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Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 1
The upper zone of the
Storkwitz Carbonatite
Geoprofil, Heft 15 (2020)

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Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 2
Geochemical and mineralogical
characterization of the REE-
mineralisation in the upper zone of the
Storkwitz Carbonatite Complex
from drill core SES
1/2012
Max Niegisch, Andreas Kamradt, Gregor Borg

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 3
Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the REE-mineralisation in the upper zone of the
Storkwitz Carbonatite Complex from Drill core SES-1/2012
Max Niegisch, Andreas Kamradt, Gregor Borg
Table of Contents
Abstract
................................................................................................................................................................... 9
1. Introduction
....................................................................................................................................................... 11
2. Methodology
..................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.1 Portable XRF .................................................................................................................................................... 16
2.2 Magnetic susceptibility ...................................................................................................................................... 16
2.3 Geochemical analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 17
2.4 Microscopy ........................................................................................................................................................ 17
2.5 Reflectance spectroscopy ................................................................................................................................ 17
3. Lithological description
................................................................................................................................... 17
3.1 Porphyritic rock ................................................................................................................................................. 17
3.2 Igneous breccia ................................................................................................................................................ 17
3.3 Alvikite .............................................................................................................................................................. 18
4. Magnetic susceptibility
.................................................................................................................................... 22
5. Geochemistry
.................................................................................................................................................... 24
5.1 Portable XRF .................................................................................................................................................... 24
5.2 Whole rock analyses......................................................................................................................................... 24
5.2.1 Major components ......................................................................................................................................... 24
5.2.2 Trace elements .............................................................................................................................................. 29
5.2.3 Rare earth elements ...................................................................................................................................... 29
5.3 Comparison with deeper sections .................................................................................................................... 30
6. Mineralogy
......................................................................................................................................................... 35
6.1 Porphyry ........................................................................................................................................................... 35
6.2 Igneous Breccia ................................................................................................................................................ 35
6.3 Alvikite .............................................................................................................................................................. 36
6.4 Characterisation of relevant Minerals ............................................................................................................... 37
6.4.1 Calcite ............................................................................................................................................................ 37
6.4.2 Cryptocrystalline matrix and clay minerals .................................................................................................... 39
6.4.3 Mica ............................................................................................................................................................... 40
6.4.4 Apatite ............................................................................................................................................................ 41
6.4.5 Magnetite ....................................................................................................................................................... 45
6.4.6 Monazite ........................................................................................................................................................ 47
6.4.7 REE-fluorocarbonates ................................................................................................................................... 51
6.4.8 Nb-Zr-Ti-Ca-Oxides ....................................................................................................................................... 54
6.4.9 Baddeleyite .................................................................................................................................................... 60
6.4.10 Other rare minerals ...................................................................................................................................... 60
6.5 Reflectance spectroscopy ................................................................................................................................ 63
7. Discussion
......................................................................................................................................................... 66
8. Conclusions
...................................................................................................................................................... 74
Annex
................................................................................................................................................................. 75
Bibliography
.......................................................................................................................................................... 87
Geoprofil
Freiberg
15
(2020)
1-92
59 Fig., 22 Tab.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 4
List of figures
Figure 1:
Regional geology and plate tectonic of central europe.; Position of the UML-CR Delitzsch with
an overview of some drillings carried out by the SDAG Wismut ........................................................ 12
Figure 2:
Location of the drilling spot of SES-1/2012 (modified after EHLING 2008).; Simplified
profile of the drilling SES-1/2012 (modified after SELTENERDEN STORKWITZ AG 2012). ..................... 14
Figure 3:
World map with all carbonatite occurrences known in 2008 (WOOLLEY & KJARSGAARD 2008).......... 15
Figure 4:
ICP-MS/ES vs. portable XRF - plot for several elements. The linear correlation is clearly visible
for all these elements although the scattering of the plots and the slope of the correlation
graph is varying.................................................................................................................................. 16
Figure 5:
Porphyry of the "Plagiogranitporphyr”; A: Drill core section with an alvikite vein; B: Porphyry
with spherical zoned colouring; C: Joint, filled with talc, with slickensides........................................ 18
Figure 6:
Igneous breccia samples; A: Clast-rich breccia with grey to beige matrix; B: Clast-rich
breccia with beige matrix, C: Clast-rich breccia with red matrix, D: Breccia with minor clasts
with beige matrix, E: Breccia with minor clasts with red matrix (wet surface). .................................. 19
Figure 7:
Alvikite samples; A: Drill core section with greyish blue matrix; B Alvikite with greyish blue
matrix, with brown phlogopites and calcitic streaks; C: Zoned alvikite; with reddish zone;
D: Alvikite with brownish matrix (wet surface); E: Zoned alvikite; with reddish zone ......................... 20
Figure 8:
Core log with the position of the taken samples for geochemistry and thin sections.
From the samples 14, 15 and 25 no thin section could be made. ..................................................... 21
Figure 9:
Detailed measurement of a core section with an alvikite and a porphyritic rock, which is
penetrated by an alvikite vein. The lithotypes can be distinguished very clearly............................... 22
Figure 10:
Magnetic susceptibility core log; the different lithotypes can be distinguished clearly...................... 23
Figure 11:
Portable XRF reading of the La and Ce concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS whole rock
analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia
sections.............................................................................................................................................. 25
Figure 12:
Portable XRF reading of the Sr and Ba concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS whole rock
analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia
sections.............................................................................................................................................. 26
Figure 13:
Binary plots of geochemical data; the three main lithotypes can be clearly distinguished
by the main oxides............................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 14:
Ternary plots to categorize the samples; A: samples from the actual geochemical analysis;
B: Breccia samples from older drilling from the UML-CR, type A are samples with lamprophyric
xenoliths and type B samples without these xenoliths (RÖLLIG et al. 1990). ..................................... 28
Figure 15:
Link between the content of REE, Ba and U and the proportion of matrix in the breccia
samples. For the REE, there is a correlatoin recognizable. ............................................................... 28
Figure 16:
TAS-Diagram for volcanic rocks (after LE MAITRE et al. 2002); the porphyry samples
plot in the granite field........................................................................................................................ 29
Figure 17:
Ternary plot for the classification of the alvikite samples by their proportion of their main oxides
CaO, MgO, Fe2O3 and MnO (after WOOLLEY & KEMPE 1989) ........................................................... 30
Figure 18:
Spider plot showing geochemical data of some trace elements (chondrite normalised after
MCDONOUGH & SUN 1995); A: Average amounts in the different lithotypes; B: amounts in
breccia samples; C: amounts in alvikite samples.............................................................................. 31
Figure 19:
Distribution of the three most common REE (Ce, La, Nd) in various rock types............................... 32
Figure 20:
Spider plot showing geochemical data of the REE (BOYNTON 1984); A: Average concentrations
in the different lithotypes; B: concentration in breccia samples; C: concentration in alvikite
samples.............................................................................................................................................. 33
Figure 21:
Geochemical comparison from the samples with deeper sections of the same drilling;
A,C,E: Comparison of the alvikite sections; B,D,F: Comparison of the breccia sections. There
are recognizable differences at some main oxides and rubidium. The contents of REE are
similar in the different lithological units.............................................................................................. 34
Figure 22:
Overview of the porphyry thin sections; A: Sericitized porphyry with quarzitic matrix and
feldspar phenocrysts (optical microscopy, crossed nicols); B: Quarzitic matrix with quartz
phenocrysts and hematite vein (SEM-BSE)....................................................................................... 35

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 5
Figure 23:
Overview of the igneous breccia thin sections; A: Breccia texture with clasts and matrix
(optical microscopy); B: Matrix section with phenocrysts and/or xenoliths (optical microscopy)....... 36
Figure 24:
Overview of the alvikite thin sections; A: Alvikite with greyish matrix (optical microscopy);
B: Alvikite with brownish matrix, more altered (optical microscopy).................................................. 36
Figure 25:
Textures of calcite under the optical microscope (B,D) with crossed nicols; A,B: Typical calcitic
matrix in alvikites; C,D: Calcitic vein with bigger crystals.................................................................. 37
Figure 26:
Distribution and concentration of minor elements in calcite crystals................................................. 38
Figure 27:
Calcite with different minor elements. The sharp transitions indicate crystal boundaries................. 38
Figure 28:
Fe-Si-ratio of cryptocrystalline phases determined by EDX-analysis (n=137). Although two
groups are recognizable, either of iron- or silica-rich composition, some samples with
moderate Fe and Si content represent a transitional zone................................................................ 39
Figure 29:
Breccia samples with iron oxyhydroxides; A: Iron phases, not determinable with microscopic
methods (optical reflectance microscopy); B: Hematite dominated breccia sample (optical
reflectance microscopy, crossed nicols); C: Hematite dominated matrix of a breccia sample.......... 40
Figure 30:
Examples for alumo-siliceous phases (SEM-EDX); A: Alumosilicates in a breccia section; the
layer structures in the lower left corner indicate clay minerals (phyllosilicates); B:
Alumosilicates and iron oxyhydroxydes in a breccia; C: Alumosilicates in altered parts of the
calcitic matrix; D: Alumosilicates and iron phases in an alvikite. The variation of the iron
content causes the heterogeneous character in B and D. ................................................................. 41
Figure 31:
Optical mircoscopy image of phlogopites (B,D with crossed nicols); A,B: Phlogopite crystal in
an alvikite; C,D: Phlogopite crystal in a breccia (in the matrix, surrounded by clasts). The pale
yellow colour under uncossed nicols indicates, that the mica is magnesium-rich. ............................ 42
Figure 32:
Indications of alteration at phlogopite crystals; A: Secondary goethite on a phlogopite (optical
microscopy); B: Secondary goethite between phlogopite layers; C: Altered and partly
decomposed phlogopite; D: Phlogopite with barium-enriched rim..................................................... 43
Figure 33:
Phlogopite grain in an alvikite sample. The texture, which is consisting of many smaller
crystals, allows the interpretation as xenolith (optical microscopy, crossed nicols).......................... 44
Figure 34:
Examples for apatite forms: A: Euhedral phenocryst in an alvikite section (optical microscopy)
B: Euhedral phenocryst in an alvikite section (SEM-BSE); C: Small apatites with REE enriched
rim in an alvikite section (SEM-BSE), D: Fractured apatites in a breccia section (SEM-BSE).......... 44
Figure 35:
Distribution of minor elements in the apatite crystals, comparing core and rim. The rim has
increased values for Si and REE, while F occurs with higher amounts in the core zone. ................. 45
Figure 36:
Euhedral magnetite in alvikite section (A) and breccia section (B) (SEM-EDX)................................ 45
Figure 37:
Different dissolution stages of magnetites in alvikite sections; left side: partially dissolved
crystals; right side: nearly complete dissolved magnetite, were only magnetite fragments are
remaining (A,B: optical microscopy; C,D: optical reflectance microscopy; E,F: SEM-BSE).............. 46
Figure 38:
Titanium-iron plot of the magnetites from alvikite sections (EDX data, n = 32). The negative
correlation is caused by solid solution between magnetite and ulvite. .............................................. 47
Figure 39:
Finely distributed monazites in A: Breccia section and B: Alvikite section (SEM-BSE). In the
alvikite samples, monazites only occur in this texture and are linked to alteration structures........... 48
Figure 40:
Monazite occurrences associated with corona textures; A: Optical microscopy image;
B: SEM-BSE image; C: Corona texture with titanium-impregnated quartz. The intensity of the
Ti-enriched edge is correlating with the size of the corona (SEM-BSE)............................................ 48
Figure 41:
Monazite accumulations (SEM-BSE); A,B: Monazite accumulation in a phenoclast;
C: Combination of accumulation and corona structure. ..................................................................... 49
Figure 42:
Distribution of the most common REE in monazites; A: EDX data of all samples; B: EDX data
of the alvikite hosted monazites; C: Typical monazite compositions; D: Data from whole rock
analysis.............................................................................................................................................. 50
Figure 43:
Typical REE-fluorocarbonate occurrences (SEM-BSE); A: Small needle-shaped crystals in
cavity in alvikite section; B: Larger aggregates from the alvikite sample SES1.08; C: Typical
aggregate from a breccia section with grey matrix; D: REE‐fluorocarbonate vein in the
porphyry section. The occurrence of the vein shows, that there was a small impregnation of
the wall rock by the intrusion or hydrothermal fluids.......................................................................... 52

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 6
Figure 44:
Large REE-fluorocarbonate crystals in the sample SES1.18 (A: optical microscopy; B: optical
microscopy, crossed nicols; C: SEM-BSE). The zonation from a bastnaesite core to a
synchisite rim is recognizable in the BSE-image. .............................................................................. 53
Figure 45:
REE-Ca/REE plot for the categorization of the REE-fluorocarbonates (EDX-data).
The measured crystals plot in the complete range of possible fields................................................ 54
Figure 46:
Distribution of the most common REE (EDX data); A: All samples; B: Alvikite hosted
REE-fluorocarbonates. The measured crystals of SES1.27 show high amount of cerium............... 55
Figure 47:
Euhedral zirconolite crystal overgrown by pyrochlore (A: optical microscopy; B: SEM-BSE)........... 56
Figure 48:
Distinction of the three Nb-Zr-Ti-oxides subgroups. The separation of the minerals by their
main oxides is clearly visible .............................................................................................................. 56
Figure 49:
Examples of pyrochlore crystals (SEM-BSE); A,B: Pyrochlore surrounding zirconolite in
alvikite sections; C: Anhedral pyrochlore crystal in breccia sections intergrown with apatite;
D: Euhedral and broken pyrochlore crystal in breccia section........................................................... 58
Figure 50:
Examples for Ti-oxides; A: Secondary Ti-phase in alvikite section with REE enriched speckles;
B: Ti-phase in breccia section as a replacement of magnetite. ......................................................... 59
Figure 51:
Ternary plot for the classification of members of the pyrochlore supergroup. The crystals
classified as pyrochlore (chapter 6.4.8) plot in the pyrochlore field, while the titanium-rich
oxides plot in the betafite field (after ČERNÝ & ERCIT 1989 and MELGAREJO & MARTIN 2011). ........... 59
Figure 52:
Baddeleyite fragment in breccia section (SEM-BSE)......................................................................... 60
Figure 53:
Occurrence of barite in an alvikite sample (A) and a breccia sample (B) (SEM-BSE).
The crystals are linked to cavities and altered areas......................................................................... 61
Figure 54:
Uranophane in cavities in the iron leached part of alvikite sample SES1.08, which contains an
oxidation front (SEM-BSE)................................................................................................................. 62
Figure 55:
Examples for sulphides; A: Chalcopyrite grain in breccia sample; B: partially dissolved pyrite in
a uranophane-containing area (SEM-EDX)....................................................................................... 62
Figure 56:
Average reflectance spectra of the different lithotypes; A: Porphyry; B: Igneous breccia ;
C: Alvikites.......................................................................................................................................... 65
Figure 57:
Overview of the distribution of phases and minerals, which characterize the mineralisation
and/or possible environments............................................................................................................ 69
Figure 58:
Portable XRF reading of the Nb and Zr concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS whole rock
analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia
sections.............................................................................................................................................. 77
Figure 59:
Portable XRF reading of the Y and Fe concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS/ES whole
rock analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia
sections.............................................................................................................................................. 78

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 7
List of tables
Table 1:
Overview of the six intrusion stages of the Storkwitz-Structure (after WASTERNACK 2008)................. 13
Table 2:
Classification of carbonatites by their main carbonates and their grain size
(after LE MAITRE et al. 2002)................................................................................................................. 14
Table 3:
Classification of carbonatites by their main oxides (after LE MAITRE et al. 2002). ................................ 15
Table 4:
Average measured magnetic susceptibility of the main lithotypes....................................................... 22
Table 5:
Absolute average concentrations of REE of the three major lithotypes............................................... 32
Table 6:
Relative average concentrations of the most common REE of the three major lithotypes.................. 32
Table 7:
Minor elements (EDX-data) in calcite composition in alvikite and breccia. .......................................... 38
Table 8:
Comparison of the content of selected elements measured in the core and rim of apatite
crystals with EDX-analyses.................................................................................................................. 43
Table 9:
Occurrence of monazite textures in breccia samples........................................................................... 49
Table 10: Average amounts of REE, Sr and Th of the monazites sorted by rock types (EDX-data).
Thorium was predominantly detected in breccia-hosted monazites..................................................... 51
Table 11: Classification of REE fluorocarbonates (MENG et al. 2002)................................................................. 52
Table 12: Average REE and fluorine contents of the different REE-fluorocarbonate types (EDX-data).
The measurements, carried out in thin section SES1.27 show a completely different
composition. .......................................................................................................................................... 55
Table 13: Average composition of zirconolites (EDX-data, n=24)........................................................................ 57
Table 14: Average composition of pyrochlores (EDX-data). ................................................................................ 58
Table 15: Average composition of Ti-oxides (EDX-data). .................................................................................... 60
Table 16: Average composition of the baddeleyites (EDX-data, n=12)............................................................... 61
Table 17: Measured reflectance features and their occurrence. Dots in brackets are minor phases.................. 64
Table 18: Overview of the occurring minerals and phases in the matrix of the igneous breccia samples........... 67
Table 19: Overview of the occurring minerals and phases in the alvikite samples.............................................. 68
Table 20: Examples for hydrothermal environments, in which other REE-minerals were formed
(after MIGDISOV ET AL.2016).................................................................................................................. 73
Table 21: Petrographic log of the drill core SES-1/2012 from 240 to 273 m........................................................ 75
Table 22: Table with the geochemical data from the whole rock analysis for all taken samples;
colour codes by their lithology.............................................................................................................. 79

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 8
List of abbreviations
REE
Rare earth elements
LREE
Light rare earth elements
HREE
Heavy rare earth elements
UML-CR
Ultramafic Lamprophyre - Carbon-
atite complex
MGCH
Mid-German Crystalline High
IUGS
International Union of Geological
Sciences
XRF
X-ray fluorescence
ICP-MS/ES
Inductively coupled plasma mass
spectrometry / emission spectrom-
etry
SEM
Scanning electron microscope
(SEM)-BSE
Backscattered electron
(SEM)-EDX
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectros-
copy
SWIR
Short-wavelength infrared
NIR
Near infrared
VIS
Visible light
EPMA
Electron probe microanalysis
Abbrevations of minerals
Ab
Albite*
Al-Silic
Alumosilicates
Ap
Apatite*
Bas
Bastnaesite*
Bdy
Baddeleyite*
Brt
Barite*
Cal
Calcite*
Ccp
Chalcopyrite*
Gth
Goethite*
Hem
Hematite*
Mag
Magnesite*
Mnz
Monazite*
Pcl
Pyrochlore*
Phl
Phlogopite*
Py
Pyrite*
Qz
Quartz*
REE-F-Carb REE-fluorocarbonates
Sa
Sanidine*
Syn
Synchisite
Urp
Uranophane
Zcl
Zirkonolite
* taken from WHITNEY & EVANS (2009)

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 9
Abstract
The Storkwitz-Carbonatite is a Late Cretaceous intru-
sive complex, which is well-explored by a relatively
large number of exploration bore holes both from the
1970ies, 1980ies and from one more recent bore hole,
SES-1/2012. The carbonatite complex hosts a (cur-
rently) marginally economic mineralisation of rare
earth elements (REE) and niobium, which is technical-
ly still difficult to recover. The upper part of the car-
bonatitic body is located some 100-120 m below the
Pre-Cenozoic land surface, which in turn is overlain by
approximately 100 m of glacial, fluvio-glacial, and
fluviatile sediments.
The aim of this study was to characterize the minerali-
sation in the upper part of the intrusion geochemically
and mineralogically and to try to identify indications of
a supergene overprint on the late magmatic to hydro-
thermal mineralisation. Fresh drill core samples from
the exploration bore hole SES-1/2012 have revealed
that the mineralisation is associated with a carbonatit-
ic igneous breccia body and also with several alvikite
veins. The breccia body is very heterogeneous, dis-
plays a variety of matrix colours and also a range of
matrix-to-clast ratios.
Non-destructive analytical methods like p-XRF anal-
yses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and
SWIR-reflectance spectroscopy were carried out di-
rectly on the drill core. The samples were also investi-
gated by optical microscopy, scanning electron mi-
croscopy (SEM) and their geochemical composition
was analysed by whole rock analyses at a certified
laboratory.
The geochemical results confirm the presence of a
REE-enriched zone, which is closely associated with
the carbonatitic intrusion, whereas the porphyritic
clasts of the breccia and the porphyritic wall rocks do
not contain any REE mineralisation. The mineral
composition of the examined sections is very hetero-
geneous and comprises magmatic phenocrysts as
well as a large variety of secondary mineral phases,
which were formed by either hypogene, ascending
late magmatic carbothermal or subsequent hydro-
thermal processes or alternatively by deeply descend-
ing meteoric supergene processes. The secondary
processes were strongly oxidising and formed abun-
dant hydrated mineral phases. The REE ore minerals
are
predominantly
secondary
monazites
and
REE-fluorocarbonates, which both occur in igneous
breccias as well as in alvikite veins. Other minerals
such as apatite or pyrochlore are slightly enriched in
REE. However, there is no significant correlation be-
tween the proportion of REE-bearing minerals ob-
served microscopically and the geochemical REE
concentration.
Several mineral phases display intensive alteration
textures and parageneses and especially the crypto-
crystalline matrix of the breccias indicate a supergene
influence. The supergene overprint has thus caused
the alteration and formation of supergene Fe-
oxyhydroxides and of an alumo-siliceous matrix and
the local redistribution of the REE within the REE-
mineral phases. However, no signs were detected that
indicate a dissolution, transport, and especially frac-
tionation of the dissolved REE in the (deep) super-
gene environment.

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Zusammenfassung
Der Storkwitz-Karbonatit ist ein Intrusivkomplex aus
der Oberkreide, welcher durch ein Bohrprogramm,
beginnend in den 1970er Jahren und einer Explorati-
onsbohrung aus dem Jahr 2012 (SES-1/2012) relativ
engmaschig exploriert wurde. Der Komplex besitzt
eine (derzeit) kaum wirtschaftlich gewinnbare Minera-
lisation von Seltenen Erden Elementen (SEE) und
Niob. Der oberste Teil der Karbonatitintrusion befindet
sich 100-120 m unter der prä-Känozoischen Land-
oberfläche, die wiederum von circa 100 m eiszeitli-
chen Sedimenten (glazial bis fluviatil) überdeckt wird.
Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den mine-
ralisierten Bereich aus dem obersten Teil der Intrusion
nach geochemischen und mineralogischen Gesichts-
punkten anhand von Bohrkernproben zu charakteri-
sieren und dabei mögliche Hinweise auf eine super-
gene Überprägung der spät-magmatisch bis hydro-
thermalen Mineralisation zu finden. Anhand dieser
Proben, entnommen aus der Bohrung SES-1/2012,
zeigt sich, dass die Mineralisation an einen karbonati-
tisch-magmatischen Brekzienkörper und zusätzlich an
einige Alvikitadern gebunden ist. Der Brekzienkörper
ist in sich sehr heterogen und zeigt eine Reihe ver-
schiedener Matrixfarben und stark variierende Matrix-
zu-Klasten Verhältnisse.
Zerstörungsfreie Untersuchungsmethoden wie p-XRF
Analysen, Messungen der magnetischen Suszeptibili-
tät und kurzwellige Infrarot-Spektroskopie wurden
direkt am Bohrkern durchgeführt. Des Weiteren wur-
den Proben mittels optischer Mikroskopie, Raster-
elektronenmikroskopie und geochemischen Gesamt-
gesteinsanalysen in einem zertifizierten Labor unter-
sucht.
Die Ergebnisse der geochemischen Analysen bestäti-
gen das Vorhandensein einer SEE-angereicherten
Zone, welche eng an die karbonatitische Intrusion
geknüpft ist, wohingegen die porphyrischen Klasten
der Brekzien sowie das porphyrische Nebengestein
keine SEE-Mineralisation aufweisen. Die mineralogi-
sche Zusammensetzung des untersuchten Bohrkern-
abschnittes ist sehr heterogen und umfasst neben
magmatischen Einsprenglingen eine Vielzahl von
sekundären Mineralphasen, die sich entweder hy-
pogen, spät magmatisch, carbothermal bis hydro-
thermal oder durch tiefe meteorische Prozesse super-
gen gebildet haben können. Die sekundären Mineral-
phasen belegen die intensive Oxidation und Hydrata-
tion der Paragenese. Die SEE-Erzminerale sind
hauptsächlich Monazit und SEE-Fluorokarbonate, die
sowohl in der Matrix der magmatischen Brekzien als
auch in den Alvikitadern vorkommen. Weitere Minera-
le wie Apatit oder Pyrochlor sind ebenfalls leicht an
SEE angereichert. Eine signifikante Korrelation zwi-
schen dem mikroskopisch beobachteten Anteil der
SEE-führenden Mineralphasen und der geochemi-
schen SEE-Konzentration wurde nicht festgestellt.
Einige Mineralphasen zeigen deutliche Alterationstex-
turen und -paragenesen, wobei speziell die kryptokris-
talline Matrix der Brekzien auf einen supergenen Ein-
fluss hindeutet. Die supergene Überprägung kann
somit
die
Alteration,
die
Formation
der
Fe-
Oxihydroxide und der alumo-silikatischen Matrix sowie
die lokale Neuverteilung der SEE mit der Bildung der
sekundären SEE-Mineralphasen verursacht haben.
Dennoch konnten keine geochemischen Hinweise
gefunden werden, die auf eine substantielle Mobilisie-
rung, Transport oder Fraktionierung der SEE in einer
supergenen Umgebung deuten.

