cottus duranii
Cottus haemusi
Cottus hispaniolensis
Cottus koshewnikowi
Cottus metae
Cottus microstomus
Cottus perifretum
Cottus rhenanus
Cottus rondeleti
Cottus sabaudicus
Cottus transsilvaniae
Separate report for
Cottus aturi,
C. duranii, C. hispaniolensis, C. rondeleti,
C. sabaudicus, C. transsilvaniae.
Joint report for other species
C. haemusi, C. metae, C. microstomus,
C. koshewnikowi, C. perifretum,
C. rhenanus, C. gobio s.str
. under the
name ’
Cottus gobio
all others’
Fish
Eudontomyzon
spp.
Eudontomyzon danfordi
Eudontomyzon hellenicus
Eudontomyzon graecus
Eudontomyzon mariae
Eudontomyzon vladykovi
Separate reports
Fish
Gobio albipinnatus
Romanogobio vladykovi
Romanogobio belingi
Separate report
Fish
Gobio uranoscopus
Romanogobio uranoscopus
Romanogobio elimeius
Separate report
Fish
Leuciscus souffia
Telestes souffia
Telestes muticellus
Squalius keadicus
Separate reports
Fish
Phoxinellus spp.
Delminichthys adspersus
Delminichthys ghetaldii
Delminichthys jadovensis
Delminichthys krbavensis
Pelasgus epiroticus
Pelasgus laconicus*
Pelasgus marathonicus
Pelasgus prespensis
Pelasgus stymphalicus
Pelasgus thesproticus
Phoxinellus alepidotus
Phoxinellus dalmaticus
Phoxinellus pseudalepidotus
Telestes beoticus
Telestes croaticus
Telestes fontinalis
Telestes miloradi
Telestes pleurobipunctatus
Separate report

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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Fish
Pomatoschistus canestrini
Economidichthys pygmaeus*
Economidichthys trichonis*
Knipowitschia goerneri*
Knipowitschia milleri*
Pomatoschistus canestrinii
Separate reports
Fish
Rhodeus sericeus amarus
Rhodeus amarus
Rhodeus meridionalis
Separate reports
Fish
Rutilus alburnoides
Squalius alburnoides
Tropidophoxinellus hellenicus
Tropidophoxinellus
spartiaticus*
Separate reports
Fish
Rutilus lemmingii
Iberochondrostoma lemmingii
Achondrostoma salamantinum
Iberochondrostoma oretanum
Separate reports
Fish
Rutilus macrolepidotus
Achondrostoma oligolepis
Achondrostoma occidentale
Separate reports
Fish
Rutilus pigus
Rutilus pigus
Rutilus virgo
Separate reports
Fish
Rutilus rubilio
Rutilus panosi*
Rutilus prespensis
Rutilus rubilio
Rutilus ylikiensis*
Separate reports
Fish
Sabanejewia aurata
Sabanejewia balcanica
Sabanejewia baltica
Sabanejewia bulgarica
Sabanejewia vallachica
Separate reports
Fish
Salmo macrostigma
Salmo ghigii
Salmo cetti
Salmo fibreni?*
Salmo farioides
Salmo louroensis*
Salmo macedonicus*
Salmo pelagonicus*
Salmo peristericus*
Joint report for
Salmo ghigii
and
S. cetti
under the name
Salmo cetti.
Separate reports for other species.
Fish
Valencia letourneuxi
(Valencia hispanica)
Valencia hispanica
Valencia letourneuxi
Separate reports
Fish
Zingel
spp. (except
Zingel
asper and Zingel zingel)
Zingel balcanicus
Zingel streber
Separate reports
Amphibians
Alytes obstetricans
Alytes obstetricans
Alytes dickhilleni
Separate reports for both newly
recognised species
Amphibians
Bombina variegata
Bombina variegata
Bombina pachypus
Separate reports

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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Amphibians
Bufo viridis
Bufotes viridis
Bufotes boulengeri
Bufotes balearicus
Bufotes siculus
Joint report
Bufotes viridis
and
B.
balearicus
under the name ‘
Bufotes viridis
Complex’ where both species occurs.