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1. Introduction
In the 1970s and 1980s, a cluster of ultramafic and
carbonatitic intrusions was detected by an intensive
drilling campaign by the SDAG Wismut near
Delitzsch. This Ultramafic Lamprophyre - Carbonatite
complex (UML-CR) of Delitzsch is located at the bor-
der between Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt 20 km north
of Leipzig and 25 km east of Halle (WASTERNACK
2008). Carbonatites are defined by the International
Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) as igneous
rocks, with more than 50 % carbonate minerals. There
are many aspects of the genesis, transport, solubility
and alteration of carbonatites and their melts, which
are poorly understood jet (MITCHELL 2005). Economi-
cally, these rocks can be interesting, because of their
high amounts of rare earth elements (REE) and asso-
ciated elements like yttrium, zirconium and niobium.
Carbonatites have the highest contents of REE of all
igneous rocks (CULLERS & GRAF 1984).
Therefore, carbonatite occurrences of the UML-CR
became interesting again during the rare earth ele-
ment crisis from 2009 to 2012. In 2009, the production
of REE was nearly completely accumulated in China.
Due to introduced production quotas, export taxes and
other restrictions, the price for REE has risen dramati-
cally (VONCKEN 2016). Since this crisis, many REE
deposits were explored, so that the monopole of china
will decrease until 2020 (POTHEN 2013). In these
years, the State Office for Geology and Mining Saxo-
ny-Anhalt (LAGB) and the Saxon State Office for Envi-
ronment, Agriculture and Geology (LfULG) carried out
a couple of projects with the Martin-Luther-University
Halle-Wittenberg to re-evaluate the carbonatites of the
UML-CR Delitzsch (UHDE 2011; MARIEN 2014; IWAN
2017). The Storkwitz-Structure, a carbonatite body
near the village of Storkwitz, was the most promising
structure, which was described and drilled by the
SDAG Wismut (MARIEN et al. 2012). In 2012, the Sel-
tenerden Storkwitz AG began a new drilling project.
The resulting drill core SES-1/2012, which was the
subject of this project, has mineralised sections with
the typical increased amounts of REE and niobium
(REICHERT et al. 2015).
The surface nearest penetrated parts of the carbon-
atite are located approximately 120 m below the Pre-
Cenozoic surface, so a supergene alteration and en-
richment of the REE could be possible. Aim of this
project was, to find hints for supergene processes.
Therefore, the used part of the drill core is character-
ized with geochemical and mineralogical methods to
derive hints on the genesis of the mineralisation and
the associated processes and environments.
Regional geology
The UML-CR Delitzsch is located on the southern
border of the Mid-German Crystalline High (MGCH)
(KRÜGER et al. 2013). The MGCH is a NE-SW trending
Variscan basement wedge, which is part of the Rheic
suture (Fig. 1 a). The Rheic suture was formed by
closure of the Rheic ocean during the collision be-
tween Avalonia and Saxo-Thuringia (ZEH & GERDES
2010). The MGCH consists of 2 major units, which
come from different geotectonic setting and were jux-
taposed during the Variscan collision. Unit 1 includes
relics from a magmatic arc, which was formed by the
subduction of the Rheic ocean under Saxo-Thuringia
between 360 and 330 Ma and contains Cambrian to
Ordovician sediments (ZEh & GERDES 2010).
Unit 2 consists of a metasediment-metabasite suc-
cession, which is part of the Rhenohercynian domain.
Additional, gneisses belong to this unit, which are
interpreted to be relics of a Late Silurian to Early De-
vonian magmatic arc. Outcrops of the MGCH in Ger-
many are located for example in the Odenwald, in the
Spessart, in the Ruhla Crystalline Complex and in the
northern Zone of the Kyffhäuser (ZEH & GERDES
2010). In the area of the UML-CR Delitzsch, the
MGCH is located 100 to 120 m under the recent sur-
face with an overlap of Cenozoic sediments (STANDKE
1995). It contains the Palaeozoic sediments of unit 1,
which are deposited on top of the Cadomian base-
ment (KRÜGER et al. 2013) and represent members of
the Rothstein-, Zwethau- and Delitzsch-Formations.
The Rothstein- and Zwethau-Formations contain a
variety of sediments like flysch layers, siltstones,
sandstones, limestones and marl (EHLING 2008).
Magmatic intrusions occur seldom. Due to Late Var-
iscan magmatism, contact metamorphism took place
locally and was detected at some drill cores. The
Delitzsch-Formation consists of alternating strata of
mudstones, siltstones and sandstones and a rare
occurrence of meta-basalts (EHLING 2008).
The hanging wall succession overlaying the sedi-
ments of the MGCH is characterized by conglomer-
ates, sand- and siltstones, pyroclastic rocks, volcanic
rocks and occasional organic rich shale and is strati-
graphically assigned to the Early Carboniferous
Klitschmar-Formation (SCHWAB & EHLING 2008). In the
Late Variscan phase, magmatism led to the intrusion
of differentially evolved magma batches in the area
around the UML-CR. In the southeast of Delitzsch, a
multiphase intrusive complex of 13 x 8 km represents
one of these magmatic bodies, whereas it mainly con-
sists of diorites with an age of 237 Ma and granitoids
with an age of 292 Ma (WALTER & SCHNEIDER 2008).

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 12
Figure 1: a – Regional geology and plate tectonic of central europe.; b, c – Position of the UML-CR
Delitzsch with an overview of some drillings carried out by the SDAG Wismut (KRÜGER et al. 2013).
Abbildung 1: a – Regionale Geologie und Plattendtektonik von Mitteleuropa; b, c – Lage der UML-CR
Delitzsch mit einigen, von der SDAG Wismut abgeteuften, Bohrungen (KRÜGER et al. 2013)
In Storkwitz and the near Schenkenberg, a small por-
phyritic laccolith was detected by magnetic exploration
in the course of a drilling program conducted by the
SDAG Wismut in the 1960s, which is poorly docu-
mented by scientific publications or difficult of access,
because of confidentiality of internal reports. The lac-
colith is a light grey and fine crystalline quartz-
porphyry and contains 0.6 to 7 m thick andesite Late
Carboniferous (WASTERNACK 2008). In the regional
geology, this unit is called “Schenkenberger Plagio-
granitporphyr” (WISMUT GMBH 1999).
The UML-CR Delitzsch is located on the intersection
of two fault systems, the E-W trending Delitzsch-
Doberlug-Syncline and the N-S trending Leipzig-
Rostock-Regensburg fault zone (WASTERNACK 2008).
During reorganization of the regional stress field,
these fault systems were repeatedly reactivated and
caused horst and graben structures, near the UML-
CR Delitzsch, namely the “Bitterfelder Horst” and the
“Kyhnaer Horst” with a transform offset up to 3 km
(WAGNER et al. 1997). Reactivating events were for
example the development of the Oslo Rift, the open-
ing of the Tethys and the Atlantic, and the Alpine
Orogeny (KRÜGER et al. 2013).
During the Late Cretaceous, the UML-CR Delitzsch
with its carbonatites and ultramafic lamprophyres is
emplaced into a heterogeneous series of the Palaeo-
zoic and Carboniferous sediments and the Late Var-
iscan volcanic rocks. That has been revealed by in-
tensive drilling campaigns in the 1970s and 1980s
carried out by the SDAG Wismut (Fig. 1 b, c). Based
on these drillings, the extension of the complex of

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 13
Table 1: Overview of the six intrusion stages of the Storkwitz-Structure (after WASTERNACK 2008).
Tabelle 1: Übersicht der sechs Intrusionsphasen der Storkwitz-Struktur (nach WASTERNACK 2008)
80 m² was proved. Further estimations incorporating
more peripheral drilling locations suggest that the size
could be expanded to approximately 450 km2
(WASTERNACK 2008). Intrusive breccias, diatremes,
dikes, sills, pipe shaped intrusions of lamprophyres
(alnöits, monchiquites, etc.) and carbonatites (dolo-
mite- and calcite-carbonatite) take evidence for sub-
volcanic intrusions. These were found up to a depth
range of 600 m below ground level. The carbonatite
occurrence of Storkwitz is characterized by intrusive
dolomite-carbonatite breccias, which among other
contain
xenoliths
of
coarse-grained
dolomite–
carbonatite (rauhaugite), fenites, and glimmerites.
This indicates the presence of a hypabyssal stock-
work, which was not yet explored by the drill programs
(KRÜGER et al. 2013). A total of six intrusion stages
can be distinguished, a first hypabyssal stage and
later five subvolcanic intrusions (Tab. 1) (RÖLLIG et al.
1995).
The timing of the emplacement of the different sub-
volcanic stages was dated with the U/Pb, the Rb/Sr
and the 87Sr/86Sr isotope system. The determined
ages correlate, so that for the main phase an age of
75 Ma to 71 Ma can be supposed (KRÜGER et al.
2013).
Carbonatites mainly occur as intrusive breccias with
carbonatic matrix and clasts, which mostly consist of
the adjacent magmatites and sediments. These clasts
are mostly angular. Some breccias contain also xeno-
liths from the hypabyssal stage or deeper levels of the
crust. These rock fragments are often more rounded,
because of the longer way of transportation. On basis
of the occurrence of these xenoliths two different
types of breccias were distinguished by their composi-
tion and geochemical signature. The type A includes
all intrusive breccias with the ultramafic lamprophyre
clasts, while breccias without these clasts belong to
type B. The size of the clasts is varying from some
millimetres to a few cubic metres
and concentration from less than 10 to over 90 vol-
ume percent (RÖLLIG et al. 1990). In addition to the
breccias, there are also fine crystalline carbonatite
veins, which are composed of more than 50 vol.% of
calcite. The compact carbonatites and the carbonatite
breccias occur as dolomite-carbonatite (beforsite) as
well as calcite-carbonatite (alvikites) (KRÜGER et al.
2013).
The drilling spot of the examined drilling (SES-1/2012)
is located in the southwest of the village Storkwitz
(REICHERT et al. 2015) and penetrated the Storkwitz-
Carbonatite, a subvolcanic diatreme like carbonatite-
breccia intrusion of the UCC Delitzsch (Fig. 2) with a
big amount of REE and Nb.
1.2 Carbonatites
As described in the introduction, Carbonatites are
igneous rocks, which may be plutonic or volcanic
origin and contain more than 50 % carbonate minerals
(STRECKEISEN 1979). This definition, which is also
accepted as the official IUGS definition, is very gen-
eral, which is caused by the fact, the genesis of car-
bonatite and the behaviour of the magma is not un-
derstood very well jet (MITCHELL 2005).
Carbonatites in general are mantle derived and there
are three scenarios, how a carbonatitic magma can
arise. They can be generated by (a) primary mantle
melting, (b) liquid immiscibility and (c) crystal fraction-
ation. In first scenario, there has to be a metasomatic
enrichment of CO
2
in the mantle, which causes the
building of a primary magma. Subducted oceanic
crust could be a possible source of the CO
2
(BELl et
al. 1998). Because of the association of the most car-
bonatite with silicate magmatic rocks, the other two
scenarios are conceivable. The cooling of a siliceous-
carbonatitic magma in the mantle would cause immis-
cibility and separation in a siliceous melt and a car-
Stage
Event
Depth level
Rock types
I
Intrusion of carbonatitic magma body
Hypabyssal
Dolomite–carbonatite
II
Intrusion of ultramafic and alkali lamprophyres
Subvolcanic
Ultramafic lamprophyres (alnöite, aillikite, monchiquites)
III
Formation of diatremes (‘intrusive breccia’)
Subvolcanic
Dolomite–carbonatite (beforsite) with xenoliths (UML and
dolomitecarbonatite)
IV
Intrusion of lamprophyres within diatremes of
stage III
Subvolcanic
Ultramafic and alkalilamprophyres
V
Formation of beforsite dikes
Subvolcanic
Dolomite–carbonatite (beforsites) without xenoliths
VI
Formation of carbonate dikes
Subvolcanic
Calcite–carbonatite (alvikite), partly with xenoliths

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 14
bonatitic melt. This would explain the common asso-
ciation of both igneous rocks (PANINA & MOTORINA
2008).
The third scenario is a fractionated crystallization of a
siliceous magma, which causes the transformation in
a residual carbonatite melt (BELL et al. 1998). The
classification of carbonatite is defined by the mineral-
ogy and grain size (Tab. 2) or their main oxides (Tab.
3), if the carbonates are too small for identification (LE
MAITRE et al. 2002).
Figure 2: A – Location of the drilling spot of SES-1/2012 (modified after EHLING 2008).; B – Simplified
profile of the drilling SES-1/2012 (modified after SELTENERDEN STORKWITZ AG 2012).
Abbildung 2: A – Lage der Bohrung SES-1/2012 (verändert nach EHLING 2008); B – Vereinfachtes Profil
des Storkwitz-Karbonatits mit der Bohrung SES-1/2012 (verändert nach SELTENERDEN STORKWITZ AG
2012)
Table 2: Classification of carbonatites by their main carbonates and their grain size (after LE MAITRE et
al. 2002).
Tabelle 2: Klassifikation von Karbonatiten nach den Hauptkarbonaten und deren Korngröße (nach LE
MAITRE et al. 2002)
Carbonatite subtype
Main carbonate
Grain size
Calcite-carbonatite
Calcite
-
Alvikite
Calcite
Fine-grained
Sövite
Calcite
Coarse-grained
Dolomite-carbonatite
Dolomite
-
Beforsite
Dolomite
Fine-grained
Rauhaugite
Dolomite
Coarse-grained
Ferrocarbonatite
Fe-rich carbonates
-
Natrocarbonatite
Na, K, Ca-rich carbonates
-

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 15
Table 3: Classification of carbonatites by their main oxides (after LE MAITRE et al. 2002).
Tabelle 3: Klassifikation von Karbonatiten nach deren Hauptoxiden (nach LE MAITRE et al. 2002)
Until the year 2008, there were 527 carbonatite occur-
rences described (Fig. 3). These are mainly associat-
ed with extensional tectonics, rifting and crossing
fault-systems. The majority of the carbonatites placed
in an intra-plate setting, but also minor at plate
boundaries. Furthermore, there are carbonatites
linked to orogenic belts, although they occur rarely
directly in an orogen (WOOLLEY 1989).
There seems to be an affinity of carbonatites to sur-
face
near
Precambrian
rocks
(WOOLLEY
&
KJARSGAARD 2008). Furthermore, carbonatites can
occur in clusters. The associated deep fault systems
can be reactivated several times, so that a group of
intrusions accumulate (BELL et al. 1987).
2. Methodology
Due to the high lithological variability of the drill core,
preliminary examinations with a portable XRF and a
susceptibility-meter were carried out, to determine the
best sampling spots. Samples were taken from 33
positions of the drill core, which were used for a geo-
chemical whole rock analysis. Additionally, thin sec-
tions were prepared from 30 samples. The selection
of the sampling spots was carried out according litho-
logical aspects, so that the sample suite extracted
from the drill core comprise five samples account to
porphyries, 17 to breccias and 11 to alvikites. As main
investigations, the geochemical whole rock analysis
and the microscopy were made, in which optical mi-
croscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
Figure 3: World map with all carbonatite occurrences known in 2008 (WOOLLEY & KJARSGAARD 2008).
Abbildung 3: Weltkarte mit allen im Jahr 2008 bekannten Karbonatitvorkommen (WOOLLEY & KJARSGAARD
2008)
Carbonatite subtype
Main oxides
Calciocarbonatite
CaO > 80 %
Magnesiocarbonatite
SiO
2
< 20 %, CaO > 80 %, MgO/(FeO + Fe
2
O
3
+ MnO) > 1
Ferrocarbonatite
SiO
2
< 20 %, CaO > 80 %, MgO/(FeO + Fe
2
O
3
+ MnO) < 1
Silicocarbonatite
SiO
2
> 20 %

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 16
were used. The reflectance spectroscopy was used
supplementary, to get additional information about the
minerals and phases, which could not be classified
with the microscopic methods.
2.1 Portable XRF
For the logging with a pXRF (Thermo Scientific Niton
Xl3t), the Ta/Hf mode for environmental samples was
used with a measuring time of 90 s (30 s standard
filter and 60 s filter for heavy elements), in which it is
possible, to measure the concentration of some
REEs, especially lanthanum and cerium. Due to the
usage of the “small spot” option, the measuring field is
3 mm in diameter, so separate measurements of
small heterogeneous areas such as the matrix and the
clasts of breccias can be performed. If possible,
measurement took place directly on the core and oth-
erwise on crushed and dried samples with a size <
2mm in diameter. Because the portable XRF results
correlate linearly with the results from other methods
(ICP-ES, ICP-MS, wavelength-dispersive XRF), the
measurement can easily be calibrated (RYAN et al.
2017) with sample returns from the geochemical
whole rock analyses (Fig. 4).
2.2 Magnetic susceptibility
The measurement of the volume magnetic susceptibil-
ity was carried out with a “MS2 Magnetic Susceptibility
System” with a “MS2E Core Logging Sensor” from
Bartington and took place directly on the core.
The spot size of the sensor is 10.5 mm in diameter
and the maximum depth of total response is 3.8 mm
and 50 % response in a depth of 1 mm, so that the
measurement represents a surface analysis (Barting-
ton Instruments Ltd.).
Figure 4: ICP-MS/ES vs. portable XRF - plot for several elements. The linear correlation is clearly visible
for all these elements although the scattering of the plots and the slope of the correlation graph is vary-
ing.
Abbildung 4: ICP-MS/ES – portable RFA-Diagramm. Die Lineare Korrelation zwischen den Messverfah-
ren ist bei allen Elementen sichtbar, auch wenn die Qualität der Korrelation von Element zu Element
variiert.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 17
2.3 Geochemical analysis
The samples (whole rock samples) were crushed, and
analysed by Bureau Veritas. In the chosen package,
the major oxides were measured by inductively cou-
pled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES) and
trace elements, including the rare earth elements, by
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-
MS).
2.4 Microscopy
The main phases and textures were analysed by nor-
mal polarization and reflectance microscopy. The
used microscope was an Axiophot polarization micro-
scope from Carl Zeiss with a Digital Sight DS-Fi2/ DS-
U3 analogue-to-digital converter from Nikon. Further-
more, the SEM from the Institute of Geosciences and
Geography of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-
Wittenberg, a SEM JSM 6300 SEM from JOEL with
the EDX-detector XFlash 5010 from Bruker, was
used. The acceleration voltage was approximately 20
kV and the resolution of the EDX-detector is 123 eV.
2.5 Reflectance spectroscopy
For the reflectance spectroscopy, a TerraSpec spec-
trometer from ASD Inc. was used, whose spectral
range includes the visible light (VIS), the near infrared
(NIR) and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sections
of
the
electromagnetic
spectra
(350-2500
nm)(ASD Inc. 2012). If possible, the measurement
took place directly on the drill core, in which a broken
rough surface showed better results, than a sawn
smooth surface. For the breccias, matrix dominated
areas were selected. If the conservation of the core
was too bad, the grain size smaller 2 mm was sepa-
rated and used as loose dried sample for the meas-
urements. This treatment has no influence on the
position of the detected features in the spectrum and
their relative size. Due to the similarity of several re-
flectance spectra, these were summarized to groups,
in which only the average graph was evaluated.
3. Lithological description
The examined part of the drill core SES-1 is located
from 240 m to 273 m of depth and was only logged
during the drilling process. In this part, the core is 10
cm in diameter and mostly in a well-preserved state.
Three main lithotypes can be distinguished clearly that
comprise porphyritic rocks (Fig. 5), breccias (Fig. 6)
and carbonatite veins (alvikites) (Fig. 7), which are
described below. A detailed drill log can be found in
the annex and in figure 8.
3.1 Porphyritic rock
The porphyries (Plagiogranitporphyr) have a fine to
medium grained porphyritic texture and contain some
quartz and feldspar phenocrysts (Fig. 5 A,B), which
can have a size up to 5 mm in diameter.
This lithotype shows no reaction with diluted hydro-
chloric acid (10 %). The colour is varying from yellow-
beige to reddish colours and there is a pronounced
zonation in some areas, especially around joints and a
carbonatitic vein at a depth of 244 m.
In the sections dominated by porphyry rock are well
preserved and only fractured by joints. These joints
occur irregularly as single joint or as joint sets without
extend into other lithotypes. Thus, the porphyries can
be regarded as the oldest unit. In some cases, there is
talc in the joints, on which slickensides can be found
(Fig. 5 C). The porphyries can be interpreted as wall
rock.
3.2 Igneous breccia
The breccias have the biggest macroscopic variability
among the lithotypes. Over the whole examined core
section, there is one breccia body from 252.5 m to
265.6 m depth, which is penetrated by several car-
bonatite (alvikite) veins.
The breccias have a fine- to cryptocrystalline matrix,
which has a very large colour variability from dark red
(Fig. 6 C,E) to beige (Fig. 6 B,D) to greyish (Fig. 6 A)
colours. The colour gradient from red to beige is par-
ticularly pronounced at the border to carbonatite
veins. The matrix shows, with the exception of the
greyish coloured matrix, no reaction with hydrochloric
acid. In these greyish areas, a very light reaction with
hydrochloric acid can be observed.
The clasts have a size range from a few millimetres to
tens of centimetres in diameter. They consist mostly
of the wall rock lithotypes, in particular subangular
fragments of porphyries. Other clasts, such as black
shale, occur occasionally, which appear more round-
ed.
The clast-to-matrix ratio varies widely, allowing the
distinction between breccias with abundant clasts,
which have a clast supported texture and breccias
with a minor portion of clasts, where the texture is
matrix based.
The preservation of the core sections is very different
and generally more disturbed than in the other occur-
ring lithotypes within the drill core section. In some
areas the core is partly well preserved so that the rock
structure is still recognizable while in other areas the
rock fabric is completely disintegrated. The rock prop-
erties of the breccias indicate an igneous origin devel-
oped by intrusion-related fracturing.