Separate reports for
B. siculus
and
B.
boulengeri
Amphibians
Discoglossus
galganoi
(including
Discoglossus
‘jeanneae’
)
Discoglossus galganoi galganoi
Discoglossus galganoi jeanneae
Joint reports
Amphibians
Euproctus asper
Calotriton asper
Calotriton arnoldi
Separate reports
Amphibians
Hydromantes
(Speleomantes) imperialis
Speleomantes imperialis
Speleomantes sarrabusensis
Separate reports
Amphibians
Hyla arborea
Hyla arborea
Hyla orientalis
Hyla molleri
Hyla intermedia
Hyla savignyi
Separate reports for
Hyla molleri
and
H. intermedia.
Joint report for
H. arborea
and
H.
orientalis
Amphibians
Mertensiella luschani
(Salamandra luschani)
Mertensiella luschani
Lyciasalamandra helverseni
Separate reports.
Amphibians
Rana ridibunda
Pelophylax ridibundus
Pelophylax bedriagae
Pelophylax cretensis
Pelophylax cerigensis
Pelophylax kurtmuelleri
Separate reports
Amphibians
Rana temporaria
Rana pyrenaica
Rana temporaria
Separate reports
Amphibians
Salamandra aurorae
(Salamandra atra aurorae)
Salamandra atra aurorae
Salamandra atra pasubiensis
Joint reports under the name
Salamandra atra aurorae
Amphibians
Triturus carnifex (Triturus
cristatus carnifex)
Triturus carnifex
Triturus macedonicus
Separate reports.
Amphibians
Triturus marmoratus
Triturus marmoratus
Triturus pygmaeus
Separate reports
Reptiles
Ablepharus kitaibelii
Ablepharus kitaibelii
Ablepharus budaki
Separate reports
Reptiles
Chalcides viridianus
Chalcides viridianus
Chalcides coeruleopunctatus
Separate reports
Reptiles
Elaphe longissima
Zamenis longissimus
Zamenis lineatus
Separate reports
Reptiles
Elaphe quatuorlineata
Elaphe quatuorlineata
Elaphe sauromates
Separate reports
Reptiles
Emys orbicularis
Emys orbicularis
Emys trinacris
Separate reports

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Taxonomical
group
Name as listed in the
Habitats Directive
Newly described species
Note
Reptiles
Lacerta bonnali (Lacerta
monticola)
Iberolacerta bonnali
Iberolacerta aranica
Iberolacerta aurelioi*
Separate reports
Reptiles
Lacerta danfordi
Anatololacerta oertzeni
Anatololacerta anatolica
Separate reports
Reptiles
Lacerta monticola
Iberolacerta monticola
Iberolacerta cyreni
Iberolacerta galani
Iberolacerta martinezricai
Separate reports
Reptiles
Lacerta viridis
Lacerta viridis
Lacerta bilineata
Separate reports
Reptiles
Podarcis erhardii
Podarcis erhardii
Podarcis cretensis
Podarcis levendis
Separate reports
Reptiles
Podarcis milensis
Podarcis milensis
Podarcis gaigeae
Separate reports
Reptiles
Podarcis wagleriana
Podarcis wagleriana
Podarcis raffoneae
Separate reports
Mammals
All other
Microchiroptera
52
- Eptesicus serotinus
Eptesicus serotinus
Eptesicus isabellinus
Separate reports
Mammals
Myotis blythii
Myotis oxygnathus
Myotis blythii
Myotis punicus
Only reports for
Myotis blythii
and
Myotis punicus
are expected
Mammals
All other
Microchiroptera -
Myotis nattereri
Myotis nattereri
Myotis escalerai
Joint report under the name
Myotis
nattereri
Mammals
Rupicapra rupicapra
(
except
Rupicapra
rupicapra balcanica,
Rupicapra rupicapra ornata
and Rupicapra rupicapra
tatrica)
Rupicapra pyrenaica
Rupicapra rupicapra
Separate reports
Note: The asterix (*) is used for species where relation between the currently recognised species and the
species listed in the Annexes of the Directive is unclear or ambiguous. The questionmark ‘?’ indicates
unresolved cases.