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 18
The origin of the igneous breccias of the Storkwitz
carbonatite complex has been the subject of consid-
erable debate for some time. Proposed interpretations
include an origin as an intrusive breccia as well as a
diatreme breccia (pers. communication M. Fiedler, M.
Lapp).
3.3 Alvikite
The occurring alvikite veins in the section of the drill
core penetrate the porphyries as well as the breccias
and can be regarded youngest lithological unit. They
have a thickness range from a few centimetres to a
few metres and the overlap of veins indicate, that they
belong to different generations.
The alvikites have a finely crystalline matrix, which is
of greyish (Fig. 7 A,B), brownish (Fig. 7 D) to reddish
(Fig. 7 C,E) colouring and show black magnetite and
phlogopite crystals in the lower millimetre range. In
the carbonatites, different textures can be identified
ranging from areas with a mostly homogeneous matrix
to heterogeneous areas. There are calcitic streaks,
pure calcite veins which have a thickness of a few
centimetres, heterogeneous areas with an accumula-
tion of phenocrysts and areas with a clayey matrix that
may indicate alteration. Carbonatite xenoliths, which
can be up to 5 cm thick, can be found in some veins.
The alvikite sections shows a very strong reaction with
hydrochloric acid. The core is mostly well preserved in
these sections and only in some areas fragmented.
The fragments are large enough, to reproduce the
rock fabric.
Figure 5: Porphyry of the "Plagiogranitporphyr”; A: Drill core section with an alvikite vein; B: Porphyry
with spherical zoned colouring; C: Joint, filled with talc, with slickensides.
Abbildung 5: Porphyr des “Plagiogranitporphyrs”; A: Bohrkernabschnitt mit Alvikitader; B: Porphyr mit
sphärischer Farbzonierung; C: Kluftfläche mit Talk und Harnischen

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 19
Figure 6: Igneous breccia samples; A: Clast-rich breccia with grey to beige matrix; B: Clast-rich breccia
with beige matrix, C: Clast-rich breccia with red matrix, D: Breccia with minor clasts with beige matrix,
E: Breccia with minor clasts with red matrix (wet surface).
Abbildung 6: Magmatische Brekzie; A: Klastendominierte Brekzie mit grauer bis beiger Matrix; B: Klas-
tendominierte Brekzie mit beiger Matrix, C: Klastendominierte Brekzie mit roter Matrix; D: Klastenarme
Brekzie mit beiger Matrix; E: Klastenarme Brekzie mit roter Matrix (feuchte Oberfläche)

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 20
Figure 7: Alvikite samples; A: Drill core section with greyish blue matrix; B Alvikite with greyish blue
matrix, with brown phlogopites and calcitic streaks; C: Zoned alvikite; with reddish zone; D: Alvikite
with brownish matrix (wet surface); E: Zoned alvikite; with reddish zone (wet surface).
Abbildung 7: Alvikit Handstücke; A: Bohrkernabschnitt mit gräulich-blauer Matrix; B: Alvikit mit gräulich
blauer Matrix, braunen Phlogopiten und calcitischen Schlieren; C: Alvikit mit Farbzonierung; D: Alvikit
mit bräunlicher Matrix (feuchte Oberfläche); E: Alvikit mit Farbzonierung (feuchte Oberfläche)

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 21
Figure 8: Core log with the position of the taken samples for geochemistry and thin sections. From the
samples 14, 15 and 25 no thin section could be made.
Abbildung 8: Bohrlog mit der Position der für Geochemie und zur Dünnschliffherstellung entnommenen
Proben. Aus den Proben 14, 15 und 25 konnten keine Dünnschliffe hergestellt werden.

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 22
4. Magnetic susceptibility
With the susceptibility logging, the three major litho-
types can be identified and clearly distinguished. For
better comparability, all results are converted in the SI
Unit system (Tab. 4). While the porphyritic wall rock
has a very low susceptibility, the alvikites have on
average 1000 times higher values which is most likely
caused by magnetite. The susceptibility of the brecci-
as lies between the other two lithotypes, whereby
some parts with a red matrix in the breccia section
exist, where an increased susceptibility could be
measured. This can be an indication of hematite as a
major iron phase in the matrix, which has a higher
susceptibility than goethite.
The detailed measurement between 240.0 m and
240.4 m depth shows, that the transition between the
lithotypes is very sharp (Fig. 9). The complete log of
the drill core section is shown in figure 10 and the
complete dataset can be found on the enclosed CD.
Table 4: Average measured magnetic susceptibility of the main lithotypes.
Tabelle 4: Durchscnittlich gemessene magnetische Suszeptibilität der Hauptlithotypen
Figure 9: Detailed measurement of a core section with an alvikite (left side) and a porphyritic rock,
which is penetrated by an alvikite vein. The lithotypes can be distinguished very clearly.
Abbildung 9: Detaillierte Suszeptibilitätsmessungen an einem Bohrkernabschnitt mit Übergang von
Alvikit zum Porphyr, welcher durch eine weitere kleine Alvikitader penetriert wird. Die verschiedenen
Lithotypen können klar und scharf unterschieden werden.
Lithotype
Measured points
Average
[10
-6
(SI)]
Std. deviation
[10
-6
(SI)]
Porphyry
103
37
26
Alvikite
215
35.496
13.684
Breccia
93
575
1.073
Breccia without values >1000
87
346
156

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Figure 10: Magnetic susceptibility core log; the different lithotypes can be distinguished clearly.
Abbildung 10: Bohrlog der magnetischen Suszteptibilität. Die verschiedenen Lithotypen können eindeu-
tig unterschieden werden.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 24
5. Geochemistry
In this chapter, all results of the portable XRF and
certified whole rock analysis are summarized. All per-
cent or ppm values in this chapter refer to mass con-
centration, if not described different.
5.1 Portable XRF
The portable XRF analysis enables to create detailed
loggings for some elements like lanthanum, cerium,
niobium, iron, or zirconium. Although this measure-
ment cannot be used to get precise quantitative data,
the values correlate very well with the results of the
certified whole rock analysis. Different lithotypes can
be identified and distinguished clearly according the
reading log of the REE lanthanum and cerium (Fig.
11). While the breccias have the biggest variation of
values, the measurements of the porphyries and alvi-
kites show consistent values for the majority of the
logged elements.
It has been shown, that the REE-mineralisation occurs
predominantly in alvikite veins and in the matrix of the
igneous breccias, while the clasts of the breccias and
the porphyry sections contain no indication for a REE-
mineralisation. In these mineralised sections, also the
highest values of niobium, zirconium and yttrium occur
and seem to be associated to the REE-mineralisation.
However, the high variability of values for the concen-
tration of the REE and associated elements is in gen-
eral higher in the matrix of the breccias, compared to
the alvikites.
The contents of barium and strontium show notewor-
thy variations with the highest values in the alvikite
section between 246.1 m and 252.5 m (Fig. 12). This
is remarkable, because these elements are correlating
with each other but not to any other geochemical or
macroscopic logging. Except for these very high val-
ues, barium and strontium also occur predominantly in
the alvikites and the matrix of the breccias. The high-
est values for iron were detected in the matrix of the
breccias, especially in sections with red matrix. Fur-
thermore, some porphyry sections have also in-
creased amounts of iron.
The loggings for iron, yttrium, niobium and zirconium
can be found in the annex.
5.2 Whole rock analyses
With the results of the whole rock analysis, the three
main lithotypes can be clearly distinguished by a cou-
ple of element concentrations and element associa-
tions, for example by calcium and silicon (Fig. 13). A
table with all results of the analysis can be taken from
the annex. A main outcome is, that the geochemical
lab analyses confirm the portable XRF measure-
ments. As already measured with the portable XRF,
the igneous breccia is the lithotype with the biggest
variability of the geochemical composition, in which
especially iron concentration is varying in a wide
range. The difference of the barium concentration is
bigger in the alvikite samples, than in the other litho-
types, which was also prior analysed by portable XRF.
Furthermore, the REE and the associated elements
occur predominantly in the breccia and alvikite sam-
ples, while the grade is in general higher in the brec-
cias. Due to the variation of the matrix/clast ratio of
the breccia samples, it is only possible, to deduce
general geochemical statements seriously. For some
elements, like the REE, the link between content and
amount of clasts is clearly visible, which indicates, that
these elements only occur in the matrix. For other
elements like barium, this correlation is not so clear
(Fig. 14).
In addition with data from older drillings of the UML-
CR Delitzsch, two different types of intrusive breccias
(with and without lamprophyric clasts) can be defined
and are illustrated in a REE-Ti-Ni/Cr ternary plot (RÖL-
LIG et al. 1990). A comparison with this old plot shows,
that there are no lamprophyric xenoliths in the brecci-
as. The same can be assumed for the alvikite veins,
although this is a comparison of two different rock
types (Fig. 15).
5.2.1 Major components
The porphyry sections contain 70 % silicon oxide
(
SiO
2
), 15 % alumina oxide (
Al
2
O
3
) and 7,5 % alkali
metal oxides (
Na
2
O
+
K
2
O
), which is a typical compo-
sition for felsic igneous rocks (LE MAITRE et al. 2002).
In the TAS diagram (Fig. 16), all samples are situated
in the granite field. The amounts of total iron oxide
(
Fe
2
O
3
) are varying between 1 % and 3 % and there is
no influence of the colour of the samples to the con-
centration of iron.
Comparing the samples from the mineralised section,
the alvikites have a lower variability in their geochemi-
cal composition than the breccia samples. Their main
oxide is calcium oxide (
CaO
), which is up to 48 % in
the samples. (56 % would be the highest possible
amount, if the sample would consist of 100 % calcite.)
Silicon and iron oxides (
SiO
2
and
Fe
2
O
3
) are included
with less than 13 % and magnesium oxide (
MgO
) with
less than 8 %. After classification by main oxides
(WOOLLEY & KEMPE 1989), the sample data plot in the
fields of the calciocarbonatite and the ferrocarbonatite
(Fig. 17). Based on SEM-EDX analyses, which
showed, that calcite is the only existing matrix forming
carbonate in these samples and that iron is predomi-
nantly bound in magnetite, phlogopite and cryptocrys-
talline iron phases, calciocarbonatite or alvikite can be
applied for the classification

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Figure 11: Portable XRF reading of the La and Ce concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS whole rock
analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia sections.
Abbildung 11: Ergebnisse der portablen RFA-Messungen für La und Ce im Vergleich mit der ICP-MS
Gesamtgesteinsanalyse. In den Brekzien-Bereichen sind die portablen RFA Werte in Klasten und Matrix
unterteilt.

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Figure 12: Portable XRF reading of the Sr and Ba concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS whole rock
analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia sections.
Abbildung 12: Ergebnisse der portablen RFA-Messungen für Ba und Sr im Vergleich mit der ICP-MS
Gesamtgesteinsanalyse. In den Brekzien-Bereichen sind die portablen RFA Werte in Klasten und Matrix
unterteilt.

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Figure 13: Binary plots of geochemical data; the three main lithotypes can be clearly distinguished by
the main oxides.
Abbildung 13: Binäre Diagramme der geochemischen Daten. Die drei Hauptgesteinstypen können ein-
deutig mit den Hauptoxiden unterschieden werden.

image
image
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Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 28
Figure 14: Ternary plots to categorize the samples; A: samples from the actual geochemical analysis; B:
Breccia samples from older drilling from the UML-CR, type A are samples with lamprophyric xenoliths
and type B samples without these xenoliths (RÖLLIG et al. 1990).
Abbildung 14: Ternäre Diagramme zur Kategorisierung der Proben; A: Proben der aktuellen geochemi-
schen Analyse; B: Brekzienproben von älteren Bohrungen durch den UML-CR; Typ A sind Brekzien mit
lamprophyrischen Xenolithen und bei Typ B fehlen diese (RÖLLIG et al. 1990)
Figure 15: Link between the content of REE, Ba and U and the proportion of matrix in the breccia sam-
ples. For the REE, there is a correlatoin recognizable.
Abbildung 15: Verknüpfung zwischen dem Gehalt an REE, Ba und U und dem Anteil der Matrix an der
Brekzienprobe. Für die REE ist eine Korrelation erkennbar.

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Figure 16: TAS-Diagram for volcanic rocks (after LE MAITRE et al. 2002); the porphyry samples (red dots)
plot in the granite field.
Abbildung 16: TAS Diagramm für Vulkanite (nach LE MAITRE et al. 2002); Die porphyrischen Proben (rote
Punkte) plotten in das Granitfeld.
The geochemical characterization of the igneous
breccias is more complex, compared to other litho-
types. Generally, the breccias consist of two main
components of varying ratio of clasts and matrix. Ac-
cordingly, breccia samples have the biggest variation
of all lithotypes.
The amount of silicon oxide (
SiO
2
) for example, which
is mainly bound in the clasts, has a range from 30 %
to 70 % in the samples. Although the breccia is part of
a carbonatitic intrusion, there is a comparatively small
proportion of calcium oxide (
CaO
), which is less than
4 % in average and obviously not linked to the colour
of the matrix. The amount of total iron oxide (
Fe
2
O
3
) is
the highest of the three lithotypes and especially in the
breccias with a red matrix, in which the iron content is
increased up to 40 %. Sample SES1.26 (breccia with
red matrix) is an exception, because it is extremely
clast dominated.
5.2.2 Trace elements
In regards to other trace elements, especially the
amounts of strontium, niobium, yttrium, thorium and
uranium they are 10 to 100 times higher than values
for the upper continental crust. Zirconium and barium
are also slightly increased. Furthermore, rubidium
occurs to much lower amounts in the alvikite than in
the breccia samples (Fig. 18). The chondrite data from
(MCDONOUGH & SUN 1995) was used as a reference
for the trace elements.
5.2.3 Rare earth elements
The concentration of the REE oxides (
REE
2
O
3
) is
6397 ppm in average in the breccia samples and 4007
ppm in average in the alvikite samples. The concen-
tration of the light rare earth elements (LREE) is much
higher than the concentration of the heavy rare earth
elements (HREE) (Tab. 5). The amount of lanthanum
and cerium is approximately 65-75 % of all REE and if
adding neodymium, then the amount rises to 80 – 90
% (Tab. 6) (Fig. 19). This is typical for carbonatitic
intrusions, which have the highest amount of REE and
the highest enrichment of LREE in comparison to
HREE of all igneous rocks (CULLERS & GRAF 1984). In
all samples, the Oddo-Harkins-rule is valid for the
REE (expect the radioactive promethium), so that
cerium (Z=58) is the most abundant REE and has
higher amounts than lanthanum (Z=57) or praseodym-
ium (Z=59).

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Compared to chondrites, the amount of the LREE in
the mineralised section is up to 5000 times higher and
the amount of HREE up to 500 times higher (Fig. 20).
The distribution of the REEs is nearly the same in the
breccia and alvikite sections. There is no europium or
cerium anomaly. The distributions of REEs in the
porphyry is nearly the same, but with a small negative
europium anomaly and some variation at the HREE,
which can be caused by the small total amounts of 13
ppm for all HREE in average. Compared to the upper
continental crust the LREE have higher amounts, than
the HREE. The Porphyry has a little bit lower amounts
of REE than the upper continental crust while it is up
to 50 times higher in the mineralised sections. As
reference for the REE, the chondrite data from
BOYNTON (1984) was used.
5.3 Comparison with deeper sections
Geochemical data from deeper sections of the same
drill core were used basically for comparison. This
geochemical dataset was provided by the Ceritech AG
and represents an excerpt from the official exploration
report (REICHERT et al. 2015).
According to this dataset, the drill core penetrates the
main intrusive breccia body of Storkwitz from 371 -
617 m depth. Further, the breccia body can be divided
in an outer zone, where the breccia contains abundant
clasts and an inner zone from 436 m - 529 m depth,
where the breccia is free of clasts (REICHERT et al.
2015). As in the section investigated in this study,
alvikite veins occur as well in deeper levels of the drill
core, which penetrate the breccia body. In order to
compare both depth intervals, the average chemical
composition of the several units is used. The inner
breccia zone is considered to define reference values,
because it can be assumed, that this breccia is asso-
ciated with the intrusion stage, and thus represents
the pristine composition (Fig. 21).
Unfortunately, the statistical quality is much lower for
the alvikites than for the breccias, because geochemi-
cal data from just six alvikite samples are available
from the deeper section. These samples originate
from two different veins. Nevertheless, there are some
significant differences in their composition. The deep-
er veins contain in average higher amounts of oxides,
which can be associated with silicate minerals (
SiO
2
,
Al
2
O
3
,
K
2
O
,
Na
2
O
), while in the upper veins main el-
ement oxides have higher concentrations, which can
be bound in typical carbonatite minerals like car-
bonates in general, pyrochlore or apatite (
CaO
,
TiO
2
,
P
2
O
5
). Furthermore, the alvikites from deeper levels
have higher amounts of rubidium than the samples
from the upper drill core area.
The breccia samples contain generally lower amounts
of magnesium oxide (
MgO
), calcium oxide (
CaO
), and
manganese oxide (
MnO
) than the breccia from the
deeper core section. Especially the higher amount of
calcium oxide in the deeper sections indicates a calcit-
ic matrix, which is obviously altered in the upper sec-
tion. The contents of some oxides, which that are
typical for silicate minerals, are higher in the upper
breccia (
SiO
2
,
Al
2
O
3
,
K
2
O
), what indicates, that an
increased proportion of clasts occur in the upper core
section. Rubidium is higher concentrated in the upper
breccia section.
The geochemical data in regards to trace elements
and REE differ slightly in order to determine devia-
tions with an adequate statistical quality. Consequent-
ly, the amount and distribution of REE is obviously not
changing
with
an
increasing
level
of
depth.
Figure 17: Ternary plot for the classification of the alvikite samples by their proportion of their main
oxides CaO, MgO, Fe2O3 and MnO (after WOOLLEY & KEMPE 1989)
Abbildung 17: Dreiecksdiagramm zur Klassifizierung der Alvikitproben durch das Verhältnis ihrer
Hauptoxide CaO, MgO, Fe2O3 und MnO (nach WOOLLEY & KEMPE 1989)

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Figure 18: Spider plot showing geochemical data of some trace elements (chondrite normalised after
MCDONOUGH & SUN 1995); A: Average amounts in the different lithotypes; B: amounts in breccia sam-
ples; C: amounts in alvikite samples.
Abbildung 18: Spider-Plot mit den geochemischen Daten einiger Spurenelemente (Chrondrit normali-
siert nach MCDONOUGH & SUN 1995); A: Durchschnittliche Gehalte in den verschiedenen Lithotypen; B:
Gehalte in Brekzienproben; C: Gehalte in Alvikitproben

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Table 5: Absolute average concentrations of REE of the three major lithotypes.
Tabelle 5: Absolute durchschnittliche Konzentration von REE in den drei Hauptlithotypen
Table 6: Relative average concentrations of the most common REE of the three major lithotypes.
Tabelle 6: Relative durchschnittliche Konzentration der häufigsten REE in den drei Hauptlithotypen
Figure 19: Distribution of the
three most common REE (Ce,
La, Nd) in various rock types.
Abbildung 19: Verteilung der
drei am meisten vorkommen-
den SEE (Ce, La, Nd) in den
einzelnen Geochemieproben
LREE
2
O
3
[ppm]
HREE
2
O
3
[ppm]
REE
2
O
3
[ppm]
Lithotype
Average
Std. deviation
Average
Std. deviation
Average
Std. deviation
Porphyry
109
26
13
1
122
26
Breccia
6115
2971
282
170
6397
3129
Alvikite
3778
1215
229
74
4007
1266
(La + Ce) / ∑REE [%]
(La + Ce + Nd) / ∑REE [%]
La/Yb
[chondrite normalized]
Lithotype
Average
Std. deviation
Average
Std. deviation
Average
Std. deviation
Porphyry
65.6
1.7
81.9
1.7
28.2
7.4
Breccia
73.6
1.6
89.0
1.0
134.4
38.6
Alvikite
72.6
2.7
87.3
1.6
107.6
29.6

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Figure 20: Spider plot showing geochemical data of the REE (BOYNTON 1984); A: Average concentrations
in the different lithotypes; B: concentration in breccia samples; C: concentration in alvikite samples.
Abbildung 20: Spider-Plot mit den geochemischen Daten der SEE. (Chrondrit normalisiert nach BOYN-
TON 1984); A: Durchschnittliche Gehalte in den verschiedenen Lithotypen; B: Gehalte in Brekzienpro-
ben; C: Gehalte in Alvikitproben

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Figure 21: Geochemical comparison from the samples with deeper sections of the same drilling; A,C,E:
Comparison of the alvikite sections; B,D,F: Comparison of the breccia sections. There are recognizable
differences at some main oxides and rubidium. The contents of REE are similar in the different litholog-
ical units.
Abbildung 21: Geochemischer Vergleich der genommenen Proben mit tieferen Bohrkernabschnitten;
A,C,E: Vergleich der Alvikitadern; B,D,F: Vergleich der Brekzienproben. Es sind deutliche Unter-
schiedebei manchen Hauptoxiden und Rubidium feststellbar, während sich die Konzentration an SEE
kaum unterscheidet.

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6. Mineralogy
6.1 Porphyry
The mineral assemblage of thin sections from the
porphyry (“Plagiogranitporphyr”) are dominated by
silicates. Rock-forming minerals are represented by
quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite and biotite. Zircon,
rutile, apatite and monazite occur accessorily. There
is a fine-grained quarzitic matrix intergrown with
coarse-grained quartz and feldspar mineral pheno-
crysts, which can be a few millimetres in diameter
(Fig. 22 A).
Indication for alteration and secondary minerals are
clearly visible. The minerals of the feldspar group,
especially the large albite crystals are partially sericit-
ized and the EDX-readings show clearly that the mi-
cas are potassium undersaturated. Clay minerals like
chlorite indicate secondary alteration. Additionally, the
porphyry is penetrated by veins filled with hematite,
barite and quartz. Some phenocrysts are fractured by
these veins (Fig. 22 B).
Figure 22: Overview of the porphyry thin sections; A: Sericitized porphyry with quarzitic matrix and
feldspar phenocrysts (optical microscopy, crossed nicols); B: Quarzitic matrix with quartz phenocrysts
and hematite vein (SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 22: Überblick über die Porphyr Bereiche; A: Serizitisierter Porophyr mit quarzitischer Matrix
und Feldspat Einsprenglingen (Durchlichtmikroskopie, gekreuzte Nicols); B: Quarzitische Matrix mit
Quarz Einsprenglingen und Hematitader (SEM-BSE)
6.2 Igneous Breccia
The thin sections from the igneous breccias contain,
with one exception (SES1.18), no calcitic, but an
amorphous to cryptocrystalline alumo-siliceous or
ferrous matrix (Fig. 23). Especially breccias with red
matrix are ferrous-dominated.
Apatite phenocrysts in the matrix can have a size up
to some hundreds of micrometres and are often frac-
tured. Furthermore, the breccia contains up to a few
millimetres
large
phlogopite.
Monazite,
REE-
fluorocarbonates, pyrochlore, baddeleyite and occa-
sional sulphide minerals (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena)
as well as barite occur accessorily. The presence of
REE-fluorocarbonates is restricted to breccias with
grey matrix. The majority of the rock fragments are
made of the surrounding porphyry and contain conse-
quently silicate minerals. Individual quartz or more
common feldspar crystals represent phenocrysts from
the carbonatitic magma or, more likely, display smaller
xenoliths from the surrounding porphyry. These are
often fractured with anhedral shape and show partially
signs of dissolution at the rims. The thin section of
SES1.18 (257.8 m) is a breccia with grey matrix,
which is dominated by calcite and goethite. It corre-
lates with the observation, that the grey coloured are-
as show a low fizzing by testing with hydrochloric acid,
which is not observed on the other thin sections with
grey matrix. Possibly, the carbonate minerals are dis-
tributed heterogeneously. The carbonate minerals are
intergrown
with
large
crystals
of
REE-
fluorocarbonates with up to 250 μm size. Macroscopi-
cally, this breccia section contains approximately 50
% clasts, but the thin section does not contain any
clasts. Consequently, the thin section is not repre-
sentative for this part of the breccia.

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Figure 23: Overview of the igneous breccia thin sections; A: Breccia texture with clasts and matrix (op-
tical microscopy); B: Matrix section with phenocrysts and/or xenoliths (optical microscopy).
Abbildung 23: Überblick über die Dünnschliffe der magmatischen Brekzien; A: Brekzientextur mit Klas-
ten und Matrix (Durchlichtmikroskopie); B: Matrix Abschnitt mit Einsprenglingen oder Xenolithen
(Durchlichtmikroskopie)
6.3 Alvikite
The alvikite veins have a calcite matrix, which is,
however, partially altered and replaced by an amor-
phous to cryptocrystalline alumo-siliceous matrix in
some samples. Especially, samples SES1.27 and
SES1.28 contain large amounts of this alumo-
siliceous matrix, while the alvikites with greyish matrix
host the highest amount of calcite. Calcite is the only
carbonate mineral in the matrix and it can contain up
to 5 mol.% manganese and strontium. Coarse-grained
minerals with a size up to a few millimetres are repre-
sented by apatite, phlogopite and magnetite.
Especially, the phlogopites are macroscopically visi-
ble, but also apatite show partly large crystals as de-
tected in the igneous breccias. These big crystals can
be considered as phenocrysts (Fig. 24). Monazite,
REE-fluorocarbonates, pyrochlore, zirconolite and
occasional sulphide minerals (pyrite, chalcopyrite,
galena), uranophane and barite occur accessorily in
the mineral association.
Figure 24: Overview of the alvikite thin sections; A: Alvikite with greyish matrix (optical microscopy);
B: Alvikite with brownish matrix, more altered (optical microscopy).
Abbildung 24: Überblick über die Alvikit Dünnschliffe; A: Alvikit mit gräulicher Matrix (Durchlichtmikro-
skopie); B: Alvikit mit bräunlicher Matrix (Durchlichtmikroskopie)

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6.4 Characterisation of relevant Minerals
In this chapter, all minerals and phases are described,
which were detectable with microscopic methods. All
percent or ppm values in this chapter refer to molar
concentration, if not indicated differently. The molar
concentration is recalculated from EDX-data. In addi-
tion, the description of the minerals and their occur-
rence refer to the alvikites and the matrix of the brec-
cia samples unless otherwise specified.
6.4.1 Calcite
Calcite (
Ca[CO
3
]
) is the main matrix-forming mineral
in the alvikites and occur exemplarily in the thin sec-
tion of the breccia sample SES1.18. It has a homoge-
neous appearance in the BSE-image, but shows crys-
tal structures with different sizes under the optical
microscope. The major part of the calcitic matrix is
made of anhedral crystals, which are evenly distribut-
ed and variate in the size, depending on the sample,
from a few μm up to 100 μm (Fig. 25 A,B). In addition,
some areas contain much larger, anhedral crystals as
determined in the surrounding matrix that have a size
up to 300 μm (Fig. 25 C-D).
In calcite, the divalent calcium can be substituted by
manganese, iron, magnesium, strontium, cobalt, zinc,
barium, lead and REE (RÖSLER 1991). With the EDX,
small amounts of magnesium, manganese, iron and
strontium were detected in some calcites (Fig. 26;
Tab. 7). Especially the difference between pure calcite
and calcite with manganese or strontium is visible in
the BSE-image and the chemical transition between
calcite and manganese/strontium enriched calcite is
sharp (Fig. 27). It can be concluded, that the different
calcite compositions belong to different crystals and
not to a zonation. In the breccia sample SES1.18, the
calcites contain up to 5 % manganese, which is higher
than in the alvikites. Whether there are traces of REE
in the calcite, cannot be clarified with the EDX. If the
calcite contains REE, these elements would be dis-
tributed homogeneously and the amount would be
smaller than 0.1 %.
Figure 25: Textures of calcite under the optical microscope (B,D) with crossed nicols; A,B: Typical cal-
citic matrix in alvikites; C,D: Calcitic vein with bigger crystals.
Abbildung 25: Kalzittexturen unter dem Durchlichtmikroskop (B,D mit gekreuzten Nicols; A,B: Typische
kalzitische Matrix in Alvikiten; C,D: Kalzitader mit größeren Kristallen

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Table 7: Minor elements (EDX-data; n = 40) in calcite composition in alvikite and breccia.
Tabelle 7: Nebenelemente (EDX-Daten, n = 40) in der Kalzitzusammensetzung in Alvikiten und Brekzien
Figure 26: Distribution and concentration of minor elements in calcite crystals.
Abbildung 26: Häufigkeit und Konzentrationen von Spurenelementen in Calcit Kristallen
Figure 27: Calcite with different minor elements. The sharp transitions indicate crystal boundaries
(SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 27: Calcite mit verschiedenen eingebauten Spurenelementen. Der scharfe Übergang deutet
auf Kristallgrenzen (SEM-EDX)
Element
Readings
> LOD [%]
Average content [%]
Std. deviation [%]
Magnesium
50
0.35
0.19
Manganese
32
2.32
0.99
Iron
13
0.23
0.07
Strontium
53
0.41
0.34

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6.4.2 Cryptocrystalline matrix and clay minerals
In all thin sections, especially from the igneous brec-
cias, amorphous to cryptocrystalline areas were ob-
served. Commonly they look very heterogeneous in
the BSE-image and show a higher amount of cavity
than the surrounding phases. In order to characterize
these phases, reflectance spectroscopy was carried
out (chapter 6.5). The chemical composition of the
amorphous areas can roughly indicate estimations on
the mineral content. According to the composition, the
cryptocrystalline matrix is built up by alumo-siliceous
phases and iron oxides/hydroxides. In general, these
two mineral groups can be clearly distinguished, but
measurements represent mixtures of both (Fig. 28).
This can be caused by a mixed phase or by two or
more single phases that are physically not measura-
ble by EDX-analysis, because of the small particle
size.
Figure 28: Fe-Si-ratio of cryptocrystalline phases determined by EDX-analysis (n=137). Although two
groups are recognizable, either of iron- or silica-rich composition, some samples with moderate Fe and
Si content represent a transitional zone.
Abbildung 28: Fe-Si-Verhältnis der kryptokristallinen Phasen bestimmt durch EDX-Analysen (n= 137).
Obwohl mit eisen- und siliziumreichen Phasen zwei Gruppen ausgemacht werden können, zeigen einige
Probenpunkte mit moderaten Fe- und Si-Gehalten das Vorhandensein eines Übergangsbereiches.
6.4.2.1 Iron oxyhydroxides
Iron oxyhydroxides can be found in the breccia as well
as in the alvikite samples. While the iron phases are
mostly occurring in smaller altered areas in alvikites,
they form wide parts of the matrix in breccias (Fig. 29
A). In breccias with red matrix, nearly the complete
matrix is made of hematite, which can be determined
by optical reflectance microscopy (Fig. 29 B).
Areas with iron phases show often a heterogenic ap-
pearance in BSE-images and occasionally a zonation
by altering distribution of different colours (Fig. 29 C).
These are caused by alternating amount of iron, which
is varying from 20 % to 40 % in the most cases. Fur-
thermore, these phases contain smaller amounts of
titanium (up to 5 %).
In some thin sections occur altered phlogopite crys-
tals, in which secondary iron oxyhydroxide needles
were formed. These needles can be interpreted as
goethite and are described in more detail in the mica
section below (chapter 6.4.3).
6.4.2.2 Alumo-siliceous matrix
The determination of the predominantly amorphous
alumo-siliceous matrix (alumosilicates) cannot be
carried out unequivocal with microscopic methods,
because it lacks of clearly defined mineral properties.
These phases consist of silicon (10-25 %) and alumi-
na (5-15 %) as major elements. Furthermore, small
amounts of magnesium (1-3 %), chlorine (<1 %), po-
tassium (1-2 %), calcium (0.5-4 %) and iron (3-15 %)
are typical components, while sodium (<1 %) and
titanium (<1 %) occur only in some measured phases.
Especially the varying amount of iron causes a heter-
ogeneous appearance in the BSE-image. In sections,
where the amount of iron is consistent, the BSE-
image looks more homogeneous (Fig. 30). Alumosili-
cates partly show a laminated shape assumedly rep-
resenting phyllosilicates.

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6.4.3 Mica
Besides the quartz phenocrysts in the porphyry core
section, Mica represents the largest minerals, which
can be found in the examined drill core. They are an-
hedral and show mostly elongated crystals, which
occur in a size range from few micrometres to few
millimetres. Especially, the large phenocrysts can be
detected easily with the optical microscope. Micas
show a pleochroism from white to pale yellow and
show a variety of second order interference colours
with crossed nicols (Fig. 31), so they can be interpret-
ed as biotites, more precisely as phlogopite, the mag-
nesium-rich endmember of the biotite group (BRIGATTI
et al. 1996). Annite crystals (the iron endmember)
would show more greenish to brownish colours (FLEET
et al. 2003).
The possible chemical variability of micas makes their
classification with the EDX-data more complicated,
because some elements like lithium cannot be detect-
ed and other elements like iron or alumina can occur
in the octahedron as well as in the tetrahedron posi-
tion (FERRARIS & IVALDI 2002). With the formula
Li
2
0
=
[2.1/(0.356 + MgO)] - 0.088, the amount of lithium
(oxide) can be estimated by the amount of magnesi-
um (TISCHENDORF et al. 1999). Therefore, the average
lithium amount of the 53 EDX measurements is less
than 0.05 wt.%.
Further signs of alteration could be detected with the
help of microscopy images. Goethite is intergrown
within the interlayers of mica crystals. Depending on
the cutting position of the thin section, the goethite is
visible as stellate needles (Fig. 32 A) (if looking on the
layers), or as brownish stripes (if looking with an an-
gle) (Fig. 32 B). In the BSE-image, it can be shown,
that some crystals are disintegrate, presumed along of
interlayers (Fig. 32 C). In the sections with high
amounts of barium, the micas have an enriched edge
with up to 3 % barium (Fig. 32 D).
In one alvikite thin section (sample SES1.28), an ap-
proximately 3 mm long mica clast was detected. Alt-
hough there are even larger crystals in other samples,
the clast is special, because it consists of several
smaller crystals in different orientations. Therefore, it
can be interpreted as xenolith from a deeper stage
(Fig. 33).
Figure 29: Breccia samples with iron oxyhydroxides; A: Iron phases, not determinable with microscopic
methods (optical reflectance microscopy); B: Hematite dominated breccia sample (optical reflectance
microscopy, crossed nicols); C: Hematite dominated matrix of a breccia sample (SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 29: Brekzienproben mit Eisen-Oxyhydroxiden; A: Eisenphase, nicht genauer bestimmbar mit
mikroskopischen Methoden (Auflichtmikroskopie); B: Hämatit dominierter Brekzienbereich (Auflichmik-
roskopie, gekreuzte Nicols); C: Hämatit dominierte Matrix einer Brekzienprobe (SEM-BSE)

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Figure 30: Examples for alumo-siliceous phases (SEM-EDX); A: Alumosilicates in a breccia section; the
layer structures in the lower left corner indicate clay minerals (phyllosilicates); B: Alumosilicates and
iron oxyhydroxydes in a breccia; C: Alumosilicates in altered parts of the calcitic matrix; D:
Alumosilicates and iron phases in an alvikite. The variation of the iron content causes the
heterogeneous character in B and D.
Abbildung 30: Beispiele für alumo-silizische Phasen (SEM-EDX); A: Alumosilikate in Brekzienbereich;
die Lagenstruktur in der unteren linken Ecke sind ein Indiz für Tonminerale; B: Alumosilikate und Ei-
senphasen in einem Brekzienschliff; C: Alumosilikate in alterierten Bereichen zwischen kalzitischer
Matrix in einem Alvikit; D: Alumosilikate und Eisenphasen in einem Alvikit. Die Variation des Eisenge-
halts verursacht den heterogenen Charakter in B und D.
6.4.4 Apatite
Minerals of the apatite-group occur with an abun-
dance of 5-20 vol.% in the majority of the samples.
The shape of the detected apatites is varying from
large mostly euhedral (100-1000 μm) phenocrysts,
which can be broken, to smaller anhedral to euhedral
crystals (5-100 μm), which are unevenly distributed in
the matrix.
Apatites are one of the earliest mineral, which crystal-
lize in a carbonatitic magma. Because of the big dif-
ference in density between the carbonatitic magma (≤
2.8 g/cm3; (SYKES et al. 1992)) and the apatites (3.1-
3.2 g/cm3) and the low viscosity of the melt, there is a
gravitational separation of the apatite from their paren-
tal magma. These apatites occur as phenocrysts in
the subvolcanic environment (CHAKHMOURADIAN et al.
2017).
Apatite phenocrysts occur in the breccia samples as
well as in the alvikites. They are often euhedral, slight-
ly rounded and can be fractured (Fig. 34 A, B). Espe-
cially in the breccia samples occur large apatite frag-
ments without coherent structure between individual
fragments (Fig. 34 D). The additional occurrence of
smaller, partly euhedral, partly anhedral apatites gives
the evidence, that apatite was formed subsequently.

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These apatites can also be slightly rounded, but show
more often slightly dissolved crystal rims
In some thin section, predominantly from the alvikite
samples, the apatites have a REE-enriched rim (Fig.
34 C). This rim has mostly no sharp demarcation from
the inner part of the apatite crystals and can be up to
5 μm wide. It was mainly detected at smaller apatites,
but occurs also narrower developed on larger pheno-
crysts.
The content of REE detected in the rim area is in av-
erage 0.7 % (Tab. 8). This enrichment relative to the
core goes along with the enrichment of silicon and
decreasing amounts of fluorine (Fig. 35). In general,
fluorine is the only possible detected anion, which can
be incorporated in apatites, so that it can be estimat-
ed, that a part of apatite represents fluoroapatite.
Chlorine only occurs in some crystals with an amount
of less than 0.3 % and hydroxide cannot be detected
by the EDX. Furthermore, there is no significant dif-
ference in the EDX-data between the small crystals
and the large phenochrysts.
Figure 31: Optical mircoscopy image of phlogopites (B,D with crossed nicols); A,B: Phlogopite crystal
in an alvikite; C,D: Phlogopite crystal in a breccia (in the matrix, surrounded by clasts). The pale yellow
colour under uncossed nicols indicates, that the mica is magnesium-rich.
Abbildung 31: Durchlichtmikroskopiebilder von Phlogopiten (B,D mit gekreuzten Nicols); A,B:
Phlogopitkristall in Alvikitbereich. C,D: Phlogopitkristall in Brekzienbereich (in Matrix, von Klasten
umgeben). Die leicht gelbliche Farbe im Hellfeld impliziert, dass die Glimmer magnesiumreich sind.

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Figure 32: Indications of alteration at phlogopite crystals; A: Secondary goethite on a phlogopite (opti-
cal microscopy); B: Secondary goethite between phlogopite layers (SEM-EDX); C: Altered and partly
decomposed phlogopite (SEM-EDX); D: Phlogopite with barium-enriched rim (SEM-EDX).
Abbildung 32: Alterationsspuren an Phlogopit-Kristallen; A: Sekundäre Goethitausfällungen auf einem
Phlogopit (Durchlichtmikroskopie); B: Sekundäre Goethitausfällungen zwischen Phlogopit-Layern
(SEM-EDX); C: Alterierter und zersetzter Phlogopit (SEM-EDX); D: Phlogopit mit Barium-angereichertem
Randbereich (SEM-EDX)
Table 8: Comparison of the content of selected elements measured in the core (n=49) and rim (n=21) of
apatite crystals with EDX-analyses.
Tabelle 8: Vergleich der Gehalte von bestimmten Elementen, gemessen mit EDY-Analysen im Kernbe-
reich (n=49) und Randbereich (n=21) von Apatit-Kristallen
Fluorine [%]
Silicon [%]
REE [%]
Core
Rim
Core
Rim
Core
Rim
All values
Average content
2.06
0.72
0.66
1.25
0.11
0.73
Std. deviation
2.32
1.27
0.41
0.65
0.24
0.38
Readings > LOD
55
30
59
90
29
90
Readings
> LOD
Average content
3.74
2.40
0.76
1.41
0.38
0.81
Std. deviation
1.85
1.12
0.33
0.46
0.30
0.30

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Figure 33: Phlogopite grain
in an alvikite sample. The
texture, which is consisting
of many smaller crystals,
allows the interpretation as
xenolith (optical microscopy,
crossed nicols).
Abbildung 33: Phlogopit
Korn in Alvikitprobe. Die
Textur, bestehend aus meh-
reren kleinen Kristallen, kann
auf einen Xenolith hinweisen
(Durchlichtmikroskopie, ge-
kreuzte Nicols).
Figure 34: Examples for apatite forms: A: Euhedral phenocryst in an alvikite section (optical microsco-
py); B: Euhedral phenocryst in an alvikite section (SEM-BSE); C: Small apatites with REE enriched rim
in an alvikite section (SEM-BSE), D: Fractured apatites in a breccia section (SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 34: Beispiele für Apatit-Formen: A: Idiomorpher Einsprengling in einem Alvikitbereich
(Durchlichtmikroskopie); B: Idiomorpher Einsprengling in einem Alvikitbereich (SEM-BSE); C: Kleine
Apatite mit einem an SEE angereichertem Saum in einem Alvikitbereich (SEM-BSE); C: Zerbrochene
apatite in einem Brekzienbereich (SEM-BSE)

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Figure 35: Distribution of minor elements in the apatite crystals, comparing core and rim. The rim has
increased values for Si and REE, while F occurs with higher amounts in the core zone.
Abbildung 35: Verteilung von Nebenelementen in Apatit-Kristallen, Rand- und Kernbereich verglei-
chend, Randbereich hat höhere Gehalte an Si und SEE, während F stärker im Kernbereich vorkommt
6.4.5 Magnetite
In the examined thin sections, magnetite predominant-
ly occurs in the alvikites, while it is very rare in the
igneous breccias. The crystals are euhedral, often
octahedral and sometimes show twinning. Magnetite
crystals are between 50-150 μm large and occur ho-
mogeneous distributed (Fig. 36). In some samples,
single crystals reach up to 800 μm size.
Depending on the thin section, different grades of
alteration can be determined, which are obviously not
correlating with the colour of the matrix (alvikite sec-
tions) and the alteration of the surrounding textures. In
many samples, magnetite is recognizable as euhedral
crystals with slight dissolution features at the crystal
edges and occasionally with titanium-rich phases as a
product of segregation. In the BSE-image is often a
zonation from the core to the edge visible, which is an
indication of the beginning alteration of magnetite. In
some crystals, other phases like secondary apatites
were detected in the altered centre.
Figure 36: Euhedral magnetite in alvikite section (A) and breccia section (B) (SEM-EDX).
Abbildung 36: Idiomorphe Magnetit Kristalle in Alvikitbereichen (A) und Brekzienbereichen (B)
(SEM-BSE)

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Figure 37: Different dissolution stages of magnetites in alvikite sections; left side: partially dissolved
crystals; right side: nearly complete dissolved magnetite, were only magnetite fragments are remaining
(A,B: optical microscopy; C,D: optical reflectance microscopy; E,F: SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 37: Verschieden starke Lösungserscheinungen an Magnetit in Alvikiten; linke Seite: teilweise
Aufgelöster Kristall; rechte Seite: fast komplett weggelöster Kristall, in dem nur noch Magnetit Frag-
mente erhalten sind (A,B: optische Mikroskopie; C,D: Auflichtmikroskopie; E,F: SEM-BSE).
In other sections, magnetite appears more altered, so
that the complete core is missing. In extreme cases,
the former magnetite can only be identified by a phe-
nocryst and small remaining crystal fragments (Fig
37). These dissolved areas are in general empty or
contain secondary phases like apatite and amorphous
iron-oxyhydroxide.
EDX-measurements on magnetite phenocrysts (total
32) show a high amount of iron (25-35 %), the amount
of titanium (2-8 %) and the amount of oxygen, which
is approximately 57 % and a bit lower than in the other
iron phases. A negative correlation exists between
iron and titanium, which displays that crystals repre-
sent members of the magnetite-ulvite solution series
(Fig. 38). Other elements detected are magnesium (3-
5 %), alumina (1-4 %) and manganese (0.5-1.5 %).

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Figure 38: Titanium-iron plot of the magnetites from alvikite sections (EDX data, n = 32). The negative
correlation is caused by solid solution between magnetite and ulvite.
Abbildung 38: Titan-Eisen-Plot von den Magnetiten der Alvikitbereiche (EDX-Daten, n = 32). Die negative
Korrelation entsteht durch die Mischreihe zwischen Magnetit und Ulvit.
6.4.6 Monazite
All detected REE-containing phosphates were classi-
fied as monazite, although the difference between
monazite and rhabdophane, which also belongs to the
monazite-group, was indistinguishable with EDX-
measurements.
Monazite was found in nearly each thin section of the
breccias and alvikites. It can easily be detected in the
BSE-image by its very intense brightness because of
the great mass of the REE atoms. The big majority of
the detected monazite crystals was smaller than 1 μm
in diameter and occur in different textures, which are
mostly related to alteration.
In the alvikites, the monazites grains are finely distrib-
uted in the matrix and often associated to alteration
areas like joints, areas with cryptocrystalline alumo-
siliceous matrix and other altered minerals (Fig. 39 B).
In the breccia samples, finely disseminated monazites
represent one of three different textures (Tab. 9).
These monazites are not bound to alteration struc-
tures in contrast to the alvikite samples, because the
whole matrix consists of secondary phases (Fig. 39
A). The content of this fine disseminated monazite is
varying in a wide range. While in some thin sections
only some single grains occur randomly, a high con-
centration of monazite is associated with the matrix in
other section. Partially the REE-concentration is vary-
ing in one section across streak structures.
The second texture is a corona structure around
quartz clasts that is formed by monazite. This texture
occurs in the breccia samples with a minor amount of
clasts. The quartz clasts are enveloped by a small
stripe strongly enriched with monazites (Fig. 40 B, C).
With the optical microscope, this texture can be only
suspected by a diffuse greyish rim around quartz
clasts (Fig. 40 A). Some quartz clasts seem to be
impregnated with titanium in these areas, which is
remarkable, because monazite does not contain any
titanium (Fig. 40 C).
Quartz grains contain spots at the edge, which contain
up to 10 % (20 wt.%) titanium. The size of these tita-
nium enriched zones correlate with the amount of
monazite next to the clast.
The third texture is characterized by an area with a
remarkable high content of monazite. This accumula-
tion occurs very randomly distributed in the matrix of
the breccia samples. There are replacements, which
are related to former minerals and therefore have the
shape of phenoclasts as well as fillings, which are
related to joints or other cavities and have no well-
defined shape (Fig 41. A,B). The latter can be found
nearly in all breccia samples expect in those with a
grey matrix. In the sections with a minor content of
clasts, there are also areas, where monazite occurs
as corona texture accompanied by irregular accumu-
lation (Fig. 41 C).
In the porphyries, monazite occur very rare as acces-
sory mineral and therefore it cannot be clarified in the
frame of this study, whether this small amount of
monazite was formed in relation to the carbonatitic
intrusion, or originate from the porphyry genesis.

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Figure 39: Finely distributed monazites in A: Breccia section and B: Alvikite section (SEM-BSE). In the
alvikite samples, monazites only occur in this texture and are linked to alteration structures.
Abbildung 39: Fein verteilte Monazite in A: Brekzienprobe und B: Alvikitprobe (SES-BSE). In den Al-
vikitbereichen treten Monazite nur in dieser Textur und an Alterationsstrukturen gebunden auf.
Figure 40: Monazite occurrences associated with corona textures; A: Optical microscopy image; B:
SEM-BSE image; C: Corona texture with titanium-impregnated quartz. The intensity of the Ti-enriched
edge is correlating with the size of the corona (SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 40: Monazit Vorkommen, assoziiert mit Corona-Texturen; A: Durchlichtmikroskopie; B: SEM-
BSE; C: Corona Textur mit Titan-imprägnierten Quarz. Die Intensität des Ti-angereicherten Saumes kor-
reliert mit der Größe der Corona.