52
Species to be reported under ‘All other Microchiroptera’
Eptesicus anatolicus, E. isabellinus, E. nilssonii,
E. serotinus, Hypsugo savii, Myotis alcathoe, M. aurascens, M. brandtii, M. daubentonii, M. mystacinus,
M. nattereri, Nyctalus azoreum, N. lasiopterus, N. leisleri, N. noctula, Pipistrellus hanaki, P. kuhlii,
P. maderensis, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus, P. gaisleri,
P. kolombatovici, P. macrobullaris, P. sardus, P. teneriffae, Tadarida teniotis, Vespertilio murinus

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Newly recognised and widely accepted species which are not included in Table 14, for example
because they are not yet included in global and regional taxonomical references used as the sources
for this table, should also be reported separately.
Some species noted in the Annexes are now included under other species, often losing their specific
or even subspecific status. These few Directive species do not represent a valid taxonomical unit and
the names listed in the Directive refer to a particular population of currently recognised species. In
these cases Member States should still provide the Article 17 report corresponding to the species
name in the Directive considering the interpretation of the species at the time when the Annexes of
the Directive were drafted or amended. For example, according to current knowledge, the Directive
species
Euphorbia lambii
, native to La Gomera in the Canary Islands, and
E. bourgeana
both
represent a single species for which the name
E. bourgeana
is used. However, the reporting
obligation only covers the La Gomera population previously referred to as
E. lambii.
An overview of
the species listed in the Directive which are not recognised as valid species/subspecies or where
specific/subspecific status has been contested in some scientific references is provided on the
Reference Portal
53
.
In some very rare cases, two species listed in the Directive have been merged into one currently
recognised species. For example,
Margaritifera durrovensis
now considered part of
M. margaritifera
,
or
Limonium multiflorum
and
L. dodartii
ssp.
lusitanicum.
In these cases a joint report including both
Directive species should be provided under the currently valid species name (provided in the species
checklist). If the conservation status and threats to these two populations (previously recognised as
different species) differ, their status and threats can still be reported separately either in an
additional optional report
54
or in field 11.8 ‘Additional information’.
Table 15 provides an overview of species listed in the Directive which have been merged into one
currently recognised species.
Table 15:
Species listed in the Directive which were merged into one currently recognised
species
Taxonomical
group
Name in the Directive
Currently recognised
species
Note
Plants
Limonium multiflorum
Limonium dodartii
ssp
.
lusitanicum
Limonium multiflorum
Joint report for both HD species
under the name
Limonium
multiflorum.
Molluscs
Discoglossus jeanneae
Discoglossus galganoi
Discoglossus galganoi
Joint report for both HD species
under the name
Discoglossus
galganoi.
Molluscs
Margaritifera margaritifera
Margaritifera durrovensis
(Margaritifera margaritifera)
Margaritifera
margaritífera
Joint report for both HD species
under the name
Margaritifera
margaritifera.
53
http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17
54
In some situations Member States may complete additional report formats for habitats (subtypes of marine
habitats) or species (e.g. distinct species of genus
Lycopodium
) not listed in the Member State’s checklist and
submit these optional reports together with the mandatory reporting dataset.

 
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For some species the taxonomy remains unclear or was ambiguous at the time the Annexes of the
Directive were drafted or amended. For these species the link between the currently recognised valid
name(s) and the names listed in the Directive is not clear. For example, based on available sources it
is not possible to clearly conclude whether or not the Directive name
Barbus plebejus
should cover
Balkan species of the
B. cyclolepis
complex, as several contradictory descriptions of the earlier
species were available when the Annexes were drafted.
Other species listed in the Directive are currently considered taxonomical errors. The name listed in
the Directive is labelled ‘taxonomical error’ on the checklist in cases where it is not possible to
identify a native population(s) or taxonomical units corresponding to the Directive names. This
should not be confused with situations where species listed in the Directive were previously
recognised as distinct species but are now included under other native taxa.
Box 4: Taxonomical errors
An Iberian subspecies of wider
Rubus genevierii
,
R. genevierii
ssp.
herminicus,
was described in 1915
from a single location. Since that time the species was repeatedly cited in national taxonomical
literature, but its existence or taxonomical validity was never fully proven.
Flora Europaea
described
R. genevieri
as a species with a wide European distribution, without mentioning
R. herminicus
. The
Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Açores e Madeira)
published in 2011 does not mention
the taxon, not even in the lists of taxa with dubious occurrence or taxa with taxonomical problems.