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Table 9: Occurrence of monazite textures in breccia samples. * The amount of clasts in this part of the
drill core is approx. 50 %. The thin section of SES1.18 is not representative.
Tabelle 9: Vorkommen der Monazit Texturen und Akkumulationen in den Brekzienproben. * Der Anteil
an Klasten ist in diesem Teil des Bohrkerns ca. 50%. Der Dünnschliff SES1.18 ist nicht repräsentativ.
Figure 41: Monazite accumulations (SEM-BSE); A,B: Monazite accumulation in a phenoclast;
C: Combination of accumulation and corona structure.
Abbildung 41: Monazit Akkumulationen (SEM-BSE); A,B: Monazit Anreicherungen in einem Phenoklast;
C: Kombination von Akkumulation und Corona-Struktur
Sample
Colour of the matrix
Amount of clasts
[%]
Finely distributed
monazites
Corona texture
Monazite accu-
mulation
SES1.12
red
70
SES1.13
beige
65
SES1.16
grey
50
SES1.18
grey
0*
SES1.19
grey
50
SES1.20
beige
70
SES1.21
red
40
SES1.22
beige
25
SES1.23
beige
30
SES1.24
beige
30
SES1.29
red
35
SES1.30
beige
70
SES1.31
grey
65

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EDX-measurements on monazite crystals are a bit
technically complicated, because of the small size of
the crystals (excitation domain of the electron beam).
Therefore, some element concentrations (like the
concentration of calcium) are influenced by surround-
ing phases (like calcite) that also contain these ele-
ments. For the REE as well as for a couple of other
elements the data is precise enough, because they do
not occur in the adjacent phases.
The amount of REE ranges in average from 7.9 to
10.4 % (35.9-42.1 wt.%), while breccia-hosted mona-
zites contain in average more REE than those in the
alvikite section. Cerium, followed by lanthanum and
neodymium are the REE with the highest content. The
distribution of these three elements is similar to the
whole rock analyses. While the breccia- and porphyry-
hosted monazites show nearly the same distribution,
the differences in monazites of the alvikite sections
varying over a wider range (Fig. 42 A). This variation
is primarily caused by a lower amount of cerium in the
greater part of these measurements and explains the
generally lower content of total REE in alvikite sec-
tions. The comparison of monazites associated with
individual alvikite veins revealed no pattern or correla-
tion (Fig. 42 B).
The REE distribution of the breccia-hosted monazites
is comparable to the average composition of carbon-
atite-hosted monazites (ROSENBLUM & FLEISCHER
1995) (Fig. 42 C).
Figure 42: Distribution of the most common REE in monazites; A: EDX data of all samples; B: EDX data
of the alvikite hosted monazites; C: Typical monazite compositions (after ROSENBLUM & FLEISCHER 1995);
D: Data from whole rock analysis (C and D are based on wt.%. Due to the similar weight of La, Ce and
Nd, this is comparable with the mol.% of the EDX data in these ternary plots).
Abbildung 42: Verteilung der am häufigsten in Monazite eingebaute SEE; A: EDX-Daten von allen Pro-
ben; B: EDX Daten von Monaziten aus Alvikitproben; C: Typische Monazit Zusammensetzung (nach
ROSENBLUM & FLEISCHER 1995); D: Geochemische Daten der Gesamtgesteinsanalyse (C und D basieren
auf wt.%. Auf Grund der ähnlichen Atommasse von La, Ce und Nd sind diese ternären Diagramme ver-
gleichbar mit den auf mol.% basierenden EDX-Daten).

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Other often detected elements in the breccia samples
are strontium and thorium (Tab. 10). While strontium
was found in nearly all monazites, thorium was pre-
dominantly detected in breccia-hosted monazites,
especially in monazite, which occur within cloudy ac-
cumulation textures. The occurrence of thorium-
containing monazites is not correlating with the data
from whole rock analysis.
The dependence of the frequency of monazites in the
thin sections with the total amount of REE in the
whole rock analyses is not verifiably. Alvikites show a
weak trend, but no precise correlation between the
occurrence of monazites and REE amount is ascer-
tainable. In the breccia sections, the samples with the
lowest proportion of clasts have the highest amount of
REE. These are also the samples, which show a high
density of monazites, but the varying matrix-to-clast
ratio prevents a clear conclusion.
6.4.7 REE-fluorocarbonates
REE-fluorocarbonates are the second group, which
contain a high amount of REE. They occur mainly in
alvikite samples and additionally in breccia samples
with grey matrix, especially in sample SES1.18. The
mineral names of the REE-fluorocarbonate group are
defined by their most common REE and by the rela-
tion of calcium to the REE with bastnaesite and
synchisite as endmember (Tab. 11) (MENG et al.
2002).
In the majority of the alvikite sections, the REE-
fluorocarbonates occur rarely and form clusters of
euhedral, up to 10 μm long, sharp-tipped needles,
which are grown secondary in cavities (Fig. 43 A).
Only in two samples (SES1.8 and SES1.27), these
clusters are bigger and occur more often. In the sam-
ple SES1.8, there are more needles per cluster, which
are disposed closer (Fig. 43 B), while in SES1.28 only
one aggregate per occurrence is recognizable, in
which single needles have grown together.
Like mentioned above, in the breccia sections, the
REE-fluorocarbonates occur only associated to a grey
coloured matrix. With the exception of sample
SES1.18, the REE-fluorocarbonates consist of spheri-
cal aggregates, which reach up to 20 μm and consist
of needles, which are smaller, than those in the alvi-
kite sections (Fig. 43 C).
The aggregates have a heterogeneous surface in the
BSE-image, in which the single needles cannot kept
apart due to the high density of their accumulation.
Such REE-fluorocarbonates are located in the altered
alumo-siliceous matrix and seem not to be bound to
cavities as observed in the alvikite sections.
Table 10: Average amounts of REE, Sr and Th of the monazites sorted by rock types (EDX-data).
Thorium was predominantly detected in breccia-hosted monazites.
Tabelle 10: Durchschnittliche Gehalte an SEE, Sr und Th der Monazite sortiert nach Lithotype (EDX-
Daten). Thorium wurde vor allem in Monaziten aus Brekzienproben gemessen.
REE [%]
Strontium [%]
Thorium (> LOD) [%]
Lithotype
Meas.
points
Average
content
Std.
deviation
Average
content
Std.
deviation
Reading
s > LOD
Average
content
Std.
deviat
ion
Porphyry
5
13.9
3.8
0.49
0.33
40
0.15
0.02
Igneous
breccia
84
10.4
3.3
1.14
0.57
49
0.43
0.39
Alvikite
36
7.9
2.8
0.61
0.26
6
0.06
0.01

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Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 52
Table 11: Classification of REE fluorocarbonates (MENG et al. 2002).
Tabelle 11: Klassifikation der SEE-Fluorokarbonate (MENG et al. 2002)
Figure 43: Typical REE-fluorocarbonate occurrences (SEM-BSE); A: Small needle-shaped crystals in
cavity in alvikite section; B: Larger aggregates from the alvikite sample SES1.08; C: Typical aggregate
from a breccia section with grey matrix; D: REE
fluorocarbonate vein in the porphyry section. The oc-
currence of the vein shows, that there was a small impregnation of the wall rock by the intrusion or hy-
drothermal fluids.
Abbildung 43: Typische Vorkommen von SEE-Fluorokarbonaten (SEM-BSE); A: Kleine nadelige Kristalle
in Hohlraum in Alvikitbereich; B: Größere Aggregate auch der Alvikit-Probe SES1.08; C: Typische Ag-
gregate in Brekzienbereichen mit grauer Matrix; D: SEE-Fluorokarbonat-Ader in porphyrischen Bereich.
Das Auftreten der Ader zeigt, dass es eine kleine Imprägnation des Nebengesteins durch die Intrusion
oder durch hydrothermale Fluide gab.
Ca / REE
Mineral
Formula
0
Bastnaesite-(Ce)
Ce(CO
3
)F
Bastnaesite-(La)
La(CO
3
)F
Bastnaesite-(Y)
Y(CO
3
)F
0.5
Parisite-(Ce)
Ca(Ce,La)
2
(CO
3
)
3
F
2
Parisite-(Nd)
Ca(Nd,Ce,La)
2
(CO
3
)
3
F
2
0.66
Röntgenite-(Ce)
Ca
2
(Ce,La)
3
(CO
3
)
5
F
3
1
Synchisite-(Ce)
CaCe(CO
3
)
2
F
Synchisite-(Nd)
CaNd(CO
3
)
2
F
Synchisite-(Y)
CaY(CO
3
)
2
F

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 53
In one thin section (SES1.32) of porphyry samples,
REE-fluorocarbonates were detected (Fig. 43 D). In-
deed, these phases occur as veins, which is a hint,
that there was an impregnation of the wall rock by the
carbonatitic intrusion or late hydrothermal or super-
gene REE-rich fluids.
In the thin section of sample SES1.18 REE-
fluorocarbonate aggregates occur, which are up to
300 μm in diameter. They are embedded in a calcitic
matrix and apparently not related to cavities (Fig. 44).
This intergrowth texture indicates, that the calcite is
also a secondary phase as well as the matrix in the
other breccia samples.
The crystals in this thin section show a zonation from
bastnaesite with in the core area to synchisite compo-
sition in the outer crystal area. Due to the higher
weight of the REE in comparison to calcium, the bast-
naesite zone look brighter in the BSE-image than the
synchisite zones, in which a part of the REE is substi-
tuted by calcium.
44 measurements on REE-fluorocarbonates have
been carried out with the SEM-EDX. In all samples,
cerium was the most common REE, but the ratio from
calcium to REE is varying from 0.2 to 1.6. Therefore,
compositionally he whole range from bastnaesite-(Ce)
to synchisite-(Ce) exists (Fig 45). The large zoned
crystals of sample SES1.18, where calcium-rich and
calcium-poor parts could be observed separately, can
be classified as bastnaesite-(Ce) and synchisite-(Ce).
Figure 44: Large REE-fluorocarbonate crystals in the sample SES1.18 (A: optical microscopy; B: optical
microscopy, crossed nicols; C: SEM-BSE). The zonation from a bastnaesite core to a synchisite rim is
recognizable in the BSE-image.
Abbildung 44: Große SEE-Fluorokarbonat Kristalle in der Probe SES1.18 (A: Durchlichtmikroskopie; B:
Durchlichtmikroskopie (gekreuzte Nicols); C: SEM-BSE). Die Zonierung von Bastnäsit im Kern zu Syn-
chisit in den Randbereichen ist im BSE-image erkennbar.

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Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 54
Figure 45: REE-Ca/REE plot for the categorization of the REE-fluorocarbonates (EDX-data). The meas-
ured crystals plot in the complete range of possible fields.
Abbildung 45: SEE-Ca/SEE-Diagramm zur Kategorisierung der SEE-Fluorokarbonate (EDX-Daten). Die
gemessenen Kristalle plotten in die komplette Bandbreite der möglichen Felder.
The total amount of REE with approximately 15% (54
wt.%) is in average very similar to the content of the
REE-fluorocarbonates from the breccia and alvikite
sections, but individual minerals show variations from
10-22 % (25-65 wt.%). Especially in the alvikite sam-
ple
SES1.27, the amount of
REE
in REE-
fluorocarbonates is much higher than in the other
alvikite section (Tab. 12). The distribution of the main
REE (cerium, lanthanum and neodymium) is in the
same dimension in comparison with monazites, but is
varying a bit more. The measurements from alvikites
are subjected to wider variations (Fig. 46).
Here again, the sample SES1.27 is standing out, be-
cause of an enormous enrichment of cerium. The
REE-fluorocarbonate crystals contain in average 20 %
(65 wt.%) cerium and only 0.5 (1.6%) lanthanum. The
other alvikite-hosted minerals occur in two clusters
with an average cerium to lanthanum ratio of 5-8 and
1.4-1.9. There is no correlation between the shape of
the REE-fluorocarbonate crystals and their position in
this ternary plot.
6.4.8 Nb-Zr-Ti-Ca-Oxides
By the use of the SEM-EDX-analysis, a couple of
minerals were detected, which can be interpreted as
oxides from various elements. There are the zirconi-
um-rich, the niobium-rich and the titanium-rich oxides,
in which all measured phases contain at least low
amounts of these three elements and additionally
calcium. Three subgroups can be clearly distinguished
by their EDX-data (Fig. 47).
The zirconium-rich oxides can be identified easily as
zirconolite, because of their composition and their
shape showing mostly twinning euhedral crystals
(chapter 6.4.8.1). Minerals of the three groups can
contain low amounts of REE.
The niobium rich oxides can be easily classified as
pyrochlore, which are described more detailed in sec-
tion 6.4.8.2. The titanium oxides can also belong to
pyrochlore group or represent different titanium ox-
ides. Here, especially the amount of calcium is varying
in a wider range than for the niobium-rich oxides. The
amount of zirconium in both subgroups is mostly low,
but detectable. This may also be a hint that both
phases and the zirconolites belong to the same min-
eral supergroup.

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Table 12: Average REE and fluorine contents of the different REE-fluorocarbonate types (EDX-data). The
measurements, carried out in thin section SES1.27 show a completely different composition.
Tabelle 12: Durchschnittliche Gehalte an SEE und Fluor in den verschiedenen Vorkommen von SEE-
Fluorokarbonaten (EDX-Daten). Die Messungen von Kristallen in Dünnschliff SES1.27 zeigen eine stark
abweichende Zusammensetzung.
Figure 46: Distribution of the most common REE (EDX data); A: All samples; B: Alvikite hosted REE-
fluorocarbonates. The measured crystals of SES1.27 show high amount of cerium.
Abbildung 46: Verteilung der am häufigsten eingebauten SEE (EDX-Daten); A: Alle Proben; B: SEE-
Fluorokarbonate aus Alvikitproben. Die gemessenen Kristalle von Schliff SES1.27 besitzen hohe Gehal-
te an Cer.
6.4.8.1 Zirconolite
The zirconium-rich oxides were classified as zircono-
lites (
CaZrTi
2
O
7
), which can easily be confused with
zirkelite, which has the same chemical composition
and possess a cubic crystal system, while zirconolite
is an umbrella term for all other occurring minerals
with the same sum formula but various crystal sys-
tems, especially monoclinic (BAYLISS 1989). The dif-
ferent mineral phases cannot be distinguished by
EDX-data, but there are some differences, in their
crystal shape and colour. While zirconolites have yel-
lowish or dark brown to opaque coloured prismatic
crystals, zirkelites have reddish or dark brown to
opaque colour and their habit of euhedral crystals is
octahedral. Furthermore, metamict alteration is typical
for zirconolite (MELGAREJO & MARTIN 2011). Based on
these differences, a part of the minerals can clearly
identified as zirconolite. For the other remaining min-
erals, where a classification is not possible, zirconolite
was also used as a general term.
Zirconolite occurs only in the alvikite sections where it
is the main zirconium-bearing phase. Often, the crys-
tals are euhedral to subhedral with prismatic habitus
and twinning (Fig. 48). The size of these crystals var-
ies from 15 to 150 μm. Some detected minerals oc-
curred as small anhedral grains. Nearly all detected
zirconolites are overgrown with pyrochlore predomi-
nantly on the end face of the tabular crystals.
REEs [%]
Fluorine [%]
Lithotype
Measured points
Average content
Std. deviation
Average content
Std. deviation
Porphyry
4
9,5
3.6
9.6
1.7
Igneous breccia
19
15.9
3.8
13.8
4.4
Alvikite
21
14.1
4.6
9.9
3.6
Alvikite without
SES1.27
17
12.6
3.6
9.4
3.8
SES1.27
4
20.4
1.8
12.2
4.4

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This paragenesis occurs in a wide range of pyro-
chlore-zirconolite ratios. There are large zirconolites
with a small pyrochlore covering as well as small zir-
conolite grains located in larger pyrochlore crystals.
24 analyses of zirconolites were made using the SEM-
EDX. Apart from the major elements calcium, titanium
and zirconium, also some other elements could be
detected. Especially iron and thorium occur in all
measured minerals. Niobium, yttrium and REE were
also present in some zirconolites in small amounts
(Tab. 13).
Figure 47: Euhedral zirconolite crystal overgrown by pyrochlore (A: optical microscopy; B: SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 47: Idiomorpher Zirkonolith-Kristall, mit Phyrochlor umwachsen (A: Durchlichtmikroskopie;
B: SEM-BSE)
Figure 48: Distinction of the three Nb-Zr-Ti-oxides subgroups. The separation of the minerals by their
main oxides is clearly visible
Abbildung 48: Unterscheidung der drei Nb-Zr-Ti-Oxide Untergruppen. Die Unterteilung der Minerale
nach ihrer Hauptoxide ist deutlich erkennbar.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 57
Table 13: Average composition of zirconolites (EDX-data, n=24).
Tabelle 13: Durchschnittliche Zusammensetzung der Zirkonolithe (EDX-Daten, n=24)
6.4.8.2 Pyrochlore
The niobium rich oxides are classified as a member of
the pyrochlore supergroup and because of the high
amounts of niobium, these minerals are classified as
pyrochlore (ATENCIO et al. 2010). The general formula
of pyrochlore is: (
Ca,Na)
2
Nb
2
O
6
(OH,F
) (MELGAREJO &
MARTIN 2011).
Pyrochlore minerals were found in the alvikite section
as well as in the igneous breccias. In the alvikite sec-
tions, the majority of the crystals occur in a paragene-
sis with zirconolite, in which they overgrow zirconolite
as a reaction rim (Fig. 49 A,B). These crystals are
euhedral to subhedral and 5-50 μm in diameter. In
some cases, only the euhedral pyrochlore crystal is
visible, which has a small altered area in the centre
indicating the former presence of zirconolite. Most
pyrochlore minerals in the alvikite sections have a
zonation, which is to filigree, to detect differences by
means of the EDX-analysis.
The pyrochlore crystals in the breccia sections are
generally larger than in the alvikite sections, and show
mostly anhedral, partially fractured phenocrysts that
have no zonation (Fig. 49 C,D). Only a few euhedral
to subhedral crystals were detected, which also show
no signs of zonation. Some minerals are partially dis-
solved and replace by other phases like secondary
apatite. Pyrochlore minerals are the main niobium-
bearing phases and contain in average 13-18 %
(32-42 wt.%) niobium. Their amount is a slightly high-
er in the breccia sections, than in the alvikites. Beside
calcium and niobium, also a couple of other elements
like titanium, iron, sodium, zirconium, strontium and
REE were detected. Especially sodium occurs in a
relative high amount of 3.2 % in the alvikite-hosted
and 7.7 % in the breccia-hosted pyrochlore crystals.
REE occur mainly in the alvikite-hosted pyrochlore, in
which the amount is approximately 3 % in average
(Tab. 14).
6.4.8.3 Titanium oxides
The titanium-rich oxides include a couple of second-
ary minerals or phases, in which titanium is the main
element. Anhedral heterogeneous aggregates with a
size of 5-15 μm were observed in the alvikite sections.
They contain REE enriched speckles, which can be
clearly identified by their bright colour in the BSE-
image (Fig. 50 A).
Furthermore, there are phases, which are associated
to altered magnetites occurring in the alvikites as well
as in the igneous breccias. These have nearly the
same chemical composition as the aggregates men-
tioned above and replace dissolved magnetite (Fig. 50
B).
The classification of these titanium oxides is difficult. A
couple of other possible cations like calcium, niobium,
zirconium, iron and REE were detected with the EDX-
analysis. These elements occur in low amounts of
less than 4 % (Tab. 15). Potential phases could be
simple titanium oxide minerals like rutile, anatase or
brookite. Especially rutile incorporates a variety of
other cations like zirconium and niobium (MELGAREJO
& MARTIN 2011). The association to magnetite indi-
cates an alteration of magnetite to ilmenite, but there-
fore, the amount of iron is too low.
The occurrence of calcium, niobium, zirconium and
titanium in one mineral can also be interpreted, to be
a member of the pyrochlore supergroup, where beta-
fite is a possible titanium rich mineral (ČERNÝ & ERCIT
1989) (Fig. 51). Perovskite (
CaTiO
3
) is another possi-
ble calcium-titanium oxide, which is common in car-
bonatites, but normally contains higher amounts of
calcium (ČERNÝ & ERCIT 1989).
Element
Readings
> LOD [%]
Average content [%]
Std. deviation [%]
Calcium
100
8.39
0.73
Titanium
100
14.20
1.36
Zirconium
100
10.57
1.38
Thorium
100
0.26
0.09
Iron
100
3.09
0.77
Niobium
54
0.38
0.11
Yttrium
50
2.07
0.88
REEs
33
0.16
0.07

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Table 14: Average composition of pyrochlores (EDX-data).
Tabelle 14: Durchschnittliche Zusammensetzung der Pyrochlore (EDX-Daten)
Figure 49: Examples of pyrochlore crystals (SEM-BSE); A,B: Pyrochlore surrounding zirconolite in
alvikite sections; C: Anhedral pyrochlore crystal in breccia sections intergrown with apatite; D:
Euhedral and broken pyrochlore crystal in breccia section.
Abbildung 49: Beispiele für Pyrochlorkristalle (SEM-BSE); A,B: Pyrochlore, um Zirkonolith gewachsen,
in Alvikitbereichen; C: Xenomorpher Pyrochlorkristall in Brekzienbereich, verwachsen mit Apatit; D:
Idiomorpher und zerbrochener Pyrochlor in Brekzienbereich
Element
Alvikite (n=24) [%]
Igneous breccia (n=27) [%]
Readings
> LOD
Average con-
tent
Std. deviation
Readings
> LOD
Average con-
tent
Std. deviation
Calcium
100
10.19
2.64
100
9.85
1,80
Niobium
100
13.69
2.79
100
17.65
2,95
Titanium
96
2.68
1.22
100
1.41
0,55
Iron
100
2.24
2.59
78
1.17
1,28
Sodium
88
3.23
1.57
100
7.69
1,92
Zirconium
92
1.46
1.02
78
0.55
0,24
REEs
96
2.92
1.16
89
0.33
0,23
Strontium
50
0.54
0.22
93
0.96
0,35
Yttrium
50
0.43
0.09
22
0.18
0,06
Thorium
33
0.25
0.20
37
0.38
0,22
Uranium
50
0.34
0.15
19
0.83
0,40
Lead
42
1.57
0.97
7
0.66
0,01

image
image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 59
Figure 50: Examples for Ti-oxides; A: Secondary Ti-phase in alvikite section with REE enriched speck-
les; B: Ti-phase in breccia section as a replacement of magnetite.
Abbildung 50: Beispiele für Ti-Oxide; A: Sekundäre Ti-Phase in Alvikitbereich mit SEE-angereicherten
Sprenkeln; B: Ti-Phase in Brekzienbereich als eine Substitution von Magnetit
Figure 51: Ternary plot for the classification of members of the pyrochlore supergroup. The crystals
classified as pyrochlore (chapter 6.4.8) plot in the pyrochlore field, while the titanium-rich oxides plot in
the betafite field (after ČERNÝ & ERCIT 1989 and MELGAREJO & MARTIN 2011).
Abbildung 51: Ternärer Plot zur Klassifikation von Vertretern der Pyrochlor-Supergruppe. Die Kristalle,
die als Pyrochlor klassifiziert wurden (Kapitel 6.4.8) plotten in das Pyrochlor-Feld, während die Ti-
reichen Oxide in das Betafit-Feld plotten (nach ČERNÝ & ERCIT 1989 und MELGAREJO & MARTIN 2011)

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Table 15: Average composition of Ti-oxides (EDX-data).
Tabelle 15: Durchschnittliche Zusammensetzung der Ti-Oxide (EDX-Daten)
6.4.9 Baddeleyite
Baddeleyite (
ZrO
2
) is a mineral, which was only de-
tected in the breccia sections and represents the only
zirconium-bearing mineral, except accessory zircons
occurring in the porphyritic clasts. Baddeleyite is a
typical accessory mineral in carbonatites, were it is
one of the early crystallizing minerals (CHAKHMOURA-
DIAN 2006). It is stable over a wide range of tempera-
ture and pressure conditions of the upper mantle and
lower crust. During the late stage intrusion of carbona-
titic melts, the baddeleyite can be replaced by zircono-
lite (LUMPKIN 1999), what is the cause, that no badde-
leyite was found in the alvikite sections.
The baddeleyite crystals in the breccias are anhedral,
partially broken fragments of phenocrysts (Fig. 52).
The majority of the detected crystals were 15-100 μm
in size, but there are also single crystals, that reach a
size up to 500 μm.
The occurrences of baddeleyite are randomly and too
rare to deduce a statement about the quantity in the
single thin section. If no baddeleyite was detected in a
sample, it does not mean, that the sample does not
contain it. Twelve baddeleyite crystals could be
measured by EDX analysis. The amount of zirconium
is in average 33% (71 wt.%), what is exact the ex-
pected amount, which results from its stoichiometric
formula. Yttrium and strontium were detected in some
crystals with lower amounts of approximately 1 %
(Tab. 16).
6.4.10 Other rare minerals
The minerals in this chapter were only detected occa-
sionally. Although these phases are too rare for a
statistical evaluation, their occurrence gives hints on
the environment, in which they were formed and/or
altered.
Figure 52: Baddeleyite fragment in breccia section (SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 52: Baddeleyit Fragment in Brekzienprobe (SEM-BSE)
Alvikite (n=23) [%]
Igneous breccia (n=5) [%]
Element
Readings
> LOD
Average con-
tent
Std. deviation
Readings
> LOD
Average con-
tent
Std. deviation
Calcium
100
3.87
3.99
100
0.47
0.16
Titanium
100
20.10
6.92
100
17.10
4.75
Niobium
100
1.48
1.70
100
2.10
0.98
Iron
100
1.91
0.81
100
3.63
2.20
Zirconium
91
0.79
0.65
100
0.20
0.06
REEs
65
2.38
1.86
0
-
-

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Table 16: Average composition of the baddeleyites (EDX-data, n=12).
Tabelle 16: Durchschnittliche Zusammensetzung der Baddeleyite (EDX-Daten, n= 12)
6.4.10.1 Barite
Apart from the barium-enriched rims of some phlogo-
pite crystals, barite is the major barium-bearing phase
in the samples. Barite is typically associated to hydro-
thermal vein type and exhalative deposits, where it is
formed at low temperature by mesothermal or epi-
thermal fluids (RÖSLER 1991). The occurrence of bar-
ite in thin sections correlates with the total amount of
barium in the whole rock analysis. It occurs only linked
to altered sections and cavities, so the majority of the
occurrences are finely distributed anhedral crystals
(Fig. 53 A). Additionally, in some breccia sections
large subhedral crystals occur, which can be frag-
mented and reach a size of up to 100 μm (Fig. 53 B).
Nine barite crystals were measured with the EDX and
contain in average 13 % (50 wt.%.) barium. Beside
barium and sulphur (13 %), the barites are also con-
taining smaller amounts (<1 %) of strontium.
Barite veins also occur in the porphyry and the por-
phyritic clasts of the breccia, but there were no links
between the occurrences in the different rock types
detected. That is why it cannot be differentiated,
whether different barite types were formed at the
same or two different events.
6.4.10.2 Uranophane
Uranophane was only detected in the alvikite samples
SES1.08 and SES1.10. The thin section of SES1.08
contains
an
oxidation
horizon,
where
some
uranophane occurs in a small iron leached zone. In
SES1.10, uranophane is located at the transition be-
tween two different alvikite units. This indicates, that a
special environment is necessary for the formation of
uranophane, which seems to be limited to small are-
as. The occurrence of uranophane is not correlating
with the total amount of uranium in the samples, but
this can be caused by the rare detection of
uranophane. Uranophane typically occurs in oxidised
zones of uranium deposits, where it is described as a
weathering product of uraninite (PLÁŠIL 2017). How-
ever, there are also carbonatites, in which the occur-
rence of uranophane is described (PETERSON et al.
2011). The detected uranophane minerals represent
anhedral aggregates, which are grown in cavities (Fig.
54).
The size of these aggregates is up to 20 μm. Accord-
ing to EDX-data (n=5), the amount of uranium and
silicon is in average at 10 %, while the amount of cal-
cium is slightly lower. Furthermore, it were low
amounts of phosphorus (1-5 %) and yttrium (1-3 %)
detected.
Figure 53: Occurrence of barite in an alvikite sample (A) and a breccia sample (B) (SEM-BSE). The crys-
tals are linked to cavities and altered areas.
Abbildung 53: Auftreten von Baryt in einer Alvikitprobe (A) und einer Brekzienprobe (B) (SEM-BSE). Die
Kristalle sind an Hohlräume und alterierte Bereiche gebunden.
Element
Readings
> LOD [%]
Average content [%]
Std. deviation [%]
Zirconium
100
33.18
5.35
Yttrium
45
1.16
0.31
Strontium
36
1.01
0.46

image
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Figure 54: Uranophane in cavities in the iron leached part of alvikite sample SES1.08, which contains an
oxidation front (SEM-BSE).
Abbildung 54: Uranophan in Hohlräumen in einem an Eisen gebleichten Teil der Alvikitprobe SES1.08;
welche eine Oxidationsfront beinhaltet (SEM-BSE)
6.4.10.3 Sulphides
Sulphides were found very rarely. In total, six chalco-
pyrites, three pyrites, two sphalerites and one galena
were detected. The sulphides are mostly tiny, just a
few micrometres in diameter, anhedral (sometimes
subhedral) grains, which are located in cavities as well
as in the matrix of the alvikites or breccia sections
(Fig. 55 A).
The small size of the grains prevents a precise EDX-
measurement, so that a sulphide grain surrounded by
calcite can contain up to 10 % calcium in the EDX-
analysis. The second type of detected sulphides is
bound to areas, in which also uranophane was de-
tected. In these areas, up to 25 μm large euhedral to
subhedral pyrite crystals occur, which have been al-
tered
and
partially
dissolved
(Fig.
55
B).
Figure 55: Examples for sulphides; A: Chalcopyrite grain in breccia sample; B: partially dissolved pyrite
in a uranophane-containing area (SEM-EDX).
Abbildung 55: Beispiele für Sulfide; A: Chalkopyrit Korn in Brekzienprobe; B: Teilweise aufgelöster Pyrit
in einem Uranophan haltigen Abschnitt.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 63
6.5 Reflectance spectroscopy
The “near infra-red” and “shortwave infra-red” (NIR
and SWIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a capable
method for the identification of dominating iron phases
and clay minerals.
Spectra that show a broad and round absorption band
in the wavelength range of 850-980 nm indicate a
mineral phase with substantial portion of trivalent iron.
Regarding the presence of iron oxi-hydroxides, an
absorption minimum located between 850 and 900 nm
indicates that the sample contains predominantly
hematite. If this feature is located between 900 and
980 nm, the sample is goethite dominated. The more
the absorption minimum shifts to 900 nm, the more it
represents a mixture of both iron phases. A further
absorption feature is located at 1412-1413 nm that is
a general absorption band of clay minerals and indi-
cated hydroxyl water. Commonly, clay minerals show
a characteristic absorption band between 2200 nm
and 2400 nm, which is attributed to the vibrational
overtone mode of a metal-hydroxyl complex in the
octahedral-layer. Sample of porphyry and Igneous
breccia show a sharp asymmetric band at 2205-2212
nm that is characteristic for montmorillonite caused by
Al-OH. The reflectance feature for molecular water is
situated at 1906. Another reflectance minimum, which
was detected in some samples is located from 2232-
2237 nm and is caused by a not clearly determinable
clay mineral. This absorption feature could be caused
by a member of the smectite or chlorite group, while
many phyllosilicates like illite, kaolinite, muscovite,
biotite or lepidolite can be excluded. The absorption
band located at 2329-2339 nm mainly occurs in spec-
tra of alvikite samples is caused by the vibration of a
calcium-oxygen-complex in calcite minerals, why it
can be distinguished clearly from other carbonates
like dolomite or ankerite. Some of the samples, espe-
cially intrusive breccia show a weak absorption band
at 2229-2239 nm, which probably belongs to chlorite
(HAUFF 2005).
With the reflectance spectroscopy, it is only possible
to detect major mineral phases, thus rare earth miner-
als like monazite or the REE-fluorocarbonates cannot
be determined, because of their low quantity. Mona-
zite and the REE-fluorocarbonates have a number of
sharp significant absorption bands in the NIR, but
none of these have been detected.
Absorption spectra of the different rock types are
shown in figure 56 and the determined absorption
features are listed in table 17. Decisive for the inter-
pretation is only the relative size of the absorption
features in the respective spectrum. The absolute
reflectance of a sample is an expression its reflected
energy generally, which is variating by different pa-
rameters, e.g. roughness of the sample. Therefore,
the powdered samples have more pronounced abso-
lute absorption bands than rock samples, on which
the measurement was carried out on the surface. The
relative depth of the reflectance/absorption features is
in both cases the same.
In spectra of the porphyry section, the trivalent iron
absorption band is dominated by goethite, but is also
influenced significantly by the occurrence of hematite.
The absorption band at 2208 nm, generally formed by
clay minerals, is deep and symmetrical, which is
caused by montmorillonite and thus, represents the
major clay mineral determined in the porphyry rock. A
very weak absorption feature at 2250 nm originates
probably from Fe-OH-molecule vibration in chlorite.
Spectral data of the joints occurring in the porphyry
show the same infrared-active mineral phases except
for the iron phase, which is more dominated by hema-
tite.
The breccias have a high amount of clay minerals,
which is mostly represented by montmorillonite. Only
in the breccias with grey matrix and some breccias
with low contents of clasts, a second clay mineral of
the smectite group occurs, which could not closer
determined. Hematite is the dominating iron phase in
the breccias with red matrix, while predominantly goe-
thite occurs in all other samples. Additionally, the
spectra of the breccias contain a weak carbonate
absorption at 2335 nm, which is the characteristic
wavelength for calcite (Ca-C-O-bond).
In the alvikite sections, the general absorption band
for clay minerals is much weaker developed than in
the spectra of the other lithotypes. Consequently, a
precise identification of clay minerals was not possi-
ble. Calcite bands dominate the spectra of the alvi-
kites. Iron occurs dominantly as goethite in sections
with brownish and greyish matrix and as hematite in
the reddish areas.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 64
Table 17: Measured reflectance features and their occurrence. Dots in brackets are minor phases.
Tabelle 17: Gemessene Reflektanzbanden und ihr Auftreten. Punkte in Klammern sind Nebenphasen.
Porphyry
Breccia
Alvikite
Wavelength [nm]
Mineral
Rock
Joint
Red
m.
Beige
m.
Beige
m.*
Grey
m.
Grey.
m.
Red.
m.
Brow.
m.
850-900
Hematite (dominating
iron phase)
900-980
Goethite (dominating
iron phase)
(●)
1412-1414
Clay minerals
(●)
(●)
(●)
1904-1908
Molecular water
2205-2212
Montmorillonite
(●)
2232-2237
Clay minerals
(●)
2329-2339
Calcite
2354-2359
(Chlorite)

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 65
Figure 56: Average reflectance spectra of the different lithotypes; A: Porphyry; B: Igneous breccia (the
dotted line is the group of beige breccias with minor clasts); C: Alvikites.
Abbildung 56: Durchschnittliche Reflektanzsprektren der verschiedenen Lithotypen; A: Porphyre; B:
Magmatische Brekzie (die gepunktete Linie ist die Gruppe der klastenarmen Brekzien mit beiger Matrix;
C: Alvikite

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 66
7. Discussion
How does the geochemistry of the mineralisation
can be summarized?
A REE-mineralisation (including associated elements
like niobium) was determined in the drill core section.
This includes the alvikite veins and the matrix of the
igneous breccias. Especially the LREE occur in aver-
age with 50 times higher amounts, than in the upper
continental crust. The amount of niobium is even 100
times higher. In total, the mineralised areas have up to
1.2 %
REE
2
O
3
. The amount of niobium can only be
estimated because of the maximum detection limit of
the ICP-MS and can be up to 0.2 % in the breccia
sections. The quantity of the mineralisation is mainly
correlating with the proportion of the matrix.
The amounts of barium, strontium, uranium and thori-
um are also higher in the mineralised sections, but
varying in a wide range, which is not correlating with
the REE-mineralisation.
Compared to deeper sections of the Storkwitz body,
only a few elements with divergent concentrations
were analysed. The REE are nearly equal distributed
and the ratio between LREE and HREE is similar.
How does the mineralogy of the mineralisation
can be summarized?
All detected phases and minerals are sorted accord-
ing to the samples, in which they occur in the table 18
for the breccia samples and table 19 for the alvikite
samples.
Figure 57 shows the distribution of some minerals,
which characterize the mineralisation and/or give indi-
cations
for
alteration
processes.
The
REE-
mineralisation is predominantly characterized by sec-
ondary phases, especially monazite and REE-
fluorocarbonates. Remarkable is, that the REE-
fluorocarbonates only occur in alvikites and breccia
sections with grey matrix. Monazite is the most de-
tected REE-bearing mineral and occurs fine dissemi-
nated as tiny crystals in the matrix and in breccia
samples. Additionally, monazite occurs accumulated
as replacement texture or as corona texture around
quartz clasts. Apatites in general have low contents of
REE, but in some sections, especially alvikite section,
REE-enriched apatite rims are recognizable.
Pyrochlore, the main niobium-bearing phase, occurs
also in different shapes in the breccia and alvikite
samples. The breccia-hosted pyrochlores are mainly
anhedral phenocryst fragments, while the alvikite-
hosted pyrochlores are mainly euhedral, overgrowing
zirconolite and show a zonation. Zirconolite is the only
detected zirconium-bearing phase in alvikite sections,
while in the breccias only baddeleyite phenocrysts
occur. The dominating iron phase is, according to the
macroscopic observation, hematite that dominates the
red/reddish coloured sections, while goethite predom-
inantly occurs in the remaining part of the drill core.
Except of a small REE-fluorocarbonate vein in a
porphyry section, there is no mineralogical indication,
that the porphyritic wall rocks and xenoliths of the
breccia are impregnated by intrusion or later hydro-
thermal processes.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 67
Table 18: Overview of the occurring minerals and phases in the matrix of the igneous breccia samples.
Tabelle 18: Überblick über die in der Matrix der magmatischen Brekzienproben auftretenden Minerale
und Phasen
Sample
Main phase
Main phase - minor
phase
Minor phase - ac-
cessory phase
Accessory phase
Rare phase
(Amount of
clasts)
> 20 %
5 - 20 %
1-5 %
1 % - acc.
< acc.
SES1.12
55%
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite
Apatite
Pyrochlore
Monazite Baddeleyite
Sulfides
SES1.13
65%
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite
Apatite
Monazite
Pyrochlore
REE-F-Carb Magnet-
ite
SES1.16
50%
Alumosilicates
Apatite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite
REE-F-Carb Pyro-
chlore
Monazite Baddeleyite
SES1.18
0 %*
Calcite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
REE-F-Carb
Alumosilicates Apa-
tite
Monazite
Pyrochlore
SES1.19
65%
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
REE-F-Carb
Apatite
Monazite, Pyrochlore
Phlogopite
Barite
SES1.20
70%
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite
Apatite
Monazite
Pyrochlore
Barite
SES1.21
40%
Alumosilicates Fe-
oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite Monazite
Apatite
Pyrochlore
Barite
Baddeleyite
SES1.22
25%
Alumosilicates Fe-
oxi-hydroxides
Apatite
Phlogopite Monazite
Magnetite Baddeley-
ite
Pyrochlore
Sulfides
SES1.23
30%
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Apatite
Phlogopite Monazite
Pyrochlore
Baddeleyite
SES1.24
30%
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Apatite
Phlogopite Monazite
Baddeleyite Pyro-
chlore
Barite
SES1.29
35%
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite
Apatite
Monazite Baddeleyite
Pyrochlore
SES1.30
70%
Alumosilicates Fe-
oxi-hydroxides
Apatite
Phlogopite Monazite
Pyrochlore
SES1.31
65%
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite Monazite
Apatite
REE-F-Carb Pyro-
chlore

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 68
Table 19: Overview of the occurring minerals and phases in the alvikite samples.
Tabelle 19: Überblick über die in den Alvikit-Proben auftretenden Minerale und Phasen
Sample
Main phase
Main phase
- minor phase
Minor phase - ac-
cessory phase
Accessory phase
Rare phase
> 20 %
5 - 20 %
1-5 %
1 % - acc.
< acc.
SES1.3
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Apatite Magnetite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite
Monazite
Pyrochlore
SES1.4
Calcite
Alumosilicates Mag-
netite
Phlogopite
Apatite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Monazite
REE-F-Carb Pyro-
chlore
SES1.5
Calcite
Alumosilicates Mag-
netite
Phlogopite Apatite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Monazite
REE-F-Carb Pyro-
chlore
SES1.7
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Apatite Magnetite
Pyrochlore
Monazite
REE-F-Carb Barite
SES1.8
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite, Apatite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Magnetite
REE-F-Carb Pyro-
chlore Uranophane
Monazite
REE-F-Carb Sulfides
SES1.9
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite Apatite
Magnetite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Pyrochlore
Zirconolite
SES1.10
Calcite
Alumosilicates Apa-
tite Magnetite
Phlogopite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Pyrochlore
Monazite
Sulfides
Barite
Uranophane
SES1.11
Calcite
Phlogopite Magnet-
ite
Alumosilicates
Apatite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Monazite Zirconolite
Pyrochlore
REE-F-Carb
SES1.17
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite Apatite
Magnetite
Monazite Zirconolite
Pyrochlore
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
SES1.27
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Phlogopite Apatite
Magnetite
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
REE-F-Carb Zir-
conolite Pyrochlore
Monazite
SES1.28
Calcite
Alumosilicates
Fe-oxi-hydroxides
Phlogopite Apatite
Magnetite
Monazite Zirconolite
Pyrochlore

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 69
Figure 57: Overview of the distribution of phases and minerals, which characterize the mineralisation
and/or possible environments. (* These samples do not belong to the mineralised part of the core; ** Of
these samples, no thin section could be made).
Abbildung 57: Überblick über die Verteilung der Phasen und Minerale, welche die Mineralisation
und/oder deren Entstehungsbedingungen charakterisieren (* Diese Proben gehören nicht zum
mineralisierten Bereich; ** Von diesen Proben konnte kein Dünnschliff angefertigt werden.)