Studying the available taxonomical literature, it is not clear which populations were previously
covered by the Directive name
Rubus genevierii
ssp.
herminii
. Currently, this name cannot be
associated with any identifiable taxonomical unit.
Marsilea azorica
was considered a conservation priority species in the Azores, Macaronesia, and
Europe (Martín Esquivel et al., 2008). In a recent publication, Schaefer et al. (2014) provide scientific
evidence revealing that
Marsilea azorica
is a misidentified alien species from Australia (
M. hirsuta)
.
The invasive character of
M. hirsuta
was not known when the Azores population was described as a
species.
ETC/BD has prepared several notes dealing with taxonomical issues which are accessible via the
Reference Portal.
Occurrence categories used in the species checklist
The following categories and codes are used for the 2013–2018 reporting:
Present regularly (PRE)
This category applies to species which occur regularly in the region.
Occasional (OCC)
Occasional species are species:
which do not have a stable and/or regular occurrence in the biogeographical/marine region;
and
for which the number of records is insignificant.
Reproduction within a biogeographical region or marine region is not recorded or is very sporadic.
Even if it is not appropriate or possible to assess their conservation status at the Member State’s

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biogeographical level at this stage, these species should be reported in order to be duly reflected in
the EU biogeographical assessment.
For example:
Nymphalis vaualbum
is a species with an Eastern European range and strong migratory behaviour.
Outside the centre of its distribution in Russia, it is suspected that the species forms temporary
populations or is only present as a vagrant. In Finland this species is considered an occasional migrant
with great fluctuations in its occurrence. It has also been known to hibernate. There are records of
about 40 specimens before 1990 (first record 1897); after that fewer than ten specimens have been
recorded (2001–2011).
Using the ‘occasional’ category should reflect the history of the species, and its use should be
restricted to cases where species
have a natural irregular occurrence and also occur in insignificant
numbers
. The ‘occasional’ category should not be used for:
species which were regularly occurring in the past but whose numbers have significantly
declined or a reproducing population became extinct due to human pressures, so that at
present only occasional or vagrant individuals occur within a biogeographical region. In this
case the category ‘present‘ should be used;
poorly known species with occasional records in the region, but which most likely have a
stable or regular occurrence. These should be listed under the category ‘present regularly’;
species which occur as vagrant but with important abundance (e.g. marine mammals or
turtles in many regions). These species should be listed under the category ‘present
regularly’.
Newly arriving species (ARR)
Newly arriving species are species that do not represent a permanent component of the fauna or
flora of a biogeographical/marine region, but which have started to be recorded recently, within the
last 12 years, due to the dynamics of their natural range.
Even if it is not appropriate or possible to assess their conservation status at the Member State’s
biogeographical level at this stage, these species should be reported in order to be duly reflected in
the EU biogeographical assessment. For assessing conservation status at the EU biogeographical level
it is important to identify the dynamic processes of range, mainly if they appear as a result of climate
change, land-use or other changes, and reflect them in the assessment.
This category should not be used for species that already have a stable population within the
biogeographical region.
For example:
The Golden jackal (
Canis aureus
) has in the past been recorded as a vagrant in Austria, Slovakia,
Slovenia, and the Czech Republic, but an increased number of indices of its presence in recent years
suggest that the natural range of the species is extending northwards. The presence status of
Canis
aureus
in these countries should therefore be reported as ‘newly arriving’.
Sympecma braueri
is a species found in the temperate zone and is generally absent from the Boreal
region. It was recorded in Finland for the first time only recently and the number of records have
increased very rapidly (recorded at about 70 localities in southernmost Finland). Although it started

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to be recorded only in recent years, it is assumed that it has established a population, so it should be
reported under the category ‘present’.
If a newly arriving species is not listed in the checklist for Article 17 reporting for the Member State,
due to an oversight when the list was prepared, the Member State should still report it.
Marginal (MAR)
The category ‘marginal occurrence’ should be used in situations where the species occurs principally
in one region (or Member State) with a population extending to a neighbouring region (or Member
State), where the abundance of the species is insignificant and the occurrence represents a limit of a
natural range of a species in a given area. In contrast with occasional species, the occurrence of a
marginal species within a region (or Member State) is regular. Marginal populations are closely
connected to the main population occurring in the neighbouring region or Member State (for
example, the immigration of individuals) so their favourable status can be achieved only in relation
with the main population. It is not expected that the conservation status of the marginal species will
be assessed. However, if the conservation status is evaluated the assessment should take into
account their marginal position and link to a principal population, for example when estimating the
favourable reference population.
For example:
Leucorrhinia pectoralis
occurs in Poland as a lowland species almost entirely restricted to areas
below 500 m due to the absence of typical habitats at higher altitudes. Three locations are known in
the Alpine region on the margin of the natural range of this species in Poland where only single
individuals had been recorded for several years.
The use of the ‘marginal’ category should reflect the history of the species and should be restricted
to situations where the species occurs naturally as ‘marginal’. The ‘marginal’ category should not be
used
for species that were regularly occurring in the past but whose numbers have significantly
declined or a reproducing population has become extinct due to human pressures, so that nowadays
only individuals originating from a neighbouring population persist. In this case the category ‘present‘
should be used.
Species extinct after entry into force of the Habitats Directive (EXa)
This category applies to species for which the last record in a biogeographical or marine region (even
if it was a single individual) was noted after the date when the Directive came into force in the
Member State; these species previously had a permanent/regular occurrence in the region.
In some situations the species has not been recorded for several years, but there is insufficient
evidence to conclude that it is extinct. These species should be classified as ‘present’.
Species extinct prior to entry into force of the Habitats Directive (EXp)
This category includes species for which the last record of the species in a biogeographical or marine
region (even if it was a single individual) was before the date when the Directive came into force in
the Member State but after 1950.
This category also includes species which became extinct in the past (including before 1950) but for
which there is a restoration project, or species of a particular conservation interest with recent signs
of recolonisation, but for which successful recolonisation or reintroduction cannot yet be concluded.

 
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Scientific reserve (SCR)
The occurrence of the species is uncertain. This category applies when there are only occasional
historical records and it is not possible to judge if it occurs in the region regularly in significant
numbers (this should only be the case for species which are extremely difficult to survey). Scientific
reserve should also be used where there is a recent record of a species in the biogeographical region
but its validity remains unresolved.
This category should not be used:
for species which were known to occur in a region and for which there were no records of
their presence during the current reporting period. These species are to be classified as
‘present’;
where the occurrence of a species is unresolved due to the absence of inventories. Such
species should be treated as ‘present’ and the report should reflect the fact that there are no
data available.
Marine species
This chapter provides complementary information to the guidance provided in Sections ‘
Species to
be reported
’ and ‘
4
Biogeographical and marine regions
’ (in ‘Field-by-field guidance for species
reports’).
Marine regions
The map of biogeographical regions was prepared from terrestrial data and is therefore not
appropriate for reporting on non-coastal marine habitat types and species.
For marine species Member States should report conservation status using the following marine
regions:
Marine Atlantic: Northern and Western Atlantic including the North Sea and Kattegat;
Marine Baltic: east of the Kattegat, including the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia;
Marine Black Sea: Exclusive Economic Zones of Bulgaria and Romania;
Marine Mediterranean: Mediterranean sea east of meridian line of 5° 55’ W;
Marine Macaronesian: Exclusive Economic Zones of the Azores, Madeira, and Canary
archipelagos, plus the continental shelf of Portugal.
Delineation of borders of the marine regions is based on boundaries of the MSFD regions and
subregions
55
. The Member State extent for reporting under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive
should be the same as that used for reporting under the MSFD.
55
A map of marine regions can be found on the Reference Portal.

 
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Species to be reported in marine regions
Marine species (Table 16) should only be reported under Article 17 for the appropriate marine
region(s) even though some of them also occur, at times, on land. For example, the species
Halichoerus grypus
(grey seal) should only be reported for marine regions, even though it occurs on
beaches and rocks. The assessment should also take into account the use of the areas within the
‘terrestrial’ biogeographical region. For example, an assessment of
Halichoerus grypus
will include
the beaches, rocks, etc. as well as the seal’s use of marine habitats.