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 70
How is the relationship of the different lithotypes?
The macroscopic examination of the drill core SES-
1/2012 revealed that three main rock types occur. The
parts of the drill core, which belong to the carbonatite
intrusion, consist of an igneous breccia body and
some alvikite veins, which penetrate the breccia. Ob-
viously, the alvikite veins belong to a later magmatic
stage than the igneous breccias. The boundary be-
tween these two lithotypes is sharp, although the
breccia reveals indications of displacement of clasts
near some contacts. The different matrix colours of
the igneous breccia are partially linked to the contact
to the alvikite veins. A colour gradient from red to
beige to grey is observed at the contact to the alvikite.
The alvikite veins as youngest lithological unit consist
of a matrix, which is made of calcite and takes up
more than 50 vol.%, so that the classification as a
calico-carbonatite is correct. Due to the fine-grained
calcite crystals and the volcanic arrangement of the
veins it can be classified as alvikites.
The breccia body is also a part of a carbonatite com-
plex, but it has generally no matrix forming calcite
minerals. The matrix is nearly completely formed by
alumo-siliceous matrix and iron phases, so it can be
assumed, that the initial carbonatic matrix was altered
and replaced by these secondary phases. Due to
other minerals (apatite, baddeleyite, pyrochlore,
phlogopite, REE-minerals) and the high amount of
trace elements (REE, Y, Zr, Nb) (WOOLLEY & KEMPE
1989), which are typical for a carbonatite intrusion, the
breccia can be classified as altered carbonatite brec-
cia.
Whether the breccia body is an intrusive breccia or a
diatreme breccia cannot be determined clearly. The
breccia clasts belong mainly to the surrounding por-
phyritic rocks and only a few of them are made of
lithological units, which could be displaced from deep-
er levels. An example therefore are black shale clasts,
which can be assigned to the Klitschmar-Formation,
which is located approximately 400 m below the ex-
amined drill core section (REICHERT et al. 2015). This
mixture of clasts from different levels of depth could
be a hint for a diatreme structure. On the other hand,
the clasts from deeper levels are much more rounded
which does not fit in the assumption of one explosive
event. In the literature, diatremes are described in the
UML-CR Delitzsch, for example in Serbitz as well as
the occurrence or intrusive breccias (KRÜGER et al.
2013).
The porphyry of the “Schenkenberger Plagiogranit-
porphyr” represents the non-mineralised wall rock of
the intrusion. Consequently, it is the oldest lithological
unit and shows a sharp boundary to the other adjoin-
ing lithotypes. Although there is a rare occurrence of
REE-fluorocarbonate veins in the porphyritic samples,
which indicate a minor impregnation of the wall rock
by magmatic phases or fluids, the wall rock can be
regarded as completely non-mineralised. The total
amount of REE and some associated elements is
even lower than the average of the upper continental
crust.
Which mineral forming processes are possible?
In carbonatites there are four main stages possible, in
which phases can be formed and altered and ele-
ments can be mobilized, transported and deposited
(ANDERSEN et al. 2017). The first stage of course is
the magmatic stage, in which many minerals, espe-
cially the phenocrysts crystallize. Carbonatite magma
has many volatile components (for example H
2
O, Cl,
F, S), which are residual enriched in the magma, so
that a fluid phase is formed, which contains many
incompatible elements. From this genetic relationship
arise two possibilities, how the minerals, which incor-
porate these incompatible elements, will be formed.
They can crystallize directly out from the magma, or
out from the fluid phase. In this case, the elements
can be resorbed from the magma or remobilised from
earlier phases (VERPLANCK 2017). This second stage
is directly linked to the magmatic intrusion and called
carbothermal (ANDERSEN et al. 2017). The third stage
is the “normal” epithermal stage and at least super-
gene processes represents the last stage, which can
change the mineralogical composition (VERPLANCK
2017).
The minerals, which are detected in the mineralised
sections can only be partially assigned to a certain
stage. The large phenocrysts (apatite, phlogopite,
magnetite, pyrochlore in breccias, baddeleyite), which
clearly belong to the magmatic stage, are already
crystallized in a greater depth. For the majority of the
fine- to medium-grained crystals (apatite, zirconolite,
phlogopite, pyrochlore in alvikites) associated with the
ground-mass it is not absolutely clear, whether they
are formed primary magmatic, primary carbothermal,
secondary carbothermal, or hydrothermal. The calcite
matrix in the alvikites is most likely overprinted car-
bothermal, because a fine-grained magmatic-texture
could not be observed. Calcite veins and areas con-
taining larger crystals are, insofar they do not belong
to a xenolith, formed later and therefore belong to the
hydrothermal or supergene stage, as shown in terms
of the calcitic matrix of the thin section SES1.18.
The majority of the monazites and all REE-
fluorocarbonates can be interpreted as secondary
carbothermal, hydrothermal or supergene because of
their texture and association to altered areas and sec-
ondary phases. The Alumosilicates and iron phases
are secondary as well and most likely formed by a
hydrothermal or supergene process.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 71
Which further statements can be deduced from
the mineralogy of the mineralised sections?
Apatite
occurs in extrusive rocks as euhedral pris-
matic phenocrysts and as smaller groundmass crys-
tals. The phenocrysts often react with hydrothermal
fluids, what can cause the formation of monazite,
REE-fluorocarbonates and secondary apatites. Hydro-
thermal apatites often have lower amounts of REE,
strontium, manganese and thorium but higher
amounts of fluorine (CHAKHMOURADIAN et al. 2017).
The REE enriched rim, which was detected in several
thin sections, is an often-occurring zoning in carbon-
atite-hosted apatites. This zoning can grow as a con-
sequence of a couple of processes. In general, the
early crystallisation of apatite causes a depletion of
REE in the remaining magma, so that the rims must
be formed in a later process. Possible is, that the crys-
tallisation of other phases like baddeleyite, magnetite
and phlogopite causes a residual enrichment of REE
in the magma (or in a further generated fluid phase) or
that a new magma with a changing composition brings
new REE to the melt. Epithermal overprints can also
build rims at apatites, but these would be enriched
with other elements than REE. REE from those fluids
are mainly deposited in secondary monazite or REE-
fluorocarbonates (CHAKHMOURADIAN et al. 2017). It
can conclude, that REE-enriched rims were formed in
a magmatic or carbothermal environment.
The oscillatory zonation of
pyrochlores
in the alvikite
sections is often related to a magmatic or carbother-
mal event. Altered pyrochlores have a higher propor-
tion of vacancies in their A-position. These occur es-
pecially in supergene weathered, but also in hydro-
thermal altered pyrochlores (Mitchell 2015). In the
analysed pyrochlores, the amount of possibly A-
position cations (mainly Ca, Na) is in the breccia 3
mol.% higher than in the alvikites, but the difference is
too low to derive a different grade of alteration. The
Bear Lodge carbonatites (USA) contain secondary
betafite, in which the calcium and uranium is incorpo-
rated (A-position in the pyrochlore formula) (ANDER-
SEN et al. 2017). In Mt. Weld (Australia), the pyro-
chlores are supergene leached and partially replaced
by crandallite (LOTTERMOSER & ENGLAND 1988). Cran-
dalite was not found in this study, but betafite from
Bear Lodge could be a hint, that the detected second-
ary titanium oxides represent betafite with a high pro-
portion of vacancy.
The
phlogopites
show microscopically some of the
most evident indications of alteration. The presence of
secondary goethite can be regarded as a product of
weathering. This alteration begins with the loss of the
interlayered ions and a partially iron oxidation. During
this, goethite is formed and the phlogopite begins to
transform to vermiculite. Advanced alteration would
cause a release of cations from the octahedral layers
and the transformation to kaolinite (GiLKES 1979). This
second alteration step was not observed in the sam-
ples. Barium- or iron-enriched rims are common in
carbonatite hosted phlogopites. These rims result
from kinoshitalite substitution (REGUIR et al. 2009).
Phlogopite and kinoshitalite are endmembers of a
solid solution. For the substitution potassium and sili-
con interchange with barium and tetrahedral alumina
(FLEEt et al. 2003).
The difference of the zirconium-bearing minerals
(
baddeleyite
in the breccias and
zirconolite
in the
alvikites) cannot be explained by hydrothermal pro-
cesses and must be caused by different magmatic
environments in the different magmatic stages. Zir-
conolite is quiet common in carbonatites and can be
formed from baddeleyite (GIERE et al. 1998). But this
reaction, which takes place in fluid phases cause a
zirconolite rim around the baddeleyite crystals and
does not lead to new formed euhedral zirconolite crys-
tals (LUMPKIN 1999). Therefore, the hydrothermal
transformation can be ruled out. The baddeleyites in
the igneous breccia have no zirconolite rim and the
zirconolites in the alvikites have no baddeleyite core.
Monazite
in carbonatite is often a secondary phase,
which is associated with apatite and completely can
replace it. In the Purulia phoscorite (India), corona
textures of monazite around apatites are described
(CHEN et al. 2017). The apatite-monazite association
is also described for the Bayan Obo mine (China).
Additionally, the monazites of the Bayan Obo mine
occur disseminated and accumulated in clusters
(DENG et al. 2017). Another locality, where monazite is
accumulated as corona around quartz was not found
in the literature.
Hydrothermal and igneous monazites crystals are
difficult to distinguish. In average, the hydrothermal
monazites are smaller crystals with a lower amount of
thorium (< 1 wt.%), while in igneous monazites, the
concentration of thorium is higher (3-5 wt.%)
(SCHANDL & GORTON 2004). In the measured mona-
zites, the thorium concentration is in most cases lower
than 1 wt.%. Only in some monazites, the amount is
similar to igneous monazites, but these crystals be-
long to an accumulation as phenoclast, so they can be
interpreted as secondary too. The differences be-
tween hydrothermal and supergene monazite is not jet
described in the literature. It can be estimated, that
the monazites, which are finely disseminated in the
alumo-siliceous matrix of the breccias, were formed
concurrent. With an average size of less than one
micrometre, the monazites are smaller than the most
crystals, which are described in the literature. Addi-
tionally, it was not possible to distinguish between
monazite and rabdophane, what could give a hint on
formation conditions. Summarizing, the different mon-
azite textures display mostly secondary phases, but
they are not understood yet very well.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 72
Montmorillonite
belongs to the dioctahedral smec-
tites and is endmember of the montmorillonite-
beidellite series. It is typically a product of the weath-
ering of mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks and
therefore not a climate indicator like for example kao-
linite. For the emergence of montmorillonite, sufficient
amounts of dissolved divalent iron and magnesium
are necessary. Consequently, montmorillonite can be
easier formed in weak reducing than in oxidising envi-
ronment (HEIM 1990). These conditions fit in the inter-
pretation, that the matrix of the igneous breccias was
originally carbonatic. The dissolution of carbonates
such as dolomite or ankerite would release the neces-
sary amount of iron and magnesium ions.
Which transportation and alteration environments
can be assumed for the REE?
The REE mainly occur as complexes in liquid phases,
so that the mobility of REE cannot be derived only by
the chemical environment (pH, Eh). Especially chlo-
ride and sulphide are REE-mobilizing ligands, where-
as fluoride causes deposition. The presence of fluo-
ride in combination with neutralized acidity causes the
immobilization of REE. In addition, the occurrence of
phosphate and carbonate causes the precipitation of
monazite and REE-fluorocarbonates. If barium is
available and the transport of the rare earth elements
is linked to sulphides, then the deposition of barite is
possible. This is only one example for transport and
deposition of REE. In general, there is very little
knowledge about the behaviour of REE in carbonate-
bearing solution of the high temperature stability of
many complexes like REE-hydroxyl complexes (MIG-
DISOV et al. 2016). The fractionation of the REE can
give hints to the environment, in which they were de-
posited. The majority of the REE only exist in a triva-
lent stage, and so the chemical behaviour is similar
(SICIUS 2016). Europium, which can occur divalent
and trivalent, causes a negative europium anomaly in
many lithotypes. This is caused by extremely reducing
conditions in hot fluids, which effect, that the divalent
europium stays mobile, while all other REE precipitate
(BROOKINS 1988). The lack of a europium anomaly in
the alvikites and breccias can be therefore interpreted
that such a fluid phase was absent. Cerium can exist
trivalent as well as tetravalent. The tetravalent cerium
is very insoluble and forms the mineral cerianite
(
CeO
2
). Therefore, a negative cerium anomaly can
exist, if a REE-containing solution has an oxidising
environment, which causes the oxidation and precipi-
tation of cerium. For example sea water has a clear
negative cerium anomaly (BROOKINS 1988).
The geochemical data show no cerium anomaly, so
that oxidising fluids, which were able to oxidise ceri-
um, can be ruled out. The REE-distribution of the
breccia-hosted monazites and REE-fluorocarbonates
also showed no indication of a cerium anomaly. In the
alvikite sections, small differences in distribution of the
REE were detected, which can be caused by an oxi-
dation of cerium. Especially the REE-fluorocarbonates
in thin section SES1.27 are extremely cerium-rich.
Furthermore, under supergene conditions, the LREE
can be deposited easier, than the HREE, so that the
ration between LREE to HREE increases. In Mt. Weld,
the REE were mobilised by acidic solutions in the
aerated zone and the LREE were precipitated as
monazite and rabdophane in the groundwater zone
due to higher pH values. This causes an enrichment
of the LREE in the groundwater zone and in a bigger
scale a residual enrichment of REEs, because many
other elements are dissolved and transported much
further (LOTTERMOSER 1990). Niobium is in most envi-
ronments relative insoluble and therefore also residual
enriched in supergene altered carbonatite systems
(MITCHELL 2015). The comparison of the geochemical
data with the dataset from deeper sections of the drill
core shows that the ratio of LREE to HREE is slightly
bigger in the deeper sections.
This can be interpreted, that a supergene alteration,
which causes a mobilisation and transport of REE did
not take place on a large scale. Furthermore, no
cerianite was detected. However, this means that a
supergene transport and cerium oxidation is ruled out,
while an in-situ replacement of REE-minerals by su-
pergene overprint cannot be excluded. It can be an
indication, that REE minerals are formed carbothermal
or hydrothermal, but it was not possible, to determine
chemical parameters of the fluid phase. A comparison
with other carbonatites shows, that a variety of possi-
ble environments can be considered, in which the
REE phases can be formed (Tab. 20).

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 73
Table 20: Examples for hydrothermal environments, in which other REE-minerals were formed (after
MIGDISOV et al. 2016).
Tabelle 20: Beispiele für hydrothermale Bedingungen, in denen sich andere SEE-Minerale gebildet ha-
ben (nach MIGDISOV et al. 2016)
How can the different colours of the matrix in the
igneous breccias be interpreted?
The matrix colours are obviously caused by the oxida-
tion state and the amount of iron. The red coloured
matrix sections have increased amounts of iron, which
is predominantly deposited as hematite, whereas in
the other sections goethite is predominating. Addition-
ally, the breccia sections with grey matrix are the only
occurrences of breccia hosted REE-fluorocarbonates
and the thin section SES1.18, which also has a grey
matrix, is the only breccia sample, where calcite was
detected under the microscope.
The interpretation of the special thin section SES1.18
is, that individual secondary calcite veins occur in the
grey
matrix,
in
which
extremely
large
REE-
fluorocarbonates have grown. These veins could be
the cause for the weak reaction with hydrochloric acid
when tested.
In general, the colour of the matrix can be interpreted
in two ways. One possibility is, that the whole breccia
was oxidized due to alteration and only the grey and
beige areas have been subsequently reduced. How-
ever, it is more likely, that the breccia initially was
goethite-dominated and then red areas were subse-
quently oxidized to hematite, because the red portions
of the rock are generally spatially linked to the intru-
sive contacts with the alvikites. The oxidation could
have been caused by the intrusion of the alvikite
veins, or by later descending oxidizing (meteoric) flu-
ids, which used the contact zones as fluid pathways.
However, the latter explanation is less likely, since in
this case, a similar zonation should also be associated
with the alvikite veins.
How useful is the measurement of the magnetic
susceptibility?
The measurement of the magnetic susceptibility was
carried out in order to test the suitability and applica-
bility of this method for petrological characterization
and differentiation of various rock types and possibly
alteration zone. The results show clearly the differ-
ences of the single rock types and together with the
information from microscopy the mineral phases,
which are responsible for the susceptibility, have been
determined as well. However, it was not possible, to
define single phases without the results from the mi-
croscopy. Therefore, it is advisable to use the meas-
urements of the susceptibility only in combination with
microscopic studies.
Name, locality
Major REE-minerals
Associated fluid chemistry
Bayan Obo, China
Monazite-(Ce) Bastnaesite-(Ce)
Early monazite-(Ce) stage: >280–330 °C at P>0.7 kbar,
1-5 wt.% NaCl;
Main stage bastnaesite-(Ce): >400 °C to 300 °C at
P >0.9 to 1.4 kbar, 6–10 wt.% NaCl
The Gallinas Mountains, New Mexico
Bastnaesite-(Ce)
≈400 °C, sulfate-rich NaCl-KCl brines having a salinity
of ≈15 wt.% NaCl equivalent
Karonge, Burundi
Bastnaesite-(Ce) Monazite-(Ce)
Preliminary homogenization data suggest that they
formed at >420 °C
Capitan Pluton, New Mexico
Allanite-(Ce)
REE -rich titanite
Homogenization temperatures 260 to 480 °C; 80 wt.%
total salt, including up to 44 wt.% Cl, 5245 ppm F,
24210 ppm SO
4
Olympic Dam, South Australia.
Bastnaesite-(Ce) Florencite-(Ce)
Monazite-(Ce) Xenotime-(Y)
Britholite-(Ce)
Magnetite stage: >400 °C, medium-hyper saline (20-45
wt.% NaCl),
Hematite stage: 150–300 °C, 1-8 wt.% NaCl

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 74
In the case of the examined drill core section, the
different rock types could be distinguished easily mac-
roscopically, but if this is not possible, then the sus-
ceptibility is a good and non-destructive method, to
measure in a short time a high amount of samples to
get some first information about the magnetic variabil-
ity of the rock. In the best case, different zones of rock
types and/or alteration can be identified and distin-
guished, so that the most interesting areas for sam-
pling and further investigations are quickly identified.
8. Conclusions
The upper part of the Storkwitz-Carbonatite has been
characterised
geochemically
and
mineralogically
based on a detailed multi-method investigation of
recently provided drill core samples. The following
results are concluded from these investigations:
The alvikite veins and igneous breccias contain a
REE-mineralisation with an average concentration
of 0.2 - 1.2 wt.% REE
2
O
3
. The majority of the en-
riched REE are LREE, especially the elements lan-
thanum, cerium, and neodymium.
The REE-bearing minerals have formed predomi-
nantly by secondary processes. Due to the detec-
tion limit of the SEM-EDX analyses, it was not pos-
sible, to determine analytically and statistically relia-
ble concentrations of the REE in the primary mag-
matic minerals.
The breccia matrix is completely altered and original
minerals were replaced by cryptocrystalline second-
ary phases, which could originate either from hydro-
thermal or from supergene processes. However, the
elevated temperatures at which hydrothermal pro-
cesses typically take place would form better de-
fined mineral phases and crystals and are less likely
to result in the formation of cryptocrystalline miner-
als and textures, which indicate very immature min-
eral formation at low temperatures. It is thus more
likely that the cryptocrystalline mineral phases have
formed by supergene, low-temperature processes,
related to oxidising fluids that descended relatively
deeply below the former land surface.
Another indication for supergene processes is the
existence of abundant goethite as interlayers to
phlogopite and the marked cryptocrystallinity of the
entire matrix of the breccia body. One can assume
that the finely disseminated monazite in the breccia
also formed during the same supergene process to-
gether with the recrystallization of the matrix.
No enrichment of the REE content of the upper part
of the mineralisation, compared to the deeper parts
of the intrusion can be detected with the geochemi-
cal data. The supergene processes have thus not
led to a significant enrichment of REE in the upper
part of the mineralisation. It appears more likely that
the supergene REE-minerals formed in-situ by re-
placing magmatic precursor REE-bearing minerals.
Locally, the REE concentrations differ substantially
in REE-fluorocarbonates, but far less in monazites.
This REE-fractionation can be observed predomi-
nantly in the alvikite veins, which might be caused
by spatially restricted, microscale cerium oxidation.
Such a cerium oxidation in alvikites requires an oxi-
dizing environment, which would point further to a
supergene origin of this phenomenon.
The REE-mineralization associated with breccias and
alvikite as observed in the studied drill core contains
predominantly secondary mineral phases such as
monazite as well as bastnaesite-synchisite group
minerals. Microscopic observations reveal that the
matrix of breccia is completely altered. Supergene
alteration is strongly suggested by the mineral para-
genesis and textural evidence, although the super-
gene processes have apparently not led to a signifi-
cant enrichment of the REE in the near-surface por-
tion of the Storkwitz carbonatite.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 75
Annex
Table 21: Petrographic log of the drill core SES-1/2012 from 240 to 273 m.
Tabelle 21: Petrografischer Log der Bohrkerns SES-1/2012 von 240 bis 272 m
Depth
from
[m]
Depth to [m]
Conservation
[m]
Lithotype
Rock characteristics
240
241.1
Massive core
Porphyry
Porphyric texture, fine- to medium-grained, Qz and Feldspar phe-
nocrysts (approx. 1 mm), yellowish to ochre colour, no reaction
with HCl, occasionally joints with brownish filling.
241.1
242.2
Massive core,
241.8 - 242 big
fragments
Porphyry
Porphyric texture, fine- to medium-grained, Qz and Feldspar phe-
nocrysts (approx. 1 mm), increasingly light reddish colour, smooth
transition to roof rock, no reaction with HCl, increasingly occurring
joints with hematite.
242.2
244.1
Massive core
Alvikite
Greyish Matrix with white calcitic speckles, streaks and veins,
partially zonation recognizable, greyish matrix homogeneous in
itself, Magnetite phenocrysts, Phlogopite phenocrysts partially
accumulated in layers, strong reaction with HCl
244.1
246.1
244.1-244.6
massive core,
244.6-245 and
245.5-246.1 big
fragments,
245-245.5 small
fragments,
Porphyry
Porphyric texture, fine- to medium-grained, Qz and Feldspar phe-
nocrysts (approx. 5 mm), reddish colour with beige sections,
leached near joints, abundant big joints, partially with hematite, no
reaction with HCl, penetrating alvikite vein from the roof rock
246.1
247.6
Small frag-
ments;
246,6-246,8 and
247,3-247,5 big
fragments
Alvikite
Greyish brown rock, soft, clayish matrix, some xenoliths, magnetite
phenocrysts, strong reaction with HCl, colour transition to reddish
brown in lower section
247.6
248.2- 249
Massive core,
broken several
times
Alvikite
Massive rock, clayish matrix, ochre to reddish colour with sharp
oxidation horizon, increasing amount of magnetites, strong reac-
tion with HCl
248.2-
249
249-
249.2
Massive core,
broken several
times
Alvikite
Fine grained matrix, greyish blue to blue colour, homogeneous
appearance, calcite veins, strong reaction with HCl
249-
249.2
250.6
Massive core
Alvikite
Greyish to greyish-brown rocks, partially clayish matrix, magnetite
phenocrysts, strong reaction with HCl
250.6
250.8
Massive core
Alvikite
Fine grained matrix, greyish blue to blue colour, homogeneous
appearance, calcite veins, strong reaction with HCl
250.8
252.5
Massive core,
251.6-252 big
fragments
Alvikite
Greyish to greyish-brown rocks, partially clayish matrix, magnetite
phenocrysts, strong reaction with HCl
252.5
253.5
Well conserved
core, big frag-
ments
Igneous
breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular porphyritic
clasts, brick-red matrix, nearly no reaction with HCl
253.5
254
Fragments, breccia
texture recognizable
Igneous
breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular porphyritic
clasts, beige matrix, nearly no reaction with HCl
254
254.3
Fragments, breccia
texture recognizable
Igneous
breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular porphyritic
clasts, greyish matrix, very weak reaction with HCl
254.3
256.5
Loose, breccia
texture not recog-
nizable
Igneous
breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, beige to ochre matrix, nearly no
reaction with HCl

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 76
Continued from table 21 – Fortsetung von Tabelle 21
Depth
from
[m]
Depth to [m]
Conservation [m]
Lithotype
Rock characteristics
256.5
256.9
Loose, breccia
texture not recog-
nizable
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, greyish brown matrix,
weak reaction with HCl
256.9
257.2
Fragmented core
Alvikite
Approx. 10 cm wide alvikite vein, dark grey matrix,
magnetite phenocrysts, strong reaction with HCl
257.2
259
Fragments 257.2-
257.8, below
massive core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular
porphyritic clasts, grey matrix, weak reaction with HCl
259
260.5
Largely massive
core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular
porphyritic clasts, beige to ochre matrix, nearly no
reaction with HCl
260.5
262
Loose, breccia
texture not recog-
nizable
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, greyish brown matrix,
nearly no reaction with HCl
262
262.6
Loose, breccia
texture not recog-
nizable
Igneous breccia
Breccia with minor smaller clasts, (max. a few centi-
metres big), matrix clayish, brick-red and disintegrat-
ed, very weak reaction with HCl
262.6
264
Largely massive
core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with minor clasts, mainly sub-angular porphy-
ritic clasts, beige to ochre matrix, nearly no reaction
with HCl
264
265
Largely massive
core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with minor clasts, mainly sub-angular porphy-
ritic clasts, beige to ochre heterogeneous matrix, rare
calcite streaks, nearly no reaction with HCl
265
265.6
Largely massive
core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular
porphyritic clasts, red matrix, no reaction with HCl
265.6
265.9
Massive core
Alvikite
Greyish to black fine-grained matrix, calcite streaks,
heterogeneous appearance, strong reaction with HCl
265.9
266.6
Massive core
Alvikite
Greyish to brown medium-grained clayish matrix,
homogeneous appearance, rare reddish streaks,
strong reaction with HCl
266.6
266.9
Massive core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with minor smaller clasts, (max. a few centi-
metres big), matrix clayish and brick-red nearly no
reaction with HCl
266.9
267.95
Massive core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular
porphyritic clasts, beige to ochre matrix, nearly no
reaction with HCl
267.95
268.3
One big Clast
Igneous breccia
Greyish brown to reddish massive porphyritic xenolith
268.3
269.3
Massive core
Igneous breccia
Breccia with abundant clasts, mainly sub-angular
porphyritic clasts, grey matrix, weak reaction with HCl
269.3
273
Massive core
Porphyry
Porphyric texture, fine- to medium-grained, Qz and
Feldspar phenocrysts (approx. 1 mm), yellowish-ochre
to light red colour, leached at joints, no reaction with
HCl, occasionally joints with talc filling and slicken-
sides, penetrated by porphyritic, maybe andesitic
veins (270.8-273 m).

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 77
Figure 58: Portable XRF reading of the Nb and Zr concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS whole rock
analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia sections.
Abbildung 58: Ergebnisse der portablen RFA-Messungen für Nb und Zr im Vergleich mit der ICP-MS
Gesamtgesteinsanalyse. In den Brekzien-Bereichen sind die portablen RFA Werte in Klasten und Matrix
unterteilt.

image
Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 78
Figure 59: Portable XRF reading of the Y and Fe concentrations in comparison with ICP-MS/ES whole
rock analysis. Portable XRF data are presented separate for matrix and clasts in the breccia sections.
Abbildung 59: Ergebnisse der portablen RFA-Messungen für Y und Fe im Vergleich mit der ICP-MS/ES
Gesamtgesteinsanalyse. In den Brekzien-Bereichen sind die portablen RFA Werte in Klasten und Matrix
unterteilt.