Table 16:
Marine species to be reported under marine regions
Mammals
All species of
Phocidae
except
Phoca hispida saimensis
(Boreal)
All species of
Cetacea
Reptiles
All species of
Cheloniidae
and
Dermochelyidae
Molluscs
Gibbula nivosa
Patella ferruginea
Lithophaga lithophaga
Pinna nobilis
Echinoderms
Centrostephanus longispinus
Algae
Lithothamnium coralloides
Phymatholithon calcareum
Cnidarians
Corallium rubrum
Crustaceans
Scyllarides latus
This list includes Annex II species which were not discussed at the Marine Natura 2000 seminars. This
is because the marine seminars were held to discuss those species and habitats subject to a ‘scientific
reserve’ from earlier seminars rather than to discuss all the species and habitats that are considered
as ‘marine’.
Species to be reported in terrestrial biogeographical regions
Species which are predominately terrestrial but which can occur in the sea, such as
Lutra lutra
(otter)
should only be reported under the appropriate terrestrial biogeographical region.

 
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Anadromous fish and lampreys and fish forming separate sea-spawning populations
Most of the fish and lampreys listed in the Annexes occurring in the sea are anadromous (or have
anadromous populations), i.e. they migrate between rivers (where they spawn) and the sea (see the
list below)
56
:
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii
Acipenser nudiventris
Acipenser naccarii
Acipenser oxyrinchus
Acipenser stellatus
Acipenser sturio
Huso huso
Alosa tanaica
Alosa alosa
Alosa fallax
Alosa immaculata
Lampetra fluviatilis
Petromyzon marinus
Coregonus oxyrhynchus
Coregonus maraena
in
‘Coregonus lavaretus
Complex’
Bearing in mind the lack of knowledge about the marine stages of the life cycle of most anadromous
fish and lampreys and the fact that the same populations occur in marine areas and rivers (so the
status in adjacent biogeographical and marine regions is closely linked), the status of anadromous
fish and lampreys should only be assessed in terrestrial biogeographical regions. Information on
‘habitat quality and availability’ and ‘pressures and threats’ specific to the marine environment
should be included in the terrestrial report.
The only exception to these rules is for four species of
Acipenseridae
, for which Member States have
to provide separate reports for the marine and terrestrial regions:
Acipenser sturio
: The only extant spawning population occurs in the Garonne in France
(Gesner et al., 2010-1), although there are some indications of its presence in the river Evros
in Greece (Koutrakis et al., 2011). This critically endangered species spends a significant part
of its life in marine areas;
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii
and
Acipenser stellatus
: Black Sea populations spawn in the
Danube, with spawning of
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii
assumed also in the river Rioni (Gesner
et al., 2010-2),. The Marine Black Sea populations also contain stocks spawning outside the
EU. These critically endangered species are under pressure in both rivers and marine areas;
56
Salmo salar,
an anadromous fish, is not listed below, as it is only protected in freshwaters. Further guidance
on anadromous fish does not apply to this species. Unlike for other anadromous fish, ‘habitat quality and
availability’ should not consider the quality in marine areas and the listing of marine pressures and threats is
not expected.

 
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Huso huso
: a critically endangered species, threatened among others by overfishing in
marine areas.
Coregonus albula, C. maraena
(included in
‘Coregonus lavaretus
Complex’) and
Thymallus thymallus
form distinct populations spawning in the northern part of the Baltic Sea (in Sweden and Finland) and
therefore should also be reported for marine regions (together with
terrestrial biogeographical
regions).
Transboundary populations
In some cases species may have a population which is shared between two or more Member States,
such as the Pyrenean population of Brown bear (
Ursus arctos
) in France and Spain, and the Tatra
chamois (
Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica
) in Poland and Slovakia. In such instances Member States are
encouraged to undertake a common assessment and to agree on data and assessments, but each
Member State reports the results for their territory, i.e. a respective proportion of the regional
population and range and corresponding trends (although disintegrating the regional values into
Member States proportions will probably result in relativelly crude estimates these are important to
understand the impact of pressures and conservation measures, which are likely to be different in
each Member State and the role of Natura 2000 network), information related to habitat for the
species, and Natura 2000 network, respective pressures and threats and conservation measures. The
regional (transboundary) values for range and population size can be provided in fields 5.12 and 6.17
‘Adiditional information’.
If joint regional assessment of the conservation status was made the results of this assessment can
be provided instead of the Member State level assessment. This should be noted under field 13.2
‘Transboundary assessment’.Joint assessments between two or more Member States should be done
primarily in cases where there is a certain level of cooperation and common understanding of the
management needs and approaches for that species (e.g. large carnivore populations). There may
also be cases where it is biologically relevant to consider populations in other neighbouring non-EU
countries. This should be clearly described under field 13.2 ‘Transboundary assessment’.
For some marine species, population estimates have been made by sea area and not by Member
State; for example, the SCANS surveys of small cetaceans in the European Atlantic and North Sea
57
In
such cases it may be appropriate for all Member States involved to produce a regional assessment of
status for range and population (but each Member States should report respective proportion of
population size and range area, as stated above). In addition, a coordinated assessment of pressures
and threats, conservation measures and future prospects, should be undertaken if appropriate. As
combined assessments may be based on diverse data sources it is important that field 13.2
‘Transboundary assessment’ includes information on how the assessment was carried out.
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Hammond et al., 2013

 
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Sources of information for species assessments
Member States are obliged under Article 11 to undertake surveys and inventories, and these should
be the basis of the Article 17 assessments.
The EUMON project has compiled a list (incomplete) of monitoring schemes across Europe, which
can be found on the project website
58
.
Guidance has been published by the European Commission for large carnivores
59
. Although produced
from a management perspective this may be a source of information for this species group (Boitani
et al., 2015). For reporting under Article 17, in cases of conflicting advice, the guidance given in these
guidelines takes priority.
Trends
This chapter provides complementary information to the guidance provided on trends and trend
periods ‘Part 1 Field-by-field guidance for completing ‘Annex B’ Species reports)’.
The conservation status assessment stresses the importance of trend information: trends are
decisive for the assessment of conservation status since usually only stable or increasing trends can
result in an overall Favourable conservation status (FCS) conclusion. Therefore, in general, more
attention should be paid to the methodology of monitoring schemes to improve the quality of trend
information.
Trends are an essential part of assessing all conservation status parameters except Future prospects.
A comparison between the overall population trend in good condition in the biogeographical or
marine region and trends within Natura 2000 is important in assessing the impact of the Natura 2000
network on conservation status (see also Section ‘
12
NATURA 2000 (pSCIs, SCIs and SACs) coverage
for Annex II species’
(in ‘Definitions and methods for species reporting’).
Trends are usually derived from modelling or existing monitoring schemes which are based on
sampling, as complete surveys are exceptional and usually only undertaken for very rare species.
Sampling methods should be statistically robust wherever possible. In the absence of dedicated
monitoring schemes, trends are usually a result of expert opinion and in that case should be reported
only as directions (increasing/decreasing/stable), without absolute values. Unknown trends should
be reported as ‘unknown’. If the available data are not sufficient to determine trend direction, this
can be reported as ‘uncertain’ (lack of a clear signal).
Trend is a (measure of a) directional change of a parameter over time. Trends (especially of
population) should ideally be the result of a statistical regression of a time series. Fluctuation (or
oscillation) is not a directional change of a parameter, and therefore fluctuation is not a trend.
However, fluctuations can occur within a long‐term trend and can affect the measurement of short‐
term trends, because it is difficult to assess whether there is a real trend in the short-term, or
whether there is simply a fluctuation or population cycling effect.
58
http://eumon.ckff.si/monitoring/
59
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/species/carnivores/index_en.htm

 
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Fluctuation is an intrinsic character of all natural systems and can be observed for all directions of the
trend (increasing, decreasing, and stable). However, it is only detectable in regularly surveyed
populations. Fluctuations are only likely to be detected when the parameter is measured at least
three times within a given time-frame. Ideally, they will be based on more frequent sampling. In
reality, this is unlikely to happen in short time-frames (such as 12-year intervals), and setting short‐
term trends in a long‐term context will help to identify where fluctuations are occurring.