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 79
Table 22: Table with the geochemical data from the whole rock analysis for all taken samples; colour
codes by their lithology.
Tabelle 22: Tabelle mit den geochemischen Daten der Gesamtgesteinsanalyse für alle genommen Pro-
ben; Farbkodiert je nach Lithotyp
Major oxides /
elements (ICP-ES)
[1/2]
Analyte
Weight
SiO
2
Al
2
O
3
Fe
2
O
3
MgO
CaO
Na
2
O
K
2
O
Method
WGHT LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200
LF200
Unit
kg
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
MDL
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
Sample
Depth [m]
Lithotype
SES1.01
240.90
Porphyry
0.14
69.12
15.95
3.11
0.49
0.26
4.11
3.71
SES1.02
241.80
Porphyry
0.23
70.34
15.59
2.79
0.36
0.26
5.13
3.33
SES1.03
242.30
Alvikite
0.18
9.13
3.02
9.50
6.78
36.53
0.28
0.48
SES1.04
242.80
Alvikite
0.19
10.14
3.70
12.17
7.90
32.76
0.31
0.64
SES1.05
243.80
Alvikite
0.22
9.98
3.59
11.31
7.54
33.71
0.26
0.45
SES1.06
244.60
Porphyry
0.25
71.72
15.65
1.86
0.66
0.40
3.39
3.00
SES1.07
246.40
Alvikite
0.12
7.02
2.39
6.93
5.60
41.18
0.19
0.44
SES1.08
248.00
Alvikite
0.16
11.32
4.05
8.67
4.73
35.61
0.34
0.87
SES1.09
248.90
Alvikite
0.25
3.13
1.19
4.69
1.71
48.63
0.17
0.31
SES1.10
250.10
Alvikite
0.32
13.57
4.53
8.18
3.28
33.24
0.47
0.58
SES1.11
251.80
Alvikite
0.24
6.27
1.86
8.90
2.08
43.20
0.25
0.44
SES1.12
253.00
Igneous breccia
0.10
38.03
9.43
24.95
1.89
8.19
1.57
2.81
SES1.13
253.80
Igneous breccia
0.13
65.45
14.35
4.57
1.13
1.33
1.88
4.92
SES1.14
254.40
Igneous breccia
0.16
63.67
13.40
7.09
1.18
1.45
2.13
4.86
SES1.15
255.40
Igneous breccia
0.20
57.34
13.60
9.93
1.44
2.37
2.25
4.13
SES1.16
256.50
Igneous breccia
0.13
56.94
14.17
7.73
1.38
3.20
1.98
4.17
SES1.17
256.90
Alvikite
0.18
5.86
2.17
7.24
2.17
44.19
0.27
0.35
SES1.18
257.80
Igneous breccia
0.21
54.37
13.07
7.72
1.18
6.25
2.28
3.78
SES1.19
258.50
Igneous breccia
0.23
62.71
13.78
6.59
1.29
1.85
2.86
3.29
SES1.20
259.90
Igneous breccia
0.39
60.72
14.26
6.18
1.18
2.92
2.12
4.38
SES1.21
262.20
Igneous breccia
0.26
45.47
11.01
19.27
1.78
5.42
1.27
3.33
SES1.22
262.65
Igneous breccia
0.24
42.73
10.92
13.31
2.91
8.76
1.21
3.56
SES1.23
263.90
Igneous breccia
0.22
44.71
10.90
13.59
2.59
7.64
1.19
3.30
SES1.24
264.30
Igneous breccia
0.27
55.35
13.70
10.05
1.56
3.00
1.42
3.76
SES1.25
264.70
Igneous breccia
0.16
50.74
12.44
16.64
1.71
2.72
1.31
3.82
SES1.26
265.45
Igneous breccia
0.18
64.81
14.26
5.47
1.00
1.44
1.60
4.93
SES1.27
265.65
Alvikite
0.13
4.57
1.89
8.12
2.04
43.74
0.31
0.31
SES1.28
266.00
Alvikite
0.18
6.06
2.36
8.46
2.30
42.55
0.35
0.34
SES1.29
266.70
Igneous breccia
0.28
31.60
8.70
36.51
1.90
5.65
1.07
3.48
SES1.30
267.00
Igneous breccia
0.30
66.31
14.50
3.76
1.07
1.19
1.98
4.36
SES1.31
268.90
Igneous breccia
0.25
52.00
12.51
14.98
1.64
1.77
3.25
6.19
SES1.32
269.90
Porphyry
0.21
71.79
16.03
1.34
0.49
0.30
4.38
3.06
SES1.33
270.25
Porphyry
0.16
70.96
16.06
1.85
0.51
0.29
4.45
2.98

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 80
Continued from Table 22 – Fortsetung von Tabelle 22
Major oxides /
elements (ICP-ES)
[2/2]
Analyte
TiO
2
P
2
O
5
MnO
Cr
2
O
3
Ba
Sc
LOI
Sum
Method
LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200 LF200
LF200
Unit
%
%
%
%
ppm
ppm
%
%
MDL
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.002
1
1
-5.1
0.01
Sample
Depth [m]
Lithotype
SES1.01
240.90
Porphyry
0.20
0.07
0.02
<0.002
1822
3
2.7
99.93
SES1.02
241.80
Porphyry
0.20
0.07
<0.01 <0.002
895
2
1.8
99.94
SES1.03
242.30
Alvikite
1.83
2.62
0.79
0.031
794
18
27.9
98.99
SES1.04
242.80
Alvikite
2.44
2.75
0.89
0.045
874
22
25.1
98.95
SES1.05
243.80
Alvikite
2.39
2.59
0.76
0.024
544
20
26.4
99.04
SES1.06
244.60
Porphyry
0.21
0.08
<0.01 <0.002
1408
3
2.8
99.92
SES1.07
246.40
Alvikite
1.52
3.73
0.56
0.014
3333
15
29.1
99.03
SES1.08
248.00
Alvikite
2.52
2.50
0.81
0.025
5673
18
27.1
99.15
SES1.09
248.90
Alvikite
0.51
2.40
0.45
0.017
3234
11
35.6
99.13
SES1.10
250.10
Alvikite
2.54
2.73
3.22
0.038
3014
18
26.5
99.22
SES1.11
251.80
Alvikite
1.15
3.30
1.12
0.035
1264
17
30.5
99.30
SES1.12
253.00
Igneous breccia
0.59
5.92
0.13
0.008
1903
27
4.6
98.31
SES1.13
253.80
Igneous breccia
0.28
0.88
0.04
0.003
1440
8
4.6
99.54
SES1.14
254.40
Igneous breccia
0.30
1.00
0.06
0.003
641
11
4.2
99.41
SES1.15
255.40
Igneous breccia
0.36
1.79
0.08
0.007
1036
13
5.4
98.83
SES1.16
256.50
Igneous breccia
0.50
2.18
0.05
0.006
1629
16
6.4
98.88
SES1.17
256.90
Alvikite
1.07
3.28
0.74
0.033
496
14
31.8
99.24
SES1.18
257.80
Igneous breccia
0.41
1.34
0.37
0.004
876
16
8.4
99.24
SES1.19
258.50
Igneous breccia
0.37
1.05
0.10
0.004
838
11
5.5
99.45
SES1.20
259.90
Igneous breccia
0.40
2.07
0.07
0.004
824
9
4.8
99.24
SES1.21
262.20
Igneous breccia
0.45
4.16
0.14
0.007
2202
20
6.1
98.69
SES1.22
262.65
Igneous breccia
0.55
6.65
0.14
0.010
2499
22
7.1
98.08
SES1.23
263.90
Igneous breccia
0.49
5.08
0.44
0.007
4654
22
7.7
98.18
SES1.24
264.30
Igneous breccia
0.43
2.20
0.10
0.007
1785
15
7.0
98.72
SES1.25
264.70
Igneous breccia
0.42
2.01
0.12
0.006
2506
15
6.7
98.95
SES1.26
265.45
Igneous breccia
0.50
0.82
0.05
0.004
1253
10
4.4
99.46
SES1.27
265.65
Alvikite
1.18
3.80
1.13
0.032
502
12
31.8
98.94
SES1.28
266.00
Alvikite
1.20
3.89
0.53
0.040
1085
17
30.8
99.00
SES1.29
266.70
Igneous breccia
0.55
4.42
0.12
0.012
2445
21
3.9
98.15
SES1.30
267.00
Igneous breccia
0.33
0.82
0.02
0.003
1232
6
5.0
99.44
SES1.31
268.90
Igneous breccia
0.48
1.20
0.17
0.006
803
15
4.7
98.96
SES1.32
269.90
Porphyry
0.21
0.08
<0.01 <0.002
855
2
2.1
99.92
SES1.33
270.25
Porphyry
0.20
0.08
0.02
<0.002
823
3
2.4
99.93

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 81
Continued from Table 22 – Fortsetung von Tabelle 22
Rare earth elements
(ICP-MS)
[1/2]
Analyte
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Method
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
Unit
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
MDL
0.1
0.1
0.02
0.3
0.05
0.02
0.05
0.01
Sample
Depth [m]
Lithotype
SES1.01
240.90
Porphyry
21.2
42.4
4.27
15.9
2.37
0.59
1.84
0.22
SES1.02
241.80
Porphyry
32.0
60.6
6.49
23.0
3.39
0.79
2.22
0.26
SES1.03
242.30
Alvikite
1371.8
2042.6
198.27
607.8
67.11
16.78
42.12
4.74
SES1.04
242.80
Alvikite
1232.0
1962.1
201.93
625.8
71.04
17.73
43.63
5.03
SES1.05
243.80
Alvikite
1175.7
1840.1
181.36
560.6
63.35
15.97
40.85
4.38
SES1.06
244.60
Porphyry
29.7
44.3
5.35
18.3
2.76
0.49
1.87
0.22
SES1.07
246.40
Alvikite
1147.2
1879.2
193.88
605.5
70.00
17.73
43.37
4.82
SES1.08
248.00
Alvikite
882.8
1199.6
119.91
377.0
46.24
12.41
31.37
3.73
SES1.09
248.90
Alvikite
472.2
689.7
76.34
258.1
35.11
9.52
24.52
2.92
SES1.10
250.10
Alvikite
699.4
1085.4
113.66
373.7
45.78
12.14
31.83
3.58
SES1.11
251.80
Alvikite
672.6
1021.9
118.15
403.3
53.28
14.34
36.52
4.34
SES1.12
253.00
Igneous breccia
1767.6
3361.1
379.48
1296.8
165.29
41.53
103.07
12.03
SES1.13
253.80
Igneous breccia
573.1
951.8
101.53
322.5
34.60
7.88
19.46
2.18
SES1.14
254.40
Igneous breccia
855.8
1379.9
149.40
462.4
48.19
10.39
25.39
2.76
SES1.15
255.40
Igneous breccia
1885.9
3242.4
342.43
1062.7
103.88
21.99
53.77
5.32
SES1.16
256.50
Igneous breccia
1488.5
2572.7
266.86
848.7
88.49
20.08
51.27
5.34
SES1.17
256.90
Alvikite
801.0
955.5
135.49
457.3
58.41
15.25
39.01
4.56
SES1.18
257.80
Igneous breccia
1011.6
1602.9
177.97
561.5
58.64
12.66
30.74
3.23
SES1.19
258.50
Igneous breccia
736.5
1214.5
127.58
405.5
42.50
9.51
22.97
2.49
SES1.20
259.90
Igneous breccia
1041.6
1795.7
182.47
575.4
63.71
14.75
37.33
4.46
SES1.21
262.20
Igneous breccia
1802.4
2934.7
325.00
1045.9
115.29
27.15
66.96
7.54
SES1.22
262.65
Igneous breccia
2701.9
4829.4
490.69
1607.0
177.95
42.35
109.48
12.18
SES1.23
263.90
Igneous breccia
2697.3
4315.0
470.77
1538.1
175.52
41.78
109.00
11.59
SES1.24
264.30
Igneous breccia
1901.6
3278.2
327.41
1045.1
113.24
25.84
68.01
6.80
SES1.25
264.70
Igneous breccia
1388.6
2266.6
234.72
737.1
79.74
18.45
50.08
5.27
SES1.26
265.45
Igneous breccia
650.4
1042.9
103.72
320.6
35.41
8.17
23.43
2.70
SES1.27
265.65
Alvikite
1488.3
2104.9
241.82
818.7
107.02
29.23
77.92
8.84
SES1.28
266.00
Alvikite
961.6
1,570.0
161.92
541.3
72.97
20.50
55.47
6.31
SES1.29
266.70
Igneous breccia
2417.7
4172.4
425.37
1382.4
154.53
36.50
99.71
10.38
SES1.30
267.00
Igneous breccia
774.1
1184.2
122.60
372.5
37.96
8.45
23.59
2.68
SES1.31
268.90
Igneous breccia
1588.3
2581.0
259.71
787.2
75.21
16.54
41.93
4.21
SES1.32
269.90
Porphyry
21.7
41.5
4.33
15.0
2.30
0.54
1.59
0.21
SES1.33
270.25
Porphyry
18.5
30.0
3.71
12.8
2.04
0.44
1.40
0.20

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 82
Continued from Table 22 – Fortsetung von Tabelle 22
Rare earth elements
(ICP-MS)
[2/2]
Analyte
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
∑REE
∑REE
2
O
3
Method
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
calc.
calc.
Unit
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
%
MDL
0.05
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.05
0.01
-
-
Sample
Depth [m]
Lithotype
SES1.01
240.90
Porphyry
1.23
0.21
0.58
0.08
0.67
0.09
97.95
0.012
SES1.02
241.80
Porphyry
1.29
0.19
0.57
0.08
0.60
0.09
138.07
0.016
SES1.03
242.30
Alvikite
21.07
3.20
7.83
0.97
5.92
0.81
4485.6
0.526
SES1.04
242.80
Alvikite
22.69
3.52
8.33
1.04
6.26
0.84
4296.9
0.504
SES1.05
243.80
Alvikite
19.75
3.17
7.47
0.96
5.66
0.80
4009.7
0.470
SES1.06
244.60
Porphyry
1.18
0.18
0.51
0.07
0.54
0.08
110.8
0.013
SES1.07
246.40
Alvikite
21.48
3.29
7.79
0.96
5.62
0.75
4093.7
0.480
SES1.08
248.00
Alvikite
17.20
2.83
7.41
0.94
5.52
0.74
2799.3
0.328
SES1.09
248.90
Alvikite
13.83
2.23
5.33
0.68
4.00
0.57
1655.2
0.194
SES1.10
250.10
Alvikite
15.90
2.57
6.08
0.72
4.31
0.56
2467.5
0.289
SES1.11
251.80
Alvikite
20.36
3.26
7.89
1.02
6.46
0.89
2454.2
0.288
SES1.12
253.00
Igneous breccia
55.53
8.53
20.26
2.45
14.20
1.84
7458.1
0.875
SES1.13
253.80
Igneous breccia
10.10
1.64
4.14
0.56
3.58
0.46
2079.4
0.244
SES1.14
254.40
Igneous breccia
12.46
2.06
5.44
0.73
4.75
0.66
3018.6
0.354
SES1.15
255.40
Igneous breccia
22.17
3.43
7.85
1.04
6.31
0.82
6858.8
0.804
SES1.16
256.50
Igneous breccia
23.78
3.56
9.07
1.11
6.39
0.83
5488.1
0.643
SES1.17
256.90
Alvikite
20.71
3.36
8.03
1.07
6.58
0.86
2601.8
0.305
SES1.18
257.80
Igneous breccia
14.15
2.12
5.01
0.69
4.09
0.56
3546.2
0.416
SES1.19
258.50
Igneous breccia
10.63
1.70
4.04
0.53
3.41
0.48
2629.
0.308
SES1.20
259.90
Igneous breccia
20.59
3.22
7.48
0.95
5.52
0.70
3841.6
0.450
SES1.21
262.20
Igneous breccia
33.79
5.49
13.78
1.78
10.87
1.49
6544.4
0.767
SES1.22
262.65
Igneous breccia
55.66
8.79
21.13
2.60
15.20
1.97
10318.0
1.210
SES1.23
263.90
Igneous breccia
51.80
8.04
20.09
2.53
15.18
2.03
9695.1
1.137
SES1.24
264.30
Igneous breccia
29.47
4.66
12.08
1.55
9.36
1.25
6963.2
0.816
SES1.25
264.70
Igneous breccia
23.28
3.76
9.44
1.26
7.95
1.06
4931.9
0.578
SES1.26
265.45
Igneous breccia
13.10
2.18
5.70
0.78
5.01
0.68
2276.9
0.267
SES1.27
265.65
Alvikite
40.07
6.31
15.10
1.87
11.38
1.49
5130.9
0.602
SES1.28
266.00
Alvikite
29.72
4.78
11.82
1.48
9.09
1.23
3580.1
0.420
SES1.29
266.70
Igneous breccia
49.45
8.37
21.30
2.76
16.12
2.20
9042.1
1.060
SES1.30
267.00
Igneous breccia
12.51
2.13
5.49
0.71
4.22
0.53
2611.3
0.306
SES1.31
268.90
Igneous breccia
17.13
2.40
6.01
0.74
4.50
0.60
5451.4
0.639
SES1.32
269.90
Porphyry
1.15
0.17
0.58
0.07
0.55
0.07
94.96
0.011
SES1.33
270.25
Porphyry
1.03
0.20
0.65
0.07
0.65
0.09
77.48
0.009

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 83
Continued from Table 22 – Fortsetung von Tabelle 22
Trace elements
(ICP-MS)
[1/4]
Analyte
Be
Co
Cs
Ga
Hf
Nb
Rb
Sn
Method
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
Unit
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
MDL
1
0.2
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
1
Sample
Depth [m]
Lithotype
SES1.01
240.90
Porphyry
4
2.8
11.9
16.2
3.2
7.8
151.9
<1
SES1.02
241.80
Porphyry
7
3.2
15.0
15.4
3.3
7.7
129.8
<1
SES1.03
242.30
Alvikite
7
26.9
1.8
8.7
5.2
449.5
15.0
3
SES1.04
242.80
Alvikite
5
36.5
1.3
11.5
6.7
498.2
18.7
3
SES1.05
243.80
Alvikite
8
31.5
2.2
11.1
6.5
428.7
13.6
4
SES1.06
244.60
Porphyry
3
1.6
33.5
16.5
3.0
8.3
152.4
<1
SES1.07
246.40
Alvikite
5
24.5
1.3
7.5
4.9
425.1
12.0
2
SES1.08
248.00
Alvikite
8
26.5
1.5
11.2
5.6
321.8
22.5
5
SES1.09
248.90
Alvikite
7
6.4
0.5
3.1
2.8
352.0
10.9
2
SES1.10
250.10
Alvikite
5
32.1
3.0
12.4
6.5
368.9
21.5
3
SES1.11
251.80
Alvikite
8
19.9
5.0
6.4
5.4
547.7
25.1
4
SES1.12
253.00
Igneous breccia
24
19.2
30.9
17.1
12.1
>1000
129.3
11
SES1.13
253.80
Igneous breccia
4
5.6
17.7
15.2
5.3
518.1
178.2
5
SES1.14
254.40
Igneous breccia
8
5.6
14.3
15.2
5.7
515.1
182.4
8
SES1.15
255.40
Igneous breccia
15
9.0
21.3
15.4
6.6
892.7
157.9
9
SES1.16
256.50
Igneous breccia
10
13.8
16.1
17.2
8.1
>1000
152.3
9
SES1.17
256.90
Alvikite
4
14.4
0.7
5.5
4.6
472.0
12.5
3
SES1.18
257.80
Igneous breccia
9
6.9
11.8
15.6
6.3
763.0
149.7
14
SES1.19
258.50
Igneous breccia
3
5.2
9.3
15.3
7.3
491.6
120.0
5
SES1.20
259.90
Igneous breccia
9
6.4
18.6
15.2
6.2
581.2
165.8
8
SES1.21
262.20
Igneous breccia
22
11.2
26.1
15.0
9.4
876.5
140.9
11
SES1.22
262.65
Igneous breccia
18
7.5
24.0
15.7
12.8
>1000
152.8
13
SES1.23
263.90
Igneous breccia
14
8.7
22.2
18.6
14.4
>1000
183.0
15
SES1.24
264.30
Igneous breccia
14
16.0
23.3
19.2
8.3
>1000
194.8
15
SES1.25
264.70
Igneous breccia
20
14.9
34.0
16.9
9.6
871.4
189.3
8
SES1.26
265.45
Igneous breccia
10
4.1
32.4
18.2
7.6
449.4
242.8
6
SES1.27
265.65
Alvikite
12
23.9
1.0
5.4
5.8
814.9
14.2
4
SES1.28
266.00
Alvikite
8
23.0
0.8
5.6
6.4
737.0
15.2
4
SES1.29
266.70
Igneous breccia
37
18.0
29.5
14.8
14.2
>1000
160.2
14
SES1.30
267.00
Igneous breccia
7
11.2
23.3
18.7
5.8
447.1
196.7
5
SES1.31
268.90
Igneous breccia
6
5.2
23.0
16.9
7.0
743.7
201.6
12
SES1.32
269.90
Porphyry
2
1.2
12.5
15.8
3.3
10.0
139.7
<1
SES1.33
270.25
Porphyry
3
1.8
17.9
16.9
3.4
8.7
151.1
2

Geoprofil des LfULG, Heft 15/2020 | 84
Continued from Table 22 – Fortsetung von Tabelle 22
Trace elements
(ICP-MS)
[2/4]
Analyte
Sr
Ta
Th
U
V
W
Zr
Y
Method
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
LF200
Unit
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
MDL
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.1
8
0.5
0.1
0.1
Sample
Depth [m]
Lithotype
SES1.01
240.90
Porphyry
270.2
0.4
5.4
1.1
19
6.1
129.0
6.3
SES1.02
241.80
Porphyry
191.7
0.3
5.0
3.9
19
14.8
124.9
6.5
SES1.03
242.30
Alvikite
1469.1
11.1
61.1
10.4
203
12.5
331.9
94.6
SES1.04
242.80
Alvikite
1563.1
12.8
74.2
12.9
235
12.7
451.3
95.0
SES1.05
243.80
Alvikite
1286.5
12.3
65.6
12.1
237
23.0
373.7
89.6
SES1.06
244.60
Porphyry
240.2
0.4
5.4
1.8
17
7.0
122.0
5.3
SES1.07
246.40
Alvikite
1827.0
12.0
77.0
13.2
186
21.9
338.2
92.1
SES1.08
248.00
Alvikite
2108.1
11.4
43.3
40.4
304
131.7
316.1
91.6
SES1.09
248.90
Alvikite
4328.8
9.9
39.3
9.2
173
2.7
235.7
60.1
SES1.10
250.10
Alvikite
1949.9
13.0
47.7
12.2
324
17.0
422.9
71.9
SES1.11
251.80
Alvikite
1259.5
19.0
62.6
13.9
157
17.9
445.9
89.9
SES1.12
253.00
Igneous breccia
1525.2
57.1
169.0
71.9
257
178.6
852.4
228.4
SES1.13
253.80
Igneous breccia
441.8
6.8
34.8
19.2
73
28.4
212.8
45.9
SES1.14
254.40
Igneous breccia
502.5
5.6
37.4
25.8
129
24.3
229.6
58.3
SES1.15
255.40
Igneous breccia
755.7
10.1
63.2
63.7
200
55.4
295.7
98.8
SES1.16
256.50
Igneous breccia
1005.2
14.5
73.3
53.1
234
99.2
303.5
101.4
SES1.17
256.90
Alvikite
1907.1
17.1
61.4
15.0
159
34.4
386.1
94.7
SES1.18
257.80
Igneous breccia
763.8
8.3
46.4
30.1
167
68.5
241.0
60.3
SES1.19
258.50
Igneous breccia
553.6
5.6
35.3
22.9
133
30.1
247.7
46.7
SES1.20
259.90
Igneous breccia
872.0
12.1
55.9
35.9
116
47.7
335.2
87.7
SES1.21
262.20
Igneous breccia
1228.8
28.1
87.1
40.1
300
126.4
649.2
152.3
SES1.22
262.65
Igneous breccia
1739.7
43.3
148.5
30.4
301
253.0
788.9
241.7
SES1.23
263.90
Igneous breccia
1696.0
42.1
129.2
27.8
243
125.8
838.5
236.4
SES1.24
264.30
Igneous breccia
925.5
17.5
81.4
102.5
163
205.2
418.4
138.6
SES1.25
264.70
Igneous breccia
907.4
15.5
62.2
64.0
236
107.6
536.2
104.6
SES1.26
265.45
Igneous breccia
552.6
7.2
36.5
42.1
89
85.0
410.3
62.1
SES1.27
265.65
Alvikite
1174.3
18.9
70.0
46.0
156
36.7
494.6
177.9
SES1.28
266.00
Alvikite
2189.9
21.5
84.6
35.2
220
19.8
546.9
131.9
SES1.29
266.70
Igneous breccia
1594.2
32.7
110.2
58.2
255
655.9
1132.9
242.9
SES1.30
267.00
Igneous breccia
606.4
6.3
35.2
55.7
60
58.9
252.8
59.6
SES1.31