Fluctuations in Range or area of Habitat for the species are rarely detectable over a 12‐year period
and any fluctuation of these values is mostly long term. In summary: Range and Habitat for the
species are unlikely to fluctuate in a 12-year period. However, measurement of these parameters can
be inexact and longer‐term information may be required to detect any real changes, given the range
of data availability, sample sizes and possible survey methods.
Short- and long-term trends
The reporting period for the Habitats Directive is six years, but estimates of trend are more likely to
be statistically robust over longer time periods. It is therefore recommended to estimate short-term
trends over two reporting cycles, i.e. 12 years (or a period as close to this as possible), as this should
give a more reliable and comparable estimate of the trend; see Table 17). Long-term trends, which
are likely to be more statistically robust, can also be reported (in a series of optional fields). The
recommended period for assessing longer-term trends is four reporting cycles (24 years). This
definition of a long-term period used for reporting of the long-term trends should not be confused
with the legal requirement of the Directive of maintenance in a ‘long-term’ of a habitat.
The short-term trend information should be used in the evaluation matrix to undertake the
conservation status assessment.
Table 17:
Period for assessing trends
Trend
Period to assess trend
Short-term
Two reporting cycles (12 years; or a period as close as possible)
Long-term
Four reporting cycles (24 years; or a period as close as possible)
The trend magnitude reported should be the change over the relevant period (e.g. 12 years for short-
term trend). Where magnitude is derived from data covering a different time interval, estimate the
change for the reporting period by simple proportion. For example, a change of 150 km
2
over 15
years would be equivalent to 10 km
2
per year or 120 km
2
over the 12-year interval for short-term
trend magnitude. If the change appeared at a specific time (for example, as a result of a catastrophe),
precise time period or year should be reported and an explanation should be provided in fields 5.12,
6.17, 7.9 or 12.6 ‘Additional information’.

 
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Favourable reference values
This chapter provides complementary information to the guidance provided on favourable reference
values in Sections ‘
5
Range
’ and ‘
6
Population
’ (in ‘Field-by-field guidance for species reports’).
What are favourable reference values?
The concept of favourable reference values (FRVs) is derived from definitions in the Directive,
particularly the definition of Favourable conservation status that relates to the ‘long-term
distribution and abundance’ of the populations of species (Article 1(i)), and for habitats to the ‘long-
term natural distribution
,
structure and functions as well as the long-term survival of its typical
species’ (Article 1(e)). in their natural range This requires that the species is maintaining itself on a
long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats. Similarly, for habitats, the Directive
requires that the specific structure and functions necessary for its long-term maintenance exist and
will continue to exist and that its typical species are in favourable status, i.e. are maintaining
themselves on a long-term basis. If Member States do not maintain or restore such a situation, the
objective of the Directive is not met.
Favourable reference values – ‘range’ for species and habitats, ‘population’ for species, and ‘area’ for
habitats – are critical in the evaluation of conservation status. The evaluation matrices (Annexes C
and E) of the Report format require Member States to identify favourable reference values for range
(FRR) and area for habitats (FRA) and for range (FRR) and population (FRP) for the species. The
conservation status assessment then looks at the difference between current values and reference
values. Basically, the range, area, and population must be sufficiently large in relation to favourable
reference values (as defined in the evaluation matrix) to conclude, alongside other criteria (e.g.
trends), whether the parameter is ‘favourable’ or ‘unfavourable’.
The concept of favourable reference values was endorsed by the Habitats Committee back in 2004:
document Assessment, monitoring and reporting of conservation status – preparing the 2001–2007
report under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive
60
describes the favourable reference range,
population and habitat area as follows:
Range within which all significant ecological variations of the habitat/species are included for a
given biogeographical region and which is sufficiently large to allow the long-term survival of the
habitat/species; favourable reference value must be at least the range (in size and configuration)
when the Directive came into force; if the range was insufficient to support a favourable status
the reference for favourable range should take account of that and should be larger (in such a
case information on historic distribution may be found useful when defining the favourable
reference range); 'best expert judgement' may be used to define it in absence of other data.
Population in a given biogeographical region considered the minimum necessary to ensure the
long-term viability of the species; favourable reference value must be at least the size of the
population when the Directive came into force; information on historic distribution/population
may be found useful when defining the favourable reference population; 'best expert judgement'
may be used to define it in absence of other data